Background. The paper is based on specifics of the professional activity of specialists of the State Inspectorate of Small Size Vessels of Russian EMERCOM (SISSV) is a highly demanding job that requires specific individual psychological features to successfully fulfill their duties. Such individual psychological features are important for experts, and also for candidates to the positions in the GIMS used as recruitment criteria.
The Objective. of the study is to identify job skills that determine the professional effectiveness of SISSV experts, to identify the relationship between job skills and career success and to determine psychological indicators strongly associated with success.
Design. An expert survey (N = 40) was conducted to determine psychological indicators that contribute to professional success of SISSV experts. We carried out psychological assessment of acting SISSV experts (N = 275) to determine the presence and the level of necessary skills. Based on expert assessments, the inspectors were assigned to either successful or unsuccessful groups. The resulting polar groups were compared using Mann-Whitney criterion. Correlation analysis (Spearman) was used to access the strength of association between professional success and job skills. We also used factor and regression analyses to model the structure of job skills associated with professional success of acting SISSV specialists and job applicants.
Results. allowed to establish reliable differences between the polar groups on following characteristics (p ≤ 0.05): intelligence, abstract and operative thinking, intellectual liability, attention characteristics (volume, concentration, selection, distribution). They were defined as job skills for SISSV experts. The results of correlation analysis (p = 0.01, p = 0.05) showed that the specialists professional success depended on the presence and level of formation of job skills. We determined the structure of job skills associated with professional success.
Conclusion. The obtained results may be used to optimize the processes of psychological monitoring and psychological selection of the acting specialists of SISSV of Russian EMERCOM and applicant for the position.
Background. The paper considers the issue of categorical search for three-dimensional geometric shapes. The results of the previous studies on the real-world objects showed that pre-attentive extrafoveal analysis provides an effective identification of the target, reflecting in the right direction of the first saccade compared with the random search.
Objective. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of extrafoveal analysis during categorical search for pyramids in two groups of participants: mathematicians and psychologists.
Design. 15 mathematicians and 17 psychologists aged 18-25 participated in the study. Each participant performed 144 trialssearching for the target pyramid among the distractor pyramids. In the series 2and 9, any eye movements were prohibited to study covert attention.
Results. The findings of the experiment failed to reveal any differences in the use of extrafoveal analysis and accuracy in both groups. We observed dramatic individual differences, revealed in various degrees of extrafoveal analysis in the search process and in changing the strategy of the task solving. Special series which prohibited eye movements, demonstrated a significant role of covert attention in the categorical search, as well as the possibility and effectiveness of extrafoveal analysis even though while free instruction it could not be used by all participants and all cases.
Conclusion. During categorical search both foveal and extrafoveal processing of stimuli, as well as pre-attentive analysis and covert attention, were simultaneously involved. The dynamics of their interaction was determined by low-level perceptual processes, individual characteristics of the subjects, the task specificity and the instruction.
Keywords: categorical search;
механизмы зрительного поиска;
Available Online: 03/31/2020
Background. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are nowadays widely used in various domains. Their use is connected with a broad range of psychological problems, in particular, within engineering psychology.
Objective. In this paper, typical engineering-psychological problems of interface design for UAVs are considered.
Design. Literature survey on topic related to UAV control. Results. Problems of managing sensory isolation, negative effects of automation failures, connection losses and monotony, as well as problems of supporting the work of UAVs operator teams were identified and solutions proposed. We also study methodological and methodical questions within the domain of interface design for controlling UAVs.
Conclusions. Designing interfaces for UAVs is a complex psychological task. There are perspectives of use for virtual reality, AI, predictive displays, and adaptive automation. There is need for general recommendations concerning UAVs interface development.
Background. The popularity of using virtual reality in various areas of life is growing steadily every year. The use of virtual reality in sports, including sports of the highest achievements, has both advantages and disadvantages that will be considered in this paper.
The Objective is to study main aspects of using virtual reality in sports, including the historical aspect of the method, the main current areas of using the method, the existing advantages and limitations of the method for using in sports practice, including sports of the highest achievements.
Results and conclusions of the study. It is shown using virtual reality technologies in sports has a whole range of advantages, including removing restrictions imposed by real sports: preventing sport injury; creating environmental conditions (weather, humidity, rivalry, etc.), lack of dependence on sport equipment, weather or location, and the ability to engage in hard-to-reach and expensive sports accordingly. However, there are a number of problems that make it difficult to use virtual reality in sports, in particular, using sport equipment and assessing skill transfer.
Background. A wide circle of multidisciplinary researchers share interest in motivation factors of Wikipedians, i.e. virtual volunteers, members of the online world’s largest online encyclopedia «Wikipedia», who consolidate personal resources to manage comprehensive aggregation of free knowledge. Nevertheless, the question of the driving forces of this prosocial behaviour is still open.
Objective. It is assumed that for a full understanding of the determined online activities of Wikipedians we need to analyze the value orientations to which they give personal preference. In accordance with this, the following goal was set: to identify the shared values of the experienced transnational core of Wikipedia authors.
Design. Based on the semantic units derived from previous cycles of disparate academic studies of Wikipedia’s practical development, we conducted a content analysis of a transnational survey. The recipients were 65 authors of multilingual Wikipedia segments (83% males and 17% females) with average experience of 9.9 years compilation of encyclopedic articles.
Results. The constitutive system of invariant internal and external value orientations characteristic of Wikipedians is disclosed. It is found that in the most cases Wikipedians find a number of personal significant reasons for participating in the Wikipedia, the reasons resonating with their inner essence.
Conclusion. The internal value orientations of Wikipedians include: self-development (self-improvement, self-assertion, self-realization); reciprocal (mutual) altruism; a tendency to high quality and systematization of knowledge; a pleasure of creation; autonomy; recreation (hobby, entertainment); meaningfulness; preservation of personal heritage. The external value orientations include: preservation and development of the cultural heritage / language segment; promotion and popularization of Wikipedia (its ideology and principles); low transaction costs and convenience (attractiveness) of the system; affiliation; social identity; improvement peace («Weltverbesserungs Antrieb»); building bridges between cultures and languages. It is summarized that a detailed study of the identified value orientations and also other psychological characteristics of Wikipedia volunteers can significantly expand theoretical concepts of functioning and the applied value for the organization of volunteer practices to disseminate knowledge as the highest value of humanity.
Background. The paper is dedicated to the psychological description of the musical movement method as a particular practice of esthetic education. The practice of the musical movement (MM) was originally created as an artistic one and only gradually began to acquire the features of the pedagogical system. Over time, works appeared where attempts were made to psychological understanding of the processes taking place in the bosom of this practice: changes, transformations of music perception under the influence of movement, expressive movement, etc. However, a more complete reflection of the psychological content of the MM method was not accomplished.
The Objective of the research is to provide a psychological description of the musical movement method as a specific practice of aesthetic education and to explain the notion of MM as a psychotechnical method.
Background. The paper shows that the subject matter of the MM method is not so much the movement as such, its performing part, but the internal, psychological aspect of experiencing and meaning production. Achieving the unity of internal and external, experience and movement, motivation and action, meaning and gesture are the basis of the main goals of musical movement. Musical-motor exercises are considered to be the main tool of the method with which you can learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. It is shown how the musical-motor form accumulates the experience of experiencing music and reflects different semantic levels of musical content: from onomatopoeia and rhythmic imitation, modeling of emotional intonation to the existential layer of music.
Results. The goal of the artwork in mastering the MM method coincides with the pedagogical task: to achieve openness of the personality, its deep, genuine involvement in dialogue with music through movement and gesture. The task set in the musical movement is to give a motor response to sounding music, which affects the motivational-value sphere of the human individual. Classes in the music movement are unique situations that simulate the processes of creativity and are aimed at developing the capacity for creative realization.
Conclusion. The musical-motor exercise is a unique tool that allows one to learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. The musical-motor exercise accumulates the experience of experiencing music. Due to the perception of music in its full shape and form and penetration into the existential world of music, human feelings begin to achieve the sublime multidimensional level in everyday life.
Background. The influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on mental functions is not given a proper account in modern neurology and neuropsychology. The data published provide information on the state of higher mental functions (HMF) and on disturbances of the psychological well-being of children and adolescents after MTBI. The analysis of research materials in this area provides data on disorders associated with both local and cerebral symptoms, which form a diverse picture of cognitive and behavioural disorders.
The Objective is to study HMF in adolescents of 10-14 years old after TBI of mild severity as part of the methodology of neuropsychological syndrome analysis (Luria, 1973). Design. The study is based on the original set of techniques designed by A.R. Luria. We focused on assessing the status of various HMF components (motor areas, gnostic areas of memory and intelligence). We also studied the mental activity in its regulatory and dynamic aspects. The population included 31 patients with MTBI and 20 healthy subjects.
Results. The analysis of the results showed that violations of HMF in the acute period were represented by three types of syndromes. The leading place in each syndrome is occupied by deficiency symptoms of non-specific brain structures.
Conclusion. The information obtained enriches the knowledge of neuropsychology about the patterns of development of brain systems and related mental functions in adolescence, and also allows one to choose more suitable options for rehabilitation effects aimed at improving the adaptation of patients, enhancing their quality of life, and preventing negative consequences of MTBI.
Background. One of the issues of modern health care the frequent arterial hypertension (AH) in people of the so-called middle age. There is a decrease in the productivity of mental activity accompanied by anxiety in the form of «cognitive dissatisfaction» with the corresponding experiences. Features and causes of cognitive dysfunctions in patients with hypertension require special study. Its results are important not only for understanding the central mechanisms of the disease, but also for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, preventive, correctional and rehabilitation programs. They are determined by the relevance of clinical and psychological studies of the syndromes of cognitive dysfunctions and factors that determine cognitive functioning in hypertension in the middle age.
The Objective is the assessing of motivational and emotional factors to the qualitative characteristics of cognitive activity in the middle-aged patients with AH who are unaware of the medical qualifications of their disease.
Design. The study and interpretation of its results was carried out in accordance with the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeigarnik). The research program included the diagnosis of emotional and personal characteristics using the Russian-language version of the 16-factor Cattell personality questionnaire (Cattell, Schuerger, 2003; Kapustina, 2006) and the Pictogram methodology (Zeygarnik, 1962; Rubinstein, 1970), diagnostics of general intelligence using the “Raven’s Progressive matrices” (Raven, et al., 2012; Davydov, Chmykhova 2016), and also the study of “qualitative” features of cognitive processes using pathopsychological examination (Zeigarnik, 1986). We examined 48 patients (52.3±6.6 years) with Stage 2 hypertension, Grade 1-2, unaware of the diagnosis and 54 almost healthy people, comparable to patients by gender, age and educational level.
Results. 84% of hypertensive patients with high and medium intelligence showed signs of a decrease in cognitive activity. A meaningful interpretation of the results of the study using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis (the school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeygarnik) showed that in the structure of disturbances of cognitive processes in hypertension, disturbances in the dynamics of mental processes expressed by labile mental activity and rapid exhaustion, based on a decrease in neurodynamic support of mental activity. Reduced cognitive functioning is also influenced by the emotional and personal characteristics of patients, especially the deficiency of harmony in their motivational sphere. The study of thinking showed the diversity of opinions in 43% of patients and signs of distortion of the generalization process in 24% of patients with hypertension. Correlation analysis data have confirmed the relationship between the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and the frequency of decrease in the productivity of cognitive activity. Patients with hypertension in the middle age unaware of the presence of this diagnosis, differ from healthy individuals in the greater disharmony of personality traits. They are characterized by a tendency to restrain affect, personal rigidity, lack of flexibility of emotional manifestations, with persistence in achieving goals and overall dominance, and also increasing values on the scales of anxiety and depression. The levels of anxiety and depression are statistically related to the productivity of the cognitive functioning in patients with hypertension.
Conclusion. Using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis showed that the cognitive processes in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients can be described as cognitive dysfunction syndrome, where two syndrome factors can be considered significant: neurodynamic and motivational ones. The research results contribute to the solution of personal and «actually intellectual» processes correlation in solving problems in normal and pathological conditions. They expand the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension, and allow individualizing strategies for medical and psychological care for patients with hypertension.
Keywords: syndrome-based approach by L.S.Vygotsky-A.R.Luria-B.V.Zeigarnik;
psychological syndrome analysis;
arterial hypertension (AH);
emotional and personal characteristics;
Available Online: 12/31/2019
Background. The paper presents an innovative quantitative method for assessing neuropsychic fatigue based on the entropy approach. The relevance of the work is connected with the need to determine the neuropsychic state and resistance to stress in different conditions of human activity. This approach is consistent with the trends of modern psychology research on self-organization in the aspect of identifying the processes that underly the stress response during overcoming physical and central fatigue. The proposed method includes the formula of conditional deterministic entropy, tools of nonequilibrium thermodynamics in its information interpretation (I. Prigogine’s theorem on the minimum of entropy production).
Objective. The approbation results of the criterion estimates of neuropsychic stability for the prediction of motor-motor capabilities, behaviour and state of the individual are shown.
Background. The study of students and athletes (71 boys and 72 girls, average age -20- + 3 years) was conducted based on the data provided by the Biological Faculty of Moscow Lomonosow State University. The approbation of the method carried out on the basis of the data of psycho-physiological indicators (tapping test) allowed to assess the stability of the neuropsychic state of athletes. Results. The data confirmed the validity of the method and made it possible to identify stable and unstable states associated with the growth of neuropsychic stress that may result in central fatigue.
Conclusion. The regularities revealed in the experimental samples do not only correspond to the data of the tapping test technique, but also show more accurate and qualitatively meaningful assessments of the neuropsychic stress and the state of the system as a whole. The approach makes it possible to create a device for monitoring neuropsychic stress, i.e. «Halter tapping», and also allows to make similar assessments of sports teams in the process of training, for example, for game sports.
Background. The physical nature of fatigue is complex. Fatigue leads to the depletion of the internal resources of the body. As a result, the pace of work slows down, with accuracy, rhythm and coordination of movements to be disturbed. Freestyle wrestling is a complex sport that imposes a whole complex of strict requirements on athletes, not only physically (strength, physical fitness, endurance, etc.), but also on the psychological and physiological level (using cognitive resources when choosing actions, reaction speed, and features of attention processes in time pressure conditions, etc.). Therefore, it is important to study the effects of physical fatigue on the psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers. The identification of such indicators reflecting the maximized functional conditions for each specific sport and for freestyle wrestling, in particular, will improve the efficiency of training athletes.
The Objective is to study the dynamic development of psychological and psychophysiological indicators in freestyle wrestlers before and after increased physical activity using psychological and electrophysiological methods, as well as to identify possible types of character accentuations in freestyle wrestlers related to the specifics of psychological and psychophysiological presented to this sport requirements. Background. The dynamics of the functional state in freestyle wrestlers was studied before and after increased physical activity. Physical activity was a training session in order to prepare athletes for competitive activity. To study the psychological and psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers, SAN questionnaires of Spielberger-Khanin test were used on a par with electrophysiological methods (EEG). Before training, athletes filled out test forms (SAN, Spilberger-Khanin and Schmishek-Leonhard methods), after which background EEG recording was performed. For statistical data analysis, the Statistica 8 package (for Windows, V 8.0, StatSoft) and the T-test for dependent samples were used. Accentuations of character typical of wrestlers were revealed using K. Leonhard’s (modification of S. Schmishek) method of studying accentuated personalities. We compared the performance of wrestlers of the group with high hypertimity (group 1) and the group with low hypertimity (group 2) in terms of the dynamics of the frequency of theta rhythm and alpha rhythm before and after exercise.
Results. Physical fatigue caused by strong physical exertion significantly affected a decrease in the subjective feeling of well-being, activity, and mood among athletes. In addition, physical fatigue was expressed in a significant decrease in the dominant and average frequency of the theta rhythm in the right hemisphere, as well as in a significant increase in the alpha rhythm in the left hemisphere. Freestyle wrestlers are mainly characterized by a hyper-type character accentuation type associated with mobility and balance of the nervous system, according to the literature. In a state of calm wakefulness, fighters with a hyperthymic type of accentuation are characterized by a low level of anxiety and a low frequency of theta rhythm, which, according to published data, is associated with the activity of the anterior cingulate gyrus, which is involved in the implementation of cognitive processes such as awaiting rewards and making decisions. In the conditions of struggle, there is a sharp increase in the level of anxiety in hyperthymic athletes and a decrease in the dominant frequency of the alpha rhythm in the right hemisphere. Simultaneously, a decrease in the theta rhythm frequency is observed in all wrestlers.
Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to suggest the existence of a certain functional system in freestyle wrestlers, which allows adapting the body’s regulatory systems for the effective implementation of sports activities through the activation of certain brain structures, in particular, the anterior cingulate gyrus. However, this study is pilot (the sample was only 9 athletes), therefore, the results can be illegally extrapolated to a wide selection, but they can be considered as a reserve for further work in this direction.
psychophysiological indicators of athletes;
Available Online: 12/31/2019
Background. Machiavellianism is viewed as a manipulative personal mindset, consistently connected to failure of self-awareness and destruction of close interpersonal relationships, which finds indirect proof in the studies of Machiavellianism and other traits of the Dark Triad in healthy population. Additionally, the role of Machiavellianism in the regulation of various forms of social behaviour characterized by various degrees of regulation, complexity, emotional closeness is not yet studied well enough. Machiavellianism and other forms of manipulative behaviour are expected to be viewed as adaptive strategies in regulating interpersonal relationships in situations of uncertainty, will be expressed differently in the relatively normal and clinical populations depending on emotional engagement, tolerance to uncertainty and values.
Objective. The objective of the study was to identify the input in the expression of Machiavellianism, estimated by Mach-4 scale (by R. Christie, F. Geis, adapted by V.V. Znakov, 2000), of such psychological features as empathy (Measure of Emotional Empathy, by A. Mehrabian, N. Epstein, adapted by U. Orlov, U. Emelianov, 1986), attitude to uncertainty (A New Questionnaire of Uncertainty Tolerance/ Intolerance, by T.V. Kornilova), value orientations (Justice-Care Questionnaire, by S. V. Molchanov, 2005), as well as clinical schizotypal traits (SPQ-74, by Raine A., adapted by S.N. Enikolopov and A.G. Efremov, 2001).
Design. The sample included 80 patients with schizophrenia disorders (F 20.0, F 25.0, F 21.0) and 40 participants without psychiatric diagnoses. The patients were divided into two groups. In the group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia there were males (50%) and females (50%); in the group of patients with schizotypal disorders there were males (45%) and females (55%). The participants without psychiatric diagnoses included males (37.5%) and females (62.5%). The mean age of the participants was 30±5. Each patient was undergoing individual research. At the moment of the study, the patients were hospitalized in the Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia. Results. The regression analysis showed that the lack of empathy, i.e. emotional engagement in the process of interpersonal communication was one of the main regulators of Machiavellianism both in the control (p<.05) and the clinical (p<.001) groups. At the same time, the pronounced schizotypal traits, which are connected to emotional relational aspect of clinical symptoms (suspicion, restricted affect, social anxiety), characterized the climate of the interpersonal communication. Being not the leading ones, they provided the basis for exacerbation of manipulative tendencies. In the control group, “interpersonal intolerance to uncertainty” was the additional factor of Machiavellianism indicator (p<.05). Those patients who have difficulty bearing the ambiguity of relationships were prone to manipulate others. Low “intolerance to uncertainty” in the clinical groups may also strengthen the Machiavellianism indicator (p<.01), which is proved by the links with some aspects of moral self-awareness, based on disregard of traditional ethical norms, laws and orders in decision-making in interpersonal communication.
Conclusion. Among the studied parameters, the regulation of Machiavellianism expression both in clinical and in the control groups is determined by empathy and intolerance to uncertainty. Value priorities and clinical traits, while connected to Machiavellianism, do not allow the authors to conclude on the amount of input of the specific indicator on the manipulative behaviour. The discovered constellations of dyadic relationship quality of Machiavellianism may help to elaborate individual strategies of effective communication with patients with schizophrenia disorders in the framework of psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative programs.
The paper was written to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the outstanding Russian psychologist Tatyana Gavrilovna Stefanenko. The paper describes the life and professional career of the scientist, shows the origins of her professional specialization. The merits of Tatyana Gavrilovna in the field of social psychology, ethnopsychology and psychology of culture are highlighted. The circle of issues she succeeded in are laid special emphasis on.
The author narrates about the research and teaching activities of Tatyana G. Stefanenko, introduces her published scientific works. The participation of Tatyana G. Stefanenko in the international research projects is shown. Her outstanding merits as the author of textbooks and manuals on ethnopsychology basic in many educational institutions of Russia, and also as the organizer of scientific conferences and round tables are placed value on.
It is emphasized that Tatyana G. Stefanenko was an active and creative person, an attentive teacher, a talented scientist, a friendly and responsible person, and an erudite.
Background. The ubiquity of ICTs, the decrease in the age at which digital devices began to be used, the sensitivity of the periods of preschool and primary school age, the extremely high importance of parental position regarding the use of digital devices by young children, with insufficient scientific development of this problem, necessitates obtaining and analyzing empirical data on the use of digital technologies in Russian families with preschool- and primary school- aged children.
Objective. Investigation of the ICTs usage in families with children of preschool (5-7 years old) and primary school (8-11 years old) age.
Design. The at-home study (N=100 parental-child dyads) consisted of a semi-structured interview for preschoolers and questionnaires for primary school aged children and parents of both age groups. It included questions about the level of user activity, digital initiation and culture, digital competency, parental mediation, online risks, psychological well-being and parent-child relationships .
Results. On weekdays, two-thirds (62-64%) of children aged 5–11 spend max. 1 hour on the Internet, and the rest of them spend max. 3 hours. On weekends, 48% of children of 5–11 years old spend online 1–3 hours, with 8% of preschool children and 18% of primary school children spending >3 hours. 5–7 aged children mostly use tablets, while 7–11 olders prefer smartphones. In both age groups, the leading form of digital activity is watching cartoons and videos. Children’s digital games evolve from interest in interacting with objects to preference for role-playing games. 7–1 aged kids begin to explore social networks, and use the Internet for study. 46% of 5–7 year children (46%), and 60% of 8–11 aged children have encountered online risks. Technical and content risks (pop-up banners and videos, frightening and pornographic content, viruses) prevail. 12% of primary school students encounter communication risks as well.
Most parents of preschoolers (70%) choose a strategy of being nearby their child using the Internet. In families with 8–11 aged children, adults are more tend to purposefully educate their child to use online technologies. A third of all adults surveyed admit to being insecure in the issue of online safety.
Available Online: 12/31/2019
The Background of the study is determined by the importance of information exchange for adolescent moral development, in particular the role of cognitive processing of social information (CPI) for the development of moral consciousness.
The Objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between the level of moral development of adolescents and the Internet CPI. The Hypothesis of the study: the features of moral sensitivity and the level of development of moral judgments in adolescents provide background to different stages of cognitive processing of social information on the Internet.
Methods and sampling. The study used the following methods: «Justice – Care» method (S.V. Molchanov) aimed at identifying the level of development of moral judgments was used; the author’s method of identifying the level of moral sensitivity, the method of cognitive processes of assessing social information on the Internet; Yanoff-Bulman scale of basic beliefs (modified By M. A. Padun and A.V. Kotelnikova). The study involved 208 adolescents aged 13-18 years (48% males and 52% females).
Results. On the basis of the cluster analysis, two groups of adolescents were identified – individuals with a high level of development of moral judgments and high moral sensitivity and individuals with a low level of development of moral judgments and heterogeneous moral sensitivity. Moral sensitivity determines how much the subject is aware of the moral content of problem situations. Adolescents with a high level of moral development are characterized by a strong belief in the justice of the world and the experience of the value and significance of their own Self. Differences in cognitive processing of social information are revealed. Adolescents with a high level of moral development are more focused on the choice of response behaviour, taking into account its possible consequences and assessing self-efficacy in the process of social interaction in the Internet space. Adolescents with a low level of moral development are more focused on the interpretive stage of social information analysis, where the task is to understand the moral content of the situation and highlight the moral conflict.
Background. Among the most important factors of success in sports there are self-regulation skills of that are formed through goal-attainment. In the context of achieving high sports results, the concept of achieving the goal of J. Nicholls deserves special attention (Nicholls, 1984). According to the research, the goals of athletes can predict their emotional state and the likelihood of anxiety in the upcoming competition.
The Objective is to reveal the connection between the state of pre-competitive anxiety and the goal-setting features as a way of self-regulation in curling athletes. In accordance with the researcher conclusions of the specifics of goal orientation, we assume that athletes with an ego goal orientation are characterized by a higher precompetitive anxiety compared to athletes with a task goal orientation.
Design. The article analyzes the types of target orientations and the state of anxiety in 56 curling athletes in the pre-competition period (m = 16, f = 40). The study used the following methods: Spielberger’s anxiety scale and R. Martens’ personal competitive anxiety scale with both methods in adaptation of Yu.Hanin, author’s questionnaire to establish the focus of the curler athletes’ goals.
Results. The assumption that athletes with an ego goal orientation are characterized by a higher precompetitive anxiety compared to athletes with a task goal orientation did not receive confirmation, which contradicts the results of studies performed by other specialists. The lack of connection between precompetitive anxiety and the orientation of the goals in athletes is probably determined by the specifics of curling as a team sport. It was established that men and women do not have significant differences in adherence to one or another orientation of goals (p> 0.05), however, significant gender differences were found in terms of personal and competitive anxiety (p≤0.01; p <0.05).
Conclusions. The performed work allowed us to identify new areas for further research, such as: the role of the coach in the target-setting for athletes; the study of factors that influenced the results.
Background. In modern psychology, the question is increasingly being raised if there is a fine type of upbringing or it is rather a myth that does not correspond to the reality of family education practices. Parenting and child relationships are rather acute issues of discussion today.
The Objective of the paper is to analyze the approaches to the nature of the finely tuned type of parental education that provides psychological conditions for child development and positive socialization.
Design. Child-parent relationship is a bilateral process where both partners are active. The provision on the indirect nature of the relationship between the style of parental education and the child development is extended on. The cultural goals of raising a child are discussed. It is proved that in adolescence, the task of development and the goal of upbringing is based on developing personal autonomy in coincidence with the interdependence with the parents.
Results. Studies of the parenting style influence on the child personality showed the complex non-linear nature of such an effect, mediated by the nature of the child’s experience of his relationship with the parent. The main parameters of the harmonious type of upbringing that ensure further child autonomy are highlighted: features of emotional relations, communication and interaction, requirements and prohibitions, and control.
Findings. The model of the fine-drawn style of upbringing and parent-child relationships is a multi-lateral system of emotional relations, communication, control and requirements, creating a zone of the nearest development maintaining stable emotional closeness and interdependence.
Background. The study of moral disengagement is due to exacerbating deviant behaviour in Russian society, including social groups with cognitive and personal qualities required for adequately assessing the situation of moral choice. An analysis of the ways to ensure moral freedom will help to clarify the conditions and factors for implementing a model of behaviour within moral choice.
Objective. Analysis of moral disengagement in adolescence and identifying main areas of empirical research to ensure «moral freedom» are highlighted.
Design. The paper analyses the concept of moral development proposed in the works of A. Bandura including the model of moral disengagement that ensures personal moral freedom; the main directions of empirical research are considered, the relationship of the mechanisms of moral disengagement and moral freedom of the individual are identified.
Results. The main insights into mechanisms of moral disengagement are identified, the age-based mechanisms of moral disengagement, the possibility of using the mechanisms of moral disengagement in the medium and long time perspective are highlighted, the relationship with the components of moral development are determined. The role of moral disengagement in implementing the «moral freedom» of the personality is determined.
Conclusion. The analysis showed that the mechanisms of moral disengagement identified by A. Bandura can be used as a way of gaining moral freedom within immoral behaviour, taking into account certain conditions. In adolescence, the intensity of using moral disengagement mechanisms is higher than in youth. Gender differences in preferences for using mechanisms of moral disengagement were highlighted. There is a relationship between the intensity of using mechanisms of moral disengagement and cognitive and personal characteristics that ensure the moral behaviour of the individual.
October 15 is the birthday of Alexander Ivanovich Dontsov, a prominent Russian psychologist, Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Academician of the Russian Academy of Education.
Available Online: 10/20/2019
Background. The emergence of the psychometric tradition in Russian psychology necessitates a thorough exploration and adoption of the international experience in the development of appropriate measurement instruments and methodologies. The goal of the present study was thus to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the International Cognitive Ability Resource (ICAR) instrument in a Russian sample. The modified ICAR instrument consisted of visuo-spatial subtests Three-dimensional Rotation, Mental Reasoning (original ICAR subtests), as well as the previously developed verbal subtests Mill-Hill verbal scale and Analogies (from the ROADS test battery).
Design. The ICAR battery was administered to n=681 individuals (377 females) in the age from 17 to 59 years (Med=23, M=25.83, SD=7.58 лет) who were either college students or adults with a college degree from the city of Moscow who volunteered for the study. The test battery was administered without (n=284) as well as with (n=397) a time limit.
Results. The study demonstrated adequate psychometric properties of the modified ICAR battery, and revealed a fundamentally bifactor structure of the battery both at the level of individual items as well as at the level of subtests. Thus, individual’s performance on each item or subtest can be conceptualized as being driven by specific (e.g., fluid or verbal) as well as general (g) intelligence factors. We also show that introducing the time limit distorts the psychometric structure of the battery, lowers internal consistency, and reduces the g-saturation of the resulting scores, a finding that has important implications for the theory and practice of testing.
Background. The research data indicate the magnitude and significance of the problem of cyberbullying (CB) that cannot be ignored, since a large enough number of children are aggressively targeted online and are often at significant risk if both school bullying and CB take place simultaneously. The novelty of the research consists in an integrated approach to the CB analysis, as one of the cyber aggression types, taking into account its differences from real-life bullying, based on large-scale foreign national and intercultural studies, which can be compared both at the theoretical and methodological level and on the basis of empirical data.
Objective. The analysis of the existing theoretical and practical studies of the CB features and mechanisms in the child-adolescent environment has been carried out within the framework of developmental psychology and social psychology over the recent two decades.
Design. The paper analyzes the features and transformations of the CB role structure in comparison with the bullying in real life, personal characteristics and behavioural strategies of participants (the aggressor, the victim, the chameleon, the observer/witness), considers child-parent relationship in the CB situation and coping strategy with CB.
Findings. The results presented in this review can be used as a basis for further theoretical and empirical research, and also for developing practical programs aimed at supporting victims of CB, reducing the probability of such situations, for timely prevention of CBs, for diagnosing risk groups, and to prepare recommendations for psychologists, teachers and parents in schools and other educational institutions.
Conclusion The CB research topic is acute in connection with the constant development of information and communication technologies (ICT) and requires further study in terms of process in terms of dynamics and development. In order to develop effective prevention and intervention programs it is necessary to develop a common theoretical and methodological framework that will support terminological consensus among researchers and international research. This will allow for reliable comparisons and systematization of empirical data, as well as the development of online risk management and safe use of ICTs.