Relevance. One of the main criteria of an athlete’s competitiveness and a condition for achieving high sports results is his ability to manage his functional state. Deterioration in functional state and decreased performance are often the result of an imbalance between sleep and wakefulness. The study of the features of the manifestation of sleep disorders in athletes is important not only for understanding the processes themselves, but also for the development of diagnostic procedures, preventive, corrective and rehabilitation programs.
The objective: to reveal the relationship between certain characteristics of sleep and the functional state of athletes. Method and sample. The relationship between the characteristics of sleep and the functional state of athletes was studied. The research program included diagnostics of the main components of the current functional state: well-being, activity, mood using the SAN method (Doskin et al.) as well as filling out a questionnaire with questions about the quantitative and qualitative state of sleep in athletes the night before. The sample consisted of 45 athletes – wrestlers and basketball players 17–19 years old. The collection of information took place before training sessions.
Research results. Difficulties with falling asleep on the eve of the examination had a negative impact on the mood and an integral indicator of the functional state of athletes, here was a tendency to a deterioration in well-being. A light and quick morning awakening is positively associated with high rates of well-being and activity, as well as with a moderate improvement in mood. Most of the subjects experienced difficulty waking up, which negatively affected the parameters of the functional state. Waking up during the night prevents the feeling of proper rest and reduces the activity of athletes. The results obtained by us are consistent with the results of studies of a number of specialists on this topic.
Conclusions. The study of the peculiarities of the functional state in connection with some characteristics of the sleep of athletes gives grounds to single out two factors as significant: difficulties with falling asleep at night and difficult awakening in the morning. The study is pilot, and therefore the results obtained should be considered as material for further work in this direction.
Background. of the article is determined by the need to study educational processes and the educational environment in the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic in particular.
The objective of the study is to analyze the characteristics of the educational environment determined by the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic and the requirements of self-isolation and distance learning, as well as psychological threats to the safety of the educational environment in these new conditions.
Design A study of to the security of the educational environment in a pandemic was conducted. These threats were identified in an exploratory study in the first month of the self-isolation regime (April 2020). We analyzed information provided by junior psychology university students (n = 31); teachers (n = 19) and psychologists of Moscow schools (n = 6); schoolchildren – pupils of 5–7 grades (n = 76) and parents of schoolchildren (n = 18). All information was collected remotely, provided on condition of anonymity and voluntariness. Discourse processing was carried out by the method of content analysis and thematic analysis with subsequent expert assessment. The chosen methodological plan of qualitative research allowed the use of individual experiences as indicators of mass consciousness for the analysis of collective states.
Results. It was revealed that the current situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly changes the concept of «educational environment». The traditional characteristics of the school educational environment are complemented by factors resulting from the process of “expansion” and “shift” of the educational environment, on the one hand from the school environment to the home environment, and on the other hand from the offline format to the online format. The following new perspectives of the educational environment security defined by the situation of self-isolation are highlighted: distance learning; stay in a home environment, diminishing of direct communication; intensification of communication in the network; forced interaction with the immediate environment; the need to coordinate interaction between teachers and parents; the importance of Internet communication; dynamic processes in the family as in a small group, etc. Situations linked to the dynamics of family and interpersonal relationships, health, the physical environment at home, and the online format of the educational process cause the most important emotions in all participants of the educational process during self-isolation.
Conclusions. The program of activities of the educational support service in the school environment should be supplemented with experience and new practices of life in isolation. In a situation of «expanded» educational space and distance learning, educational policy is obliged, while leaving school a priority, to take into account the emergence of new priority subjects in the educational environment that require attention.
Background. The characteristics and predictors of proactive coping still remain insufficiently studied topics in psychology. At the same time, the study of a person’s perception and assessment of possible future-related difficulties becomes more and more relevant in the context of accelerating social changes.
The objective of the research is to identify culturally specific and culturally universal patterns in the choice of proactive coping strategies, depending on the interaction of personal and situational determinants.
Design. The research was conducted in the form of an online survey involving students from Moscow (N = 311) and from Tashkent (N = 272) as respondents. Participants in the study consistently completed questionnaires to assess the preferences of various strategies of proactive coping, the level of general self-efficacy, the degree of tolerance to uncertainty, and the current experience of positive / negative affect.
Results. In the course of the study it was revealed that the previously adapted Russian-language version of the methodology of proactive coping strategies by E. Greenglass has cultural invariance. Comparison of respondents from Russia and Uzbekistan in terms of the severity of proactive coping strategies showed that Moscow respondents prefer strategies of seeking information and emotional support to a greater extent than Tashkent ones. Testing the model of interaction of situational and personal variables showed that it is the interaction of emotional state and self-efficacy that determines the preference for strategies of proactive, reflexive, preventive coping and strategic planning strategies both in Russia and in Uzbekistan. The interaction of tolerance to uncertainty with emotional state positively predicts only the preference for a proactive coping strategy in both samples and negatively predicts the choice of a strategic planning strategy among respondents from Uzbekistan.
Conclusion. The obtained results demonstrated more cultural versatility than cultural specificity in favoring different strategies for proactive coping. Two directions of further research are possible: conducting a meaningful analysis of the image of difficult situations from the point of view of both cultural specificity and cross-cultural invariance. The second direction is expanding the spectrum of the studied determinants of proactive coping, including possible social values and personal value orientations.
Relevance of the article. COVID-19 is a serious global problem, that humanity is facing today. Different countries provide various measures to confront the epidemic. But not only measures differ from country to country, but people’s attitude to this problem is also quite different. In Japan the number of victims is relatively low, and it can be suggested that several socio-psychological factors of the Japanese society underlie this phenomenon.
Aim of the current research is to describe psychological measures of confronting COVID-19 in Japan, and to analyze religious, cultural and psychological features of the Japanese people, that could predeterminate the effectiveness of measures conducted by the Japanese government to confront the epidemic.
Course of the research. Current article is devoted to the two main features of Japanese policy confronting COVID-19: sanitary masks and self-restriction policy (jishuku).
The attitude of the Japanese people to the epidemic, and the measures conducted by the government are analyzed from psychological point of view. Also, basic social and psychological factors that supposedly helped to control the epidemic and the features of governmental policy in confronting COVID-19 are described.
Results. Important feature of the Japan’s anti-COVID-19 policy was an absence of strict measures suppressing individual freedom. But in spite of that, government’s appeal for the mask use and social distance was carefully followed by the people. It can be probably explained by a historically based tendency of the Japanese people to conduct themselves in accordance with the social rules, a daily habit of sanitary masks usage, and also a special attitude to cleanliness and hygiene.
Conclusion. Fight against COVID-19 requires systematic, coordinated and constructive approach, use of several scientific disciplines, human resources and technological solutions. Probably the Japanese experience in this problem would help international community to confront epidemic.
Relevance. The current situation of the pandemic and a number of other crisis situations in modern society have shown the insufficient development of the methodology of clinical psychology which for a long time has been focused on the study of various kinds of clinical groups, the creation of single techniques, individual correction and psychotherapy. As it turned out, such a multidisciplinary and mostly naturalistic organization of clinical psychology does not meet the problems that arise in the modern mass information society, in particular in crisis situations. The study shows that cultural-historical clinical psychology meets criteria of multiple challenges.
The objective of the article is to analyze the possibilities for the development of clinical psychology in a crisis situation of a pandemic, to compare the possibilities and ways of both traditional and cultural-historical psychology to respond to the challenges of new social and cultural realities. Our task in this research was to broadly present the main directions of development of clinical psychology with an orientation towards increasing compliance with the requirements of modern culture.
Results. A number of trends in the development of clinical psychology, its progress in the direction of cultural-historical clinical psychology are outlined. The possibilities of a shift from ascertaining studies to anticipatory and project ones are shown. This type of a shift means moving from the study of facts and data correlations to the study of cultural and historical mechanisms of the formation of disorders and psycho-techniques of corrective and preventive influence. The prospects for the move of culturalhistorical psychology in the direction from the receptive study of clinical groups to the control of the formation of patho-psychological phenomena in large social groups and information spaces are outlined.
Conclusions. A new field of methodological and ontological developments is presented with the aim of creating a systematic applied cultural-historical psychology that can actively and in anticipatory manner answer the questions of modern society and culture. The research has shown the possibility of involving this area of psychological science in solving urgent practical problems arising during the pandemic and other crisis situations.
Background. The paper is based on specifics of the professional activity of specialists of the State Inspectorate of Small Size Vessels of Russian EMERCOM (SISSV) is a highly demanding job that requires specific individual psychological features to successfully fulfill their duties. Such individual psychological features are important for experts, and also for candidates to the positions in the GIMS used as recruitment criteria.
The Objective. of the study is to identify job skills that determine the professional effectiveness of SISSV experts, to identify the relationship between job skills and career success and to determine psychological indicators strongly associated with success.
Design. An expert survey (N = 40) was conducted to determine psychological indicators that contribute to professional success of SISSV experts. We carried out psychological assessment of acting SISSV experts (N = 275) to determine the presence and the level of necessary skills. Based on expert assessments, the inspectors were assigned to either successful or unsuccessful groups. The resulting polar groups were compared using Mann-Whitney criterion. Correlation analysis (Spearman) was used to access the strength of association between professional success and job skills. We also used factor and regression analyses to model the structure of job skills associated with professional success of acting SISSV specialists and job applicants.
Results. allowed to establish reliable differences between the polar groups on following characteristics (p ≤ 0.05): intelligence, abstract and operative thinking, intellectual liability, attention characteristics (volume, concentration, selection, distribution). They were defined as job skills for SISSV experts. The results of correlation analysis (p = 0.01, p = 0.05) showed that the specialists professional success depended on the presence and level of formation of job skills. We determined the structure of job skills associated with professional success.
Conclusion. The obtained results may be used to optimize the processes of psychological monitoring and psychological selection of the acting specialists of SISSV of Russian EMERCOM and applicant for the position.
Background. The paper considers the issue of categorical search for three-dimensional geometric shapes. The results of the previous studies on the real-world objects showed that pre-attentive extrafoveal analysis provides an effective identification of the target, reflecting in the right direction of the first saccade compared with the random search.
Objective. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of extrafoveal analysis during categorical search for pyramids in two groups of participants: mathematicians and psychologists.
Design. 15 mathematicians and 17 psychologists aged 18-25 participated in the study. Each participant performed 144 trialssearching for the target pyramid among the distractor pyramids. In the series 2and 9, any eye movements were prohibited to study covert attention.
Results. The findings of the experiment failed to reveal any differences in the use of extrafoveal analysis and accuracy in both groups. We observed dramatic individual differences, revealed in various degrees of extrafoveal analysis in the search process and in changing the strategy of the task solving. Special series which prohibited eye movements, demonstrated a significant role of covert attention in the categorical search, as well as the possibility and effectiveness of extrafoveal analysis even though while free instruction it could not be used by all participants and all cases.
Conclusion. During categorical search both foveal and extrafoveal processing of stimuli, as well as pre-attentive analysis and covert attention, were simultaneously involved. The dynamics of their interaction was determined by low-level perceptual processes, individual characteristics of the subjects, the task specificity and the instruction.
Keywords: categorical search;
механизмы зрительного поиска;
Available Online: 03/31/2020
Background. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are nowadays widely used in various domains. Their use is connected with a broad range of psychological problems, in particular, within engineering psychology.
Objective. In this paper, typical engineering-psychological problems of interface design for UAVs are considered.
Design. Literature survey on topic related to UAV control. Results. Problems of managing sensory isolation, negative effects of automation failures, connection losses and monotony, as well as problems of supporting the work of UAVs operator teams were identified and solutions proposed. We also study methodological and methodical questions within the domain of interface design for controlling UAVs.
Conclusions. Designing interfaces for UAVs is a complex psychological task. There are perspectives of use for virtual reality, AI, predictive displays, and adaptive automation. There is need for general recommendations concerning UAVs interface development.
Background. The popularity of using virtual reality in various areas of life is growing steadily every year. The use of virtual reality in sports, including sports of the highest achievements, has both advantages and disadvantages that will be considered in this paper.
The Objective is to study main aspects of using virtual reality in sports, including the historical aspect of the method, the main current areas of using the method, the existing advantages and limitations of the method for using in sports practice, including sports of the highest achievements.
Results and conclusions of the study. It is shown using virtual reality technologies in sports has a whole range of advantages, including removing restrictions imposed by real sports: preventing sport injury; creating environmental conditions (weather, humidity, rivalry, etc.), lack of dependence on sport equipment, weather or location, and the ability to engage in hard-to-reach and expensive sports accordingly. However, there are a number of problems that make it difficult to use virtual reality in sports, in particular, using sport equipment and assessing skill transfer.
Background. A wide circle of multidisciplinary researchers share interest in motivation factors of Wikipedians, i.e. virtual volunteers, members of the online world’s largest online encyclopedia «Wikipedia», who consolidate personal resources to manage comprehensive aggregation of free knowledge. Nevertheless, the question of the driving forces of this prosocial behaviour is still open.
Objective. It is assumed that for a full understanding of the determined online activities of Wikipedians we need to analyze the value orientations to which they give personal preference. In accordance with this, the following goal was set: to identify the shared values of the experienced transnational core of Wikipedia authors.
Design. Based on the semantic units derived from previous cycles of disparate academic studies of Wikipedia’s practical development, we conducted a content analysis of a transnational survey. The recipients were 65 authors of multilingual Wikipedia segments (83% males and 17% females) with average experience of 9.9 years compilation of encyclopedic articles.
Results. The constitutive system of invariant internal and external value orientations characteristic of Wikipedians is disclosed. It is found that in the most cases Wikipedians find a number of personal significant reasons for participating in the Wikipedia, the reasons resonating with their inner essence.
Conclusion. The internal value orientations of Wikipedians include: self-development (self-improvement, self-assertion, self-realization); reciprocal (mutual) altruism; a tendency to high quality and systematization of knowledge; a pleasure of creation; autonomy; recreation (hobby, entertainment); meaningfulness; preservation of personal heritage. The external value orientations include: preservation and development of the cultural heritage / language segment; promotion and popularization of Wikipedia (its ideology and principles); low transaction costs and convenience (attractiveness) of the system; affiliation; social identity; improvement peace («Weltverbesserungs Antrieb»); building bridges between cultures and languages. It is summarized that a detailed study of the identified value orientations and also other psychological characteristics of Wikipedia volunteers can significantly expand theoretical concepts of functioning and the applied value for the organization of volunteer practices to disseminate knowledge as the highest value of humanity.
Background. The paper is dedicated to the psychological description of the musical movement method as a particular practice of esthetic education. The practice of the musical movement (MM) was originally created as an artistic one and only gradually began to acquire the features of the pedagogical system. Over time, works appeared where attempts were made to psychological understanding of the processes taking place in the bosom of this practice: changes, transformations of music perception under the influence of movement, expressive movement, etc. However, a more complete reflection of the psychological content of the MM method was not accomplished.
The Objective of the research is to provide a psychological description of the musical movement method as a specific practice of aesthetic education and to explain the notion of MM as a psychotechnical method.
Background. The paper shows that the subject matter of the MM method is not so much the movement as such, its performing part, but the internal, psychological aspect of experiencing and meaning production. Achieving the unity of internal and external, experience and movement, motivation and action, meaning and gesture are the basis of the main goals of musical movement. Musical-motor exercises are considered to be the main tool of the method with which you can learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. It is shown how the musical-motor form accumulates the experience of experiencing music and reflects different semantic levels of musical content: from onomatopoeia and rhythmic imitation, modeling of emotional intonation to the existential layer of music.
Results. The goal of the artwork in mastering the MM method coincides with the pedagogical task: to achieve openness of the personality, its deep, genuine involvement in dialogue with music through movement and gesture. The task set in the musical movement is to give a motor response to sounding music, which affects the motivational-value sphere of the human individual. Classes in the music movement are unique situations that simulate the processes of creativity and are aimed at developing the capacity for creative realization.
Conclusion. The musical-motor exercise is a unique tool that allows one to learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. The musical-motor exercise accumulates the experience of experiencing music. Due to the perception of music in its full shape and form and penetration into the existential world of music, human feelings begin to achieve the sublime multidimensional level in everyday life.
Background. The influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on mental functions is not given a proper account in modern neurology and neuropsychology. The data published provide information on the state of higher mental functions (HMF) and on disturbances of the psychological well-being of children and adolescents after MTBI. The analysis of research materials in this area provides data on disorders associated with both local and cerebral symptoms, which form a diverse picture of cognitive and behavioural disorders.
The Objective is to study HMF in adolescents of 10-14 years old after TBI of mild severity as part of the methodology of neuropsychological syndrome analysis (Luria, 1973). Design. The study is based on the original set of techniques designed by A.R. Luria. We focused on assessing the status of various HMF components (motor areas, gnostic areas of memory and intelligence). We also studied the mental activity in its regulatory and dynamic aspects. The population included 31 patients with MTBI and 20 healthy subjects.
Results. The analysis of the results showed that violations of HMF in the acute period were represented by three types of syndromes. The leading place in each syndrome is occupied by deficiency symptoms of non-specific brain structures.
Conclusion. The information obtained enriches the knowledge of neuropsychology about the patterns of development of brain systems and related mental functions in adolescence, and also allows one to choose more suitable options for rehabilitation effects aimed at improving the adaptation of patients, enhancing their quality of life, and preventing negative consequences of MTBI.
Background. One of the issues of modern health care the frequent arterial hypertension (AH) in people of the so-called middle age. There is a decrease in the productivity of mental activity accompanied by anxiety in the form of «cognitive dissatisfaction» with the corresponding experiences. Features and causes of cognitive dysfunctions in patients with hypertension require special study. Its results are important not only for understanding the central mechanisms of the disease, but also for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, preventive, correctional and rehabilitation programs. They are determined by the relevance of clinical and psychological studies of the syndromes of cognitive dysfunctions and factors that determine cognitive functioning in hypertension in the middle age.
The Objective is the assessing of motivational and emotional factors to the qualitative characteristics of cognitive activity in the middle-aged patients with AH who are unaware of the medical qualifications of their disease.
Design. The study and interpretation of its results was carried out in accordance with the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeigarnik). The research program included the diagnosis of emotional and personal characteristics using the Russian-language version of the 16-factor Cattell personality questionnaire (Cattell, Schuerger, 2003; Kapustina, 2006) and the Pictogram methodology (Zeygarnik, 1962; Rubinstein, 1970), diagnostics of general intelligence using the “Raven’s Progressive matrices” (Raven, et al., 2012; Davydov, Chmykhova 2016), and also the study of “qualitative” features of cognitive processes using pathopsychological examination (Zeigarnik, 1986). We examined 48 patients (52.3±6.6 years) with Stage 2 hypertension, Grade 1-2, unaware of the diagnosis and 54 almost healthy people, comparable to patients by gender, age and educational level.
Results. 84% of hypertensive patients with high and medium intelligence showed signs of a decrease in cognitive activity. A meaningful interpretation of the results of the study using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis (the school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeygarnik) showed that in the structure of disturbances of cognitive processes in hypertension, disturbances in the dynamics of mental processes expressed by labile mental activity and rapid exhaustion, based on a decrease in neurodynamic support of mental activity. Reduced cognitive functioning is also influenced by the emotional and personal characteristics of patients, especially the deficiency of harmony in their motivational sphere. The study of thinking showed the diversity of opinions in 43% of patients and signs of distortion of the generalization process in 24% of patients with hypertension. Correlation analysis data have confirmed the relationship between the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and the frequency of decrease in the productivity of cognitive activity. Patients with hypertension in the middle age unaware of the presence of this diagnosis, differ from healthy individuals in the greater disharmony of personality traits. They are characterized by a tendency to restrain affect, personal rigidity, lack of flexibility of emotional manifestations, with persistence in achieving goals and overall dominance, and also increasing values on the scales of anxiety and depression. The levels of anxiety and depression are statistically related to the productivity of the cognitive functioning in patients with hypertension.
Conclusion. Using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis showed that the cognitive processes in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients can be described as cognitive dysfunction syndrome, where two syndrome factors can be considered significant: neurodynamic and motivational ones. The research results contribute to the solution of personal and «actually intellectual» processes correlation in solving problems in normal and pathological conditions. They expand the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension, and allow individualizing strategies for medical and psychological care for patients with hypertension.
Keywords: syndrome-based approach by L.S.Vygotsky-A.R.Luria-B.V.Zeigarnik;
psychological syndrome analysis;
arterial hypertension (AH);
emotional and personal characteristics;
Available Online: 12/31/2019
Background. The paper presents an innovative quantitative method for assessing neuropsychic fatigue based on the entropy approach. The relevance of the work is connected with the need to determine the neuropsychic state and resistance to stress in different conditions of human activity. This approach is consistent with the trends of modern psychology research on self-organization in the aspect of identifying the processes that underly the stress response during overcoming physical and central fatigue. The proposed method includes the formula of conditional deterministic entropy, tools of nonequilibrium thermodynamics in its information interpretation (I. Prigogine’s theorem on the minimum of entropy production).
Objective. The approbation results of the criterion estimates of neuropsychic stability for the prediction of motor-motor capabilities, behaviour and state of the individual are shown.
Background. The study of students and athletes (71 boys and 72 girls, average age -20- + 3 years) was conducted based on the data provided by the Biological Faculty of Moscow Lomonosow State University. The approbation of the method carried out on the basis of the data of psycho-physiological indicators (tapping test) allowed to assess the stability of the neuropsychic state of athletes. Results. The data confirmed the validity of the method and made it possible to identify stable and unstable states associated with the growth of neuropsychic stress that may result in central fatigue.
Conclusion. The regularities revealed in the experimental samples do not only correspond to the data of the tapping test technique, but also show more accurate and qualitatively meaningful assessments of the neuropsychic stress and the state of the system as a whole. The approach makes it possible to create a device for monitoring neuropsychic stress, i.e. «Halter tapping», and also allows to make similar assessments of sports teams in the process of training, for example, for game sports.
Background. The physical nature of fatigue is complex. Fatigue leads to the depletion of the internal resources of the body. As a result, the pace of work slows down, with accuracy, rhythm and coordination of movements to be disturbed. Freestyle wrestling is a complex sport that imposes a whole complex of strict requirements on athletes, not only physically (strength, physical fitness, endurance, etc.), but also on the psychological and physiological level (using cognitive resources when choosing actions, reaction speed, and features of attention processes in time pressure conditions, etc.). Therefore, it is important to study the effects of physical fatigue on the psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers. The identification of such indicators reflecting the maximized functional conditions for each specific sport and for freestyle wrestling, in particular, will improve the efficiency of training athletes.
The Objective is to study the dynamic development of psychological and psychophysiological indicators in freestyle wrestlers before and after increased physical activity using psychological and electrophysiological methods, as well as to identify possible types of character accentuations in freestyle wrestlers related to the specifics of psychological and psychophysiological presented to this sport requirements. Background. The dynamics of the functional state in freestyle wrestlers was studied before and after increased physical activity. Physical activity was a training session in order to prepare athletes for competitive activity. To study the psychological and psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers, SAN questionnaires of Spielberger-Khanin test were used on a par with electrophysiological methods (EEG). Before training, athletes filled out test forms (SAN, Spilberger-Khanin and Schmishek-Leonhard methods), after which background EEG recording was performed. For statistical data analysis, the Statistica 8 package (for Windows, V 8.0, StatSoft) and the T-test for dependent samples were used. Accentuations of character typical of wrestlers were revealed using K. Leonhard’s (modification of S. Schmishek) method of studying accentuated personalities. We compared the performance of wrestlers of the group with high hypertimity (group 1) and the group with low hypertimity (group 2) in terms of the dynamics of the frequency of theta rhythm and alpha rhythm before and after exercise.
Results. Physical fatigue caused by strong physical exertion significantly affected a decrease in the subjective feeling of well-being, activity, and mood among athletes. In addition, physical fatigue was expressed in a significant decrease in the dominant and average frequency of the theta rhythm in the right hemisphere, as well as in a significant increase in the alpha rhythm in the left hemisphere. Freestyle wrestlers are mainly characterized by a hyper-type character accentuation type associated with mobility and balance of the nervous system, according to the literature. In a state of calm wakefulness, fighters with a hyperthymic type of accentuation are characterized by a low level of anxiety and a low frequency of theta rhythm, which, according to published data, is associated with the activity of the anterior cingulate gyrus, which is involved in the implementation of cognitive processes such as awaiting rewards and making decisions. In the conditions of struggle, there is a sharp increase in the level of anxiety in hyperthymic athletes and a decrease in the dominant frequency of the alpha rhythm in the right hemisphere. Simultaneously, a decrease in the theta rhythm frequency is observed in all wrestlers.
Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to suggest the existence of a certain functional system in freestyle wrestlers, which allows adapting the body’s regulatory systems for the effective implementation of sports activities through the activation of certain brain structures, in particular, the anterior cingulate gyrus. However, this study is pilot (the sample was only 9 athletes), therefore, the results can be illegally extrapolated to a wide selection, but they can be considered as a reserve for further work in this direction.
psychophysiological indicators of athletes;
Available Online: 12/31/2019
Background. Machiavellianism is viewed as a manipulative personal mindset, consistently connected to failure of self-awareness and destruction of close interpersonal relationships, which finds indirect proof in the studies of Machiavellianism and other traits of the Dark Triad in healthy population. Additionally, the role of Machiavellianism in the regulation of various forms of social behaviour characterized by various degrees of regulation, complexity, emotional closeness is not yet studied well enough. Machiavellianism and other forms of manipulative behaviour are expected to be viewed as adaptive strategies in regulating interpersonal relationships in situations of uncertainty, will be expressed differently in the relatively normal and clinical populations depending on emotional engagement, tolerance to uncertainty and values.
Objective. The objective of the study was to identify the input in the expression of Machiavellianism, estimated by Mach-4 scale (by R. Christie, F. Geis, adapted by V.V. Znakov, 2000), of such psychological features as empathy (Measure of Emotional Empathy, by A. Mehrabian, N. Epstein, adapted by U. Orlov, U. Emelianov, 1986), attitude to uncertainty (A New Questionnaire of Uncertainty Tolerance/ Intolerance, by T.V. Kornilova), value orientations (Justice-Care Questionnaire, by S. V. Molchanov, 2005), as well as clinical schizotypal traits (SPQ-74, by Raine A., adapted by S.N. Enikolopov and A.G. Efremov, 2001).
Design. The sample included 80 patients with schizophrenia disorders (F 20.0, F 25.0, F 21.0) and 40 participants without psychiatric diagnoses. The patients were divided into two groups. In the group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia there were males (50%) and females (50%); in the group of patients with schizotypal disorders there were males (45%) and females (55%). The participants without psychiatric diagnoses included males (37.5%) and females (62.5%). The mean age of the participants was 30±5. Each patient was undergoing individual research. At the moment of the study, the patients were hospitalized in the Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia. Results. The regression analysis showed that the lack of empathy, i.e. emotional engagement in the process of interpersonal communication was one of the main regulators of Machiavellianism both in the control (p<.05) and the clinical (p<.001) groups. At the same time, the pronounced schizotypal traits, which are connected to emotional relational aspect of clinical symptoms (suspicion, restricted affect, social anxiety), characterized the climate of the interpersonal communication. Being not the leading ones, they provided the basis for exacerbation of manipulative tendencies. In the control group, “interpersonal intolerance to uncertainty” was the additional factor of Machiavellianism indicator (p<.05). Those patients who have difficulty bearing the ambiguity of relationships were prone to manipulate others. Low “intolerance to uncertainty” in the clinical groups may also strengthen the Machiavellianism indicator (p<.01), which is proved by the links with some aspects of moral self-awareness, based on disregard of traditional ethical norms, laws and orders in decision-making in interpersonal communication.
Conclusion. Among the studied parameters, the regulation of Machiavellianism expression both in clinical and in the control groups is determined by empathy and intolerance to uncertainty. Value priorities and clinical traits, while connected to Machiavellianism, do not allow the authors to conclude on the amount of input of the specific indicator on the manipulative behaviour. The discovered constellations of dyadic relationship quality of Machiavellianism may help to elaborate individual strategies of effective communication with patients with schizophrenia disorders in the framework of psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative programs.
The paper was written to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the outstanding Russian psychologist Tatyana Gavrilovna Stefanenko. The paper describes the life and professional career of the scientist, shows the origins of her professional specialization. The merits of Tatyana Gavrilovna in the field of social psychology, ethnopsychology and psychology of culture are highlighted. The circle of issues she succeeded in are laid special emphasis on.
The author narrates about the research and teaching activities of Tatyana G. Stefanenko, introduces her published scientific works. The participation of Tatyana G. Stefanenko in the international research projects is shown. Her outstanding merits as the author of textbooks and manuals on ethnopsychology basic in many educational institutions of Russia, and also as the organizer of scientific conferences and round tables are placed value on.
It is emphasized that Tatyana G. Stefanenko was an active and creative person, an attentive teacher, a talented scientist, a friendly and responsible person, and an erudite.
Background. The ubiquity of ICTs, the decrease in the age at which digital devices began to be used, the sensitivity of the periods of preschool and primary school age, the extremely high importance of parental position regarding the use of digital devices by young children, with insufficient scientific development of this problem, necessitates obtaining and analyzing empirical data on the use of digital technologies in Russian families with preschool- and primary school- aged children.
Objective. Investigation of the ICTs usage in families with children of preschool (5-7 years old) and primary school (8-11 years old) age.
Design. The at-home study (N=100 parental-child dyads) consisted of a semi-structured interview for preschoolers and questionnaires for primary school aged children and parents of both age groups. It included questions about the level of user activity, digital initiation and culture, digital competency, parental mediation, online risks, psychological well-being and parent-child relationships .
Results. On weekdays, two-thirds (62-64%) of children aged 5–11 spend max. 1 hour on the Internet, and the rest of them spend max. 3 hours. On weekends, 48% of children of 5–11 years old spend online 1–3 hours, with 8% of preschool children and 18% of primary school children spending >3 hours. 5–7 aged children mostly use tablets, while 7–11 olders prefer smartphones. In both age groups, the leading form of digital activity is watching cartoons and videos. Children’s digital games evolve from interest in interacting with objects to preference for role-playing games. 7–1 aged kids begin to explore social networks, and use the Internet for study. 46% of 5–7 year children (46%), and 60% of 8–11 aged children have encountered online risks. Technical and content risks (pop-up banners and videos, frightening and pornographic content, viruses) prevail. 12% of primary school students encounter communication risks as well.
Most parents of preschoolers (70%) choose a strategy of being nearby their child using the Internet. In families with 8–11 aged children, adults are more tend to purposefully educate their child to use online technologies. A third of all adults surveyed admit to being insecure in the issue of online safety.
Available Online: 12/31/2019
The Background of the study is determined by the importance of information exchange for adolescent moral development, in particular the role of cognitive processing of social information (CPI) for the development of moral consciousness.
The Objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between the level of moral development of adolescents and the Internet CPI. The Hypothesis of the study: the features of moral sensitivity and the level of development of moral judgments in adolescents provide background to different stages of cognitive processing of social information on the Internet.
Methods and sampling. The study used the following methods: «Justice – Care» method (S.V. Molchanov) aimed at identifying the level of development of moral judgments was used; the author’s method of identifying the level of moral sensitivity, the method of cognitive processes of assessing social information on the Internet; Yanoff-Bulman scale of basic beliefs (modified By M. A. Padun and A.V. Kotelnikova). The study involved 208 adolescents aged 13-18 years (48% males and 52% females).
Results. On the basis of the cluster analysis, two groups of adolescents were identified – individuals with a high level of development of moral judgments and high moral sensitivity and individuals with a low level of development of moral judgments and heterogeneous moral sensitivity. Moral sensitivity determines how much the subject is aware of the moral content of problem situations. Adolescents with a high level of moral development are characterized by a strong belief in the justice of the world and the experience of the value and significance of their own Self. Differences in cognitive processing of social information are revealed. Adolescents with a high level of moral development are more focused on the choice of response behaviour, taking into account its possible consequences and assessing self-efficacy in the process of social interaction in the Internet space. Adolescents with a low level of moral development are more focused on the interpretive stage of social information analysis, where the task is to understand the moral content of the situation and highlight the moral conflict.
Background. Among the most important factors of success in sports there are self-regulation skills of that are formed through goal-attainment. In the context of achieving high sports results, the concept of achieving the goal of J. Nicholls deserves special attention (Nicholls, 1984). According to the research, the goals of athletes can predict their emotional state and the likelihood of anxiety in the upcoming competition.
The Objective is to reveal the connection between the state of pre-competitive anxiety and the goal-setting features as a way of self-regulation in curling athletes. In accordance with the researcher conclusions of the specifics of goal orientation, we assume that athletes with an ego goal orientation are characterized by a higher precompetitive anxiety compared to athletes with a task goal orientation.
Design. The article analyzes the types of target orientations and the state of anxiety in 56 curling athletes in the pre-competition period (m = 16, f = 40). The study used the following methods: Spielberger’s anxiety scale and R. Martens’ personal competitive anxiety scale with both methods in adaptation of Yu.Hanin, author’s questionnaire to establish the focus of the curler athletes’ goals.
Results. The assumption that athletes with an ego goal orientation are characterized by a higher precompetitive anxiety compared to athletes with a task goal orientation did not receive confirmation, which contradicts the results of studies performed by other specialists. The lack of connection between precompetitive anxiety and the orientation of the goals in athletes is probably determined by the specifics of curling as a team sport. It was established that men and women do not have significant differences in adherence to one or another orientation of goals (p> 0.05), however, significant gender differences were found in terms of personal and competitive anxiety (p≤0.01; p <0.05).
Conclusions. The performed work allowed us to identify new areas for further research, such as: the role of the coach in the target-setting for athletes; the study of factors that influenced the results.