Background. One of the issues of modern health care the frequent arterial hypertension (AH) in people of the so-called middle age. There is a decrease in the productivity of mental activity accompanied by anxiety in the form of «cognitive dissatisfaction» with the corresponding experiences. Features and causes of cognitive dysfunctions in patients with hypertension require special study. Its results are important not only for understanding the central mechanisms of the disease, but also for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, preventive, correctional and rehabilitation programs. They are determined by the relevance of clinical and psychological studies of the syndromes of cognitive dysfunctions and factors that determine cognitive functioning in hypertension in the middle age.
The Objective is the assessing of motivational and emotional factors to the qualitative characteristics of cognitive activity in the middle-aged patients with AH who are unaware of the medical qualifications of their disease.
Design. The study and interpretation of its results was carried out in accordance with the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeigarnik). The research program included the diagnosis of emotional and personal characteristics using the Russian-language version of the 16-factor Cattell personality questionnaire (Cattell, Schuerger, 2003; Kapustina, 2006) and the Pictogram methodology (Zeygarnik, 1962; Rubinstein, 1970), diagnostics of general intelligence using the “Raven’s Progressive matrices” (Raven, et al., 2012; Davydov, Chmykhova 2016), and also the study of “qualitative” features of cognitive processes using pathopsychological examination (Zeigarnik, 1986). We examined 48 patients (52.3±6.6 years) with Stage 2 hypertension, Grade 1-2, unaware of the diagnosis and 54 almost healthy people, comparable to patients by gender, age and educational level.
Results. 84% of hypertensive patients with high and medium intelligence showed signs of a decrease in cognitive activity. A meaningful interpretation of the results of the study using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis (the school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeygarnik) showed that in the structure of disturbances of cognitive processes in hypertension, disturbances in the dynamics of mental processes expressed by labile mental activity and rapid exhaustion, based on a decrease in neurodynamic support of mental activity. Reduced cognitive functioning is also influenced by the emotional and personal characteristics of patients, especially the deficiency of harmony in their motivational sphere. The study of thinking showed the diversity of opinions in 43% of patients and signs of distortion of the generalization process in 24% of patients with hypertension. Correlation analysis data have confirmed the relationship between the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and the frequency of decrease in the productivity of cognitive activity. Patients with hypertension in the middle age unaware of the presence of this diagnosis, differ from healthy individuals in the greater disharmony of personality traits. They are characterized by a tendency to restrain affect, personal rigidity, lack of flexibility of emotional manifestations, with persistence in achieving goals and overall dominance, and also increasing values on the scales of anxiety and depression. The levels of anxiety and depression are statistically related to the productivity of the cognitive functioning in patients with hypertension.
Conclusion. Using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis showed that the cognitive processes in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients can be described as cognitive dysfunction syndrome, where two syndrome factors can be considered significant: neurodynamic and motivational ones. The research results contribute to the solution of personal and «actually intellectual» processes correlation in solving problems in normal and pathological conditions. They expand the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension, and allow individualizing strategies for medical and psychological care for patients with hypertension.
Keywords: syndrome-based approach by L.S.Vygotsky-A.R.Luria-B.V.Zeigarnik;
psychological syndrome analysis;
arterial hypertension (AH);
emotional and personal characteristics;
Available Online: 12/31/2019
Background. Individuals who aim at changing their health behaviour do not always handle the issue immediately. This discrepancy is usually referred to as the intention behaviour gap. Implicit processes are one of the factors which mediate between intention and behaviour. Compared to cognitive and affective implicit processes, motivational implicit processes are given a very little account in the modern science. Currently it is not quite clear how implicit and explicit values are focused on within the health-related decision-making process.
Objective. The present study shows how implicit and explicit values and their congruency are focused on health-related decision-making process in dilemmas. The dilemmas were described as situations within which the subjects report on making a choice: either to avoid losses related to health, or to avoid losses related to other values. Choosing health, the participant avoids losses related to it, whereas they acquire losses related to other values, and vice versa.
Design. The participants participated in the Schwartz’s Value Survey (measuring explicit values), Implicit Association Tests (measuring implicit values) and solve three types of dilemmas (health vs benevolence, health vs self-direction, health vs achievement).
Research Results. The research shows that implicit and explicit values are not related to each other and are differently related to decision-making process in dilemmas. Namely, implicit values of achievement, benevolence and self-direction are related to decision-making in dilemmas with low potential losses. Many of these values turn to be significant to the participants, and some of the dilemmas are not solved in favour of health-related issues. Explicit values are related to decision-making process in dilemmas with high potential losses. Many of these values turn to be significant to the participants, and some of the dilemmas are not solved in favour of health-related issues. Finally, it was found that high correlation between explicit and implicit values is positively related to decision making in favor of health.
Conclusion. The research shows that explicit and implicit values are differently associated with health-related decision-making in the participants.
Background. Psychological characteristics of gamers (video games players) is an extremely relevant field of research today, because prevalence of gaming is wide and growing, covering all current generations (Avetisova, 2011; Bogacheva, Voiskunsky, 2014; Snodgrass et al., 2017).
Objective. The study reveals the explicit real-life motives in online gamers and the reasons why they choose certain leisure compared to other passtimes.
Design. The sample includes 10,916 Russian-speaking gamers from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other CIS countries. The main explicit motives in the real-life gamers are considered: motives of cognition and motives of achievements. The discriminant analysis method identified and described three groups of players: with motives of cognition and motives of achievements of a rational type, motives of cognition and motives of achievements of an indefinite type. A comparison was made between male gamers and male non-gamers according to the degree of explicit motives. High mean on the Likert scale are observed in non-gamers within motives associated with communication and interaction with other people (Wilcoxon test, p≤0.01) and in motives aimed at perception of beauty, significance and grandeur (Wilcoxon test, p≤0,001). The gamers have a higher assessment of situations related to the clarity of the tasks, and perform significantly less interest in situations within which they can influence something (Wilcoxon test, p≤0.01).
Research Results. A scale for assessing real-life motives is designed to estimate the empirically identified motives in gamers on multiple choice scales and then on a five-point Likert scale. There are three groups of gamers with different types of motivation have been identified and described, a comparison of the severity of these motives in male gamers and male non-gamers has been made.
Conclusion. Cognitive motives and motives of achievement for male gamers and male non-gamers were expressed in equally high figures, which may be due to the universality and significance of the values of knowledge and achievements in modern society. Perhaps computer games are the most available leisure to gamers that satisfy their needs for cognition and achievement. A further task is set to test these assumptions using other methods (for example, in-depth interviews).
Background. The paper presents the results of a sociological study that focuses on the attitude towards the reform of the Russian researcher sphere in education. Much attention is paid to the influence of various stumbling blocks that influence the efficacy of research work. The relevance of the study is due to the psychological barriers for understanding the features of the creative self-actualised researcher.
Objective. The influence of age and social factors of professional status (e.g. scientific degree, scientific title, position) on the importance of various barriers that reduce the efficacy of scientists’ work is analyzed.
Design. According to the authorship questionnaire, which included 72 questions, 721 researchers were interviewed. The survey was conducted in different cities and towns of Russia, the respondents included those with different levels of scientific qualifications, and different experience of research work.
Results. The research showed that in the hierarchy of various barriers, those that are associated with the material and social status of the researcher are dominating. Psychological barriers themselves play an important role: lack of promotional opportunities, lack of professional communication environment, strained relations with management and colleagues. Correlation dependence between the barrier concerning funding of new projects and such motivational attitudes as aspiration to independence and professional self-actualisation are revealed. The upgraded position reduces satisfaction of material needs, and, on the other hand, the importance of those factors that concern career self-actualisation (e.g. funding a new research project) is emphasized. It is established that socio-psychological factors (satisfaction with the results of their professional activities, position in the scientific team) actualize the significance of barriers that fix the unfortunate socio-psychological relations in the team.
Conclusion. The obtained results allow to conclude that dissatisfaction with their material and social status for researchers are the most significant barriers preventing the research work. The study revealed a characteristic set of motivational attitudes related to the researcher’s desire for independence and self-actualisation. Te survey materials showed that the combination of reasech work and teaching is subjectively perceived as a barrier that prevents career self-actualisation.
Background. At different stages of the development of the society, the principles that lie in the basis of rehabilitation programs and are justified by experts of various fields are changing. The opportunities that modern society possesses, the resources that it is ready to spend to solve a wide range of rehabilitation problems, are transformed, evolve and require scientific reflection.
The Objective is to discuss modern principles of rehabilitation and social integration of mentally disturbed individuals.
Design. The role of the subject of the rehabilitation program and the role of society in implementing the programs are discussed. The principle of general and targeted rehabilitation work is justified, the principle of continuity and increasing specificity of psychological assistance, the principle of the subject's own activity are identified.
Research results. The need to address not only the conscious motivation of the subject, but also the consideration of unconscious motives for participation in rehabilitation activities and in maintaining health is disclosed. The fixed notion of norm as the ideal and the difficulty of changing stereotypes towards a mentally disturbed person are discussed.Conclusion. On the one hand, rehabilitation of a mental patients should be based on the developed and appropriately maintained personality orientation, the ability to take partial responsibility for mental condition and development. On the other hand, the patient needs societal support, preparedness of society to integrate into an active social life and to change the established stereotypes.
Background. The research of the student attitude to the system of supplementary education is of paramount importance as it is the system of supplementary education where the adolescent tries to implement specific "cultural tests" that allow him/her to obtain an inverse social reaction regarding his/her personal success (success as a subject of activity).
The Objectives of the research are as follows: 1. Determining the influence of age, social demographic factors on the involvement of adolescents in the system of supplementary education is the objective of the research. 2. Defining the motives determining the occupations of students of the secondary and high schools in the circles, studios, sections. 3. Studying the influence of the student involement in the system of supplementary education on their studies.
Research Progress. The paper presents the results of the research carried out by the Center for the Sociology of Education of the IEM RAE in October-November, 2017. The sample includes 11,803 school students of 7-11th grades of the Leningrad region, Russia. Questions concerning the student involvement in the system of supplementary education, paid vs free school classes in various circles, studios, sections, preferences of certain areas of supplementary education, variety of motives that make students get interested in different types of extra classes are discussed. The influence of extra classes on the studying activities (academic success, student status in the classroom, peculiarities of motives involved).
Research Results. In the system of supplementary education, every second student of the secondary and high school is engaged. The educational status and financial position of the student's parents influence his/her involvement in the system of supplementary education. The influence of macro-indicators (settlement factor) is marked as preference in the field of studies and also within the payment strategy of the educational services provided. Among the main motives for attending classes there are the following ones: broadening the horizons, assessing the abilities and opportunities.
Conclusion. The most important motive that causes adolescent interest in various types of jobs and occupations in the system of supplementary education is to catch up with the lack of knowledge obtained in school. The student’s involvement in the system of supplementary education also sets a positive vector for his/her development as subject of the studying activity.
Available Online: 03/30/2018
Background. The issue of secondary failures in adopting children without parental care requires more attention to the preliminary psychological work with candidates for adoptive parents, in particular, to assessing motivation for child adoption. The paper examines the possible risks and limitations of the diagnostic approach associated with "functional" and "dysfunctional" motives, justifies the advantages of targeting the tasks of accompanying and counseling families.
The Objective of the paper is to describe a new method for studying the expectations and attitudes of parents based on the technique of repertory grids, identifying empirically valid criteria for interpreting the results and demonstrating the application methods on the case analysis.
Research Progress. Parents from 20 families with adopted children and parents from 18 families from the control group filled in the rank repertory grids and assessed children's photographs, and also members of their family according to certain constructs. The grids were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.
Research Results. The data are presented on the distribution of quantitative indices (indicators of the complexity of correlation links, relevance of constructs to the issue of child adoption, predominance of dissimilar categories of constructs), with lower and upper quartiles to groups the subjects according to high and low indices. Based on the case analysis, a holistic approach to interpretation is illustrated, combining the evaluation of quantitative characteristics and qualitative data analysis.
Conclusion. Using the technique of repertory grids allows to assess the parent dominant expectations of interacting with the child, their flexibility, relevance and control of experiences related to child's adoption, and also the existence of distorted attitudes toward existing children. The interview form allows to use the method for joint targets of problem-oriented therapy, clarifies realistic expectations and percieved decision-making.
Background. The evaluation of the visual object by the perceiving subject depends both on the features of the object (qualities, characteristics, properties), on the one hand, and the characteristics of the subject of perception (mentality, inherent archetypes, gender, aesthetic representations, value systems, motivation, etc.). Therefore, speaking about external beauty, we must first build a typology of subjects of evaluation, and then conduct an analysis of preferences within homogeneous groups.
Objective. Isolation of signs and semantic interpretations of visual preferences is a complex task. We limit its decision to a search, pilotage study of a supposedly more or less homogeneous sample of male students from one of the Siberian universities, Russia.
Design. The study involved 30 males aged 20-23 years. The subjects were presented with 9 photographs, which they had to rank according to 8 descriptors discussed in focus groups previously. The ranking of photo portraits was carried out with respect to two motives: the desire to have physical intimacy and the possibility to be happy with woman in the photo.
Conclusion. Four main independent factors of female’s estimation of men were revealed, which explained 89 per cent of the total variance. Motivational vector is identified as a certain direction in the semantic space that defines the most optimal ratio of factors required to meet the existing needs. Projections of each coordinate of the vector object of all axes of the semantic space allow to determine the contribution of each factor to the motivational significance of the objects. The psychosemantic approach can be realized when solving a wide range of research in the study of human preferences (advertising, fashion, image of socially significant persons, objects of perception of art, etc.), and also to analyze the motivation of the person on whom the system of his preferences is based. Vector descriptions used in psychosemantics provides the psychologist with the opportunity to apply the mathematical methods and analogues of the natural sciences methods to analyze the mentality of a person and his/her individual picture of the world.
Relevance. Foreign scientists have developed several models of the emergence of social loafing. These models are widely presented in foreign psychological and management literature. Russian scientists when considering the phenomenon of social loafing does not even mention the existence of these models. In connection with this situation is very important to produce translations into Russian language of the common models of the emergence of social loafing and to perform them. Knowledge of models of social loafing will help competently conduct theoretical and empirical researches of the phenomenon under consideration and manage it.
The objective of the theoretical study is to facilitate provision of fundamental and objective knowledge of social loafing to scientists and practitioners who study groups or work with them. Knowledge of models of social loafing will help competently conduct theoretical and empirical researches of the phenomenon under consideration and manage it.
Description of the course of theoretical research. The article considers the following foreign models of the origin of social loafing: R. E. Kidwell and N. Bennett’s model (1993), the collective effort model by S. J. Karau and K. D. Williams (1993), D. R. Comer’s model (1995) and S. M. Davoudi and his colleages’ model (2012). The author of the article indicates limitations of the research conducted and outlines variants of the future researches on the concerned problem.
Conclusions. On the basis of the analysis of the foreign models the author reaches several conclusions. Firstly, almost all the models indicate only motivational causes of social loafing while coordinating causes are omitted. Such an approach is not entirely proper as a number of empirical researches revealed that social loafing emerges due to both coordinating and motivational causes. Secondly, the authors of almost all the models refer to deindividualising of personality and social comparison as motivational causes of social loafing. Thirdly, almost all the models do not distinguish between causes and factors of social loafing. This approach is not entirely justified as implies causation while factors suggest correlation. Fourthly, almost all the models consider situational factors of social loafing while dispositional factors are ignored. Finally, all the models do not exhaustively describe causes and factors of the phenomenon under consideration.
In contemporary world, the digital competence of adolescents is not a separate property or capacity any longer, becoming the prerequisite and basis for many types of activities, and the Internet has become a space mediating socialization of children. Russian population study indicated that there is a «gap» in the structure of motivation to improve digital competence: although every four teenagers from five ones declare preparedness for its development, their motivation in relation to specific goals and objectives is extremely low and does not exceed 20 per cent of the maximum possible level. The paper assumes that the «gap» is caused by different contents of general and specific motivation: general motivation describes great awareness of the importance and the declared preparedness, while specific motivation refers to the setting of specific goals. Applying the Digital Competence Index (DCI) in the samples of adolescents 12-17 years old (N=1203) and of parents of adolescents of the same age (N=1208) the relationship between general and specific motivation to improve digital competences and their links to the user’s activity, confidence, emotions, self-image on the Internet and its familiarization are considered. A high level of digital competence and excessive self-confidence in the user’s skills are associated with a less general motivation. A higher level of general and specific motivation is related to the participation of teachers and parents in the development of adolescent skills in the Internet. This extremely low self-confidence and the solution of any online problems by parents are associated with passive motivation, e.g. the desire to explore the Internet spontaneously through other people. Possible methods of developing active motivation to improve digital competence and the prevention of excessive confidence in adolescents are discussed
The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62) included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1), achievement motivation (2), learning and cognitive motivation, (3) and motivation of affiliation (4). This enabled to further estimate the factor and correlation analysis of the parameters studied, which shows that the system of values is significantly different in males and females of the same age, even in relation to the same mean value of motivation. Motivation, values and self-attitude organize stable systems – on the current sample allocated the four most common systems, i.e. the four factors that are specific for both males and females. Simultaneously, there are systems of values dependent on expressiveness and the combination of a certain type of motivation, and independent of the type of motivation.
Female educational and cognitive motivation and positional (status) motivation related to the values were merged into one factor, but for males one factor includes achievement motivation and (with the opposite sign) affiliation motivation. While the self-realization of females occurs in the process of learning (the value of «selfimprovement in their studies»), and in the future they see an opportunity for self-realization through the value of «happy family life», the males with this motivation connect their opportunity for self-realization with other values, i.e. «health», «recognition by other team members», «my authority.»
In this paper, the motivation is deemed as a particular activity of living beings to provide mental support of individuals for generating activity (as the solution of generating activity problem). In the process of motivation, triggered by actualized needs or requirements of the society, the person accepts the need of conduct, chooses one of the offered activities to fulfill, selects the object of his/her behaviour, which is correspondent with the subject of need in a particular situation, finds a way of conduct to create the supraliminal motivation to work. This activity can be carried out randomly or involuntarily, with multiple operations or being reduced to automaticity (motivational habit being a skill).
Solution of the motivation problem is provided by either solution found in the evolution of species (congenital method) or by solutions found in ontogeny (motivational skills), or is being looked for “here-and-now”.
In humans, the process of motivation is correspondent with the higher mental functions, the former being constructed as a system and implemented deliberately and voluntarily. The motivation system denotes collaboration of all mental processes (emotional-volitional, and cognitive), which provides motivation to action by means of internal and external operations.
When referring motivation to action, the subject of the activity shall take into account the objects or subjects of desire that are meaningful for him/her in terms of needs, their degree of attractiveness in this particular situation, knowing the subject terms of his/her field of action, anticipating changes, having tools at disposal for further action, skills, their emotional and functional condition, and other factors. Motive is understood as a particular object or a desirewhich is meaningful for a subject in terms of necessity in this particular situation. The subject of need is the general term for anything that can meet the need.
Specific features of temporal perspective and value-semantic orientations (including consistency of relevant values and their availability) in high-school students depending on the type of dominant motivation was studied.
For all students, it is shown that time perspective of their aspirations and desires differs by depth, length and positive orientation to the future, but these representations are qualitative specifics depending on the type of dominant motivation. For the group of students with achievement motivation and learning and cognitive motivation, values of educational activity are well coordinated and are seen as a means of realizing long-term goals for adulthood.
For the group of students with affiliation motivation, prestige and competition, values of learning are often accompanied by internal conflicts and vacuums. In high school students with the prevailing cognitive motivation the near future is associated with the values of freedom, self-confidence, self-improvment, overcoming obstacles, friends.
Their aspirations in the distant future are related to self-development, self-improvement with achieving success and confidence. Students with competitive motivation are characterized by a large number of targets in the distant future, without reference to a specific time and implementation, i.e. their school-life motivation decreases.
Aspirations of students with self-reinforcing learning motivation in the near future are most often focused on studies, but they are associated with a desire to achieve quite definite exam results.
To their mind, distant future is associated with overcoming obstacles and status and competitive values. Students with affiliation motivation associate their distant future with career, and also with status and competitive values of «authority», «to be better than others». Their motivation associated with the present and the immediate future period of school life also decreases.
The article analyzes feelings aroused by thoughts of imminent, possible, or other kind of death. The author considers thoughts of death being a thirst-for-life stimulus, a force that motivates living. The attention is also brought to the role of television, with its scenes of violence and death, in meeting the emerged social demand for an experience connected with tragic events.
This article describes the results of pilot research conducted for the elaboration of new method, oriented to work motivation diagnostics. It was proved that work motivation could be diagnosed through the subjective differences between motivational objects in the space of estimation scales. Motivation objects (work motives) and estimation scales get empirically and presented.