Background. One of the issues of modern health care the frequent arterial hypertension (AH) in people of the so-called middle age. There is a decrease in the productivity of mental activity accompanied by anxiety in the form of «cognitive dissatisfaction» with the corresponding experiences. Features and causes of cognitive dysfunctions in patients with hypertension require special study. Its results are important not only for understanding the central mechanisms of the disease, but also for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, preventive, correctional and rehabilitation programs. They are determined by the relevance of clinical and psychological studies of the syndromes of cognitive dysfunctions and factors that determine cognitive functioning in hypertension in the middle age.
The Objective is the assessing of motivational and emotional factors to the qualitative characteristics of cognitive activity in the middle-aged patients with AH who are unaware of the medical qualifications of their disease.
Design. The study and interpretation of its results was carried out in accordance with the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeigarnik). The research program included the diagnosis of emotional and personal characteristics using the Russian-language version of the 16-factor Cattell personality questionnaire (Cattell, Schuerger, 2003; Kapustina, 2006) and the Pictogram methodology (Zeygarnik, 1962; Rubinstein, 1970), diagnostics of general intelligence using the “Raven’s Progressive matrices” (Raven, et al., 2012; Davydov, Chmykhova 2016), and also the study of “qualitative” features of cognitive processes using pathopsychological examination (Zeigarnik, 1986). We examined 48 patients (52.3±6.6 years) with Stage 2 hypertension, Grade 1-2, unaware of the diagnosis and 54 almost healthy people, comparable to patients by gender, age and educational level.
Results. 84% of hypertensive patients with high and medium intelligence showed signs of a decrease in cognitive activity. A meaningful interpretation of the results of the study using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis (the school of L.S. Vygotsky - A.R. Luria - B.V. Zeygarnik) showed that in the structure of disturbances of cognitive processes in hypertension, disturbances in the dynamics of mental processes expressed by labile mental activity and rapid exhaustion, based on a decrease in neurodynamic support of mental activity. Reduced cognitive functioning is also influenced by the emotional and personal characteristics of patients, especially the deficiency of harmony in their motivational sphere. The study of thinking showed the diversity of opinions in 43% of patients and signs of distortion of the generalization process in 24% of patients with hypertension. Correlation analysis data have confirmed the relationship between the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and the frequency of decrease in the productivity of cognitive activity. Patients with hypertension in the middle age unaware of the presence of this diagnosis, differ from healthy individuals in the greater disharmony of personality traits. They are characterized by a tendency to restrain affect, personal rigidity, lack of flexibility of emotional manifestations, with persistence in achieving goals and overall dominance, and also increasing values on the scales of anxiety and depression. The levels of anxiety and depression are statistically related to the productivity of the cognitive functioning in patients with hypertension.
Conclusion. Using the methodological principles of psychological syndrome analysis showed that the cognitive processes in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients can be described as cognitive dysfunction syndrome, where two syndrome factors can be considered significant: neurodynamic and motivational ones. The research results contribute to the solution of personal and «actually intellectual» processes correlation in solving problems in normal and pathological conditions. They expand the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension, and allow individualizing strategies for medical and psychological care for patients with hypertension.
Keywords: syndrome-based approach by L.S.Vygotsky-A.R.Luria-B.V.Zeigarnik;
psychological syndrome analysis;
arterial hypertension (AH);
emotional and personal characteristics;
Available Online: 31.12.2019
Introduction. The relevance of the subject is primarily due to the high frequency of anxiety disorders in the population. According to various schools of psychology and psychotherapy, the motivation of the patient, their deep-seated attitudes and values play a significant role in the emergence and development of anxiety disorders. But nowadays there is a lack of empirical studies that consider achievement motivation and perfectionism in connection with anxiety disorders.
Objective. On the one hand, the study is focused on the relationship between the direction and the achievement motivation in motivational conflicts, and on the other hand, the authors illicit the general level and structural characteristics of perfectionism in people with anxiety disorders.
Procedure. The study involved 21 patients with anxiety disorders undergoing inpatient treatment at the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia, and 20 healthy subjects. In order to measure achievement motivation, the authors used TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) modified by H. Heckhausen (Heckhausen, 1963, 1967; Magomed-Eminov, 1987). In order to identify the degree of manifestation and features of the structure of perfectionism, the Kholmogorova-Garanyan perfectionism questionnaire (Garanyan, Yudeeva, 2008, 2009) and the Hewitt and Flett Multidimensional scale of perfectionism were used (Hewitt, Flett, 1998; Gracheva, 2006). An intergroup comparison was performed in terms of the severity of the characteristics assessed, and also a correlation study of the perfectionism and motivation indicators was conducted in each group.
Results. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with anxiety disorders show a higher level of general perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, as well as reduced achievement motivation. They revealed a greater discrepancy between the motives for achieving success and avoiding failure, which suggests that their activity is directed to the motive of avoidance than to the motive of achievement. The overall level of perfectionism in both groups negatively correlates with the severity of the achievement motive, however, in healthy people, perfectionism is associated with the hope of success, and in patients with anxiety disorders it is associated with the fear of failure.
Conclusion. The results can be used in psychotherapeutic practice treating patients with anxiety disorders. The study gives way for further research on patients with anxiety disorders, depressed patients, etc.
Available Online: 30.01.2019
The paper explains the usage of the terms «personal meaning of disease» and «adherence» to describe variants of mother’s attitude to her child’s disease. Based on the analysis of 25 mothers raising infants suffering from cerebral palsy, such personal meanings in relation to the child’s illness as conflict and barrier were identified; examples of possible secondary benefits from the child’s illness were depicted. Separately, a group of mothers after IVF with a mixed (barrier and conflict) personal meaning of the disease was described. Several assumptions were made about the factors that determine the harmonious person-notional context related to the infant’s illness. Within the framework of selected groups, mothers’ suppositions about the causes of their children’s illnesses were examined. Three degrees of adherence to the treatment of a disabled infant were outlined to illustrate the process of upbringing infants with cerebral palsy. Also, their connection with the personal meaning of a child’s disease for parents and their suppositions about it was shown. The characteristic features of understanding adherence to treatment of similar diseases were marked out. The results demonstrate the necessity of psychological support programs for families with infants with cerebral palsy. Moreover, the obtained date will allow to individualize the strategy of psychological work, and it can become the basis of further research conducted in order to develop and improve the psychological support programs for families with children suffering chronic disabling diseases.
The paper gives a theoretical explanation and empirical verification of a conceptual emotion-regulating model, developed in the theoretical methodological context of cultural-active paradigm. A universal hypothesis concerning emotion regulation as a system including psychological and physiological levels has been verified empirically. The psychological level may be subdivided on motivational thinking level and operational-technical ones, ruled by such psychological mechanisms as reflection and symbolical mediation. It has been figured out that motivational peculiarities determine the manifestation of other analyzed components of the system of emotion regulation. This is true not only for healthy patients, but also for patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). The significance of reflection and symbolical mediation in the system of cultural-active paradigm and emotion regulation has been determined. It has been proved that emotion regulation among patients with MVP differs from that of healthy people, highlighted by a very strong conflict of goal-achieving and fail-avoiding motives, lack of personal reflection and distortion of symbolical mediation, and very limited emotion-regulative resources. It has been shown that patients with MVP differ from the control group, suffering from far more strong emotional stress. It distributes an overall negative impact, reducing the ability to use emotion-regulating resource in emotionally meaningful situations effectively.
Available Online: 30.08.2016
Part 2. Cultural activity approach to the issue of identifying strategies and mechanisms.
The first part of this paper argued the desirability of structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation in the theoretical and methodological framework of cultural activity paradigm with the construction of a psychologically-based typology of emotion regulation strategies in norm and pathology, and also psychological mechanisms enabling the regulation of emotions. This conclusion was based on the analysis of the basic concepts and paradigms in which the issue of emotion regulation is studied: cognitive and psychoanalytic approaches, concept and emotional development of emotional intelligence, cultural activity approach. The paper considers the procedure model of emotion regulation by J. Gross, identifies emotion regulation strategies and evaluates their effectiveness. The possibilities and limitations of the model. Based on the review of the today research the conclusion is arrived at that the existing labels on a wide range of regulatory strategies remain an open issue.
The author’s definition of emotion regulation is drawn. Emotion regulation is deemed as a set of mental processes, psychological mechanisms and regulatory strategies that people use to preserve the capacity for productive activities in a situation of emotional stress; to ensure optimal impulse control and emotions; to maintain the excitement at the optimum level.
The second part of this paper provides the general description of emotion regulation strategies, the approach to their typology, the psychological mechanisms of emotion regulation that lie in the basis of this typology, i.e. the main elements of the structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation. The work shows theoretical and methodological efficacy of empirical significance of signs and symbols and also personal reflection. The diagnostic system to allow empirically identify a wide range of emotion regulation strategies is suggested. The psychological mechanisms used by the subject to solve the problem of emotional control and protection in the emotional situations is emphasized.Three classes of emotion regulation strategies are given a particular account: indirect cognitive, transforming cognitive, and communicative and expressive ones.
Keywords: higher mental functions (APF);
indirect cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
transforming cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
communicative and expressive emotion regulation strategies;
Available Online: 30.03.2015
The objectives of this paper are as follows: argumentation feasibility of developing structural dynamic model of emotion regulation within the theoretical and methodological framework of cultural activity paradigm of the development of human mind and promoting a psychologically-based typology of emotion regulation strategies in health and disease (Part 1), the description of the model of emotion regulation (Part 2). The paper introduces the author’s definition of emotion regulation as a set of mental processes, psychological mechanisms and regulatory strategies that are used to preserve human capacity to induce productive activity in a situation of emotional stress, to ensure optimal impulse control and emotions, to maintain the excitement at the optimum level.
In the first part, the paper summarizes the concepts and paradigms in which the problem of emotion regulation is viewed: psychoanalytic and cognitive approaches, concepts and emotional development of emotional intelligence, cultural activity approach. The paper considers the procedure model of regulating emotions by J. Gross with the release of emotion regulation strategies and efficacy assessment, analyzes its capabilities and limitations. Based on a review of the today research, the conclusion is as follows: within the existing labels on a wide range of regulatory strategies the issue of the psychological mechanisms of their use still remains open.
In the second part, the author suggests the possibilities to address this issue on the basis of the construction of structural and dynamic models of emotion regulation in the methodology of cultural activity approach to the study of the mind and capacity of this theoretical paradigm of integrated methodological approach to the experimental study of the regulation of emotions.
Keywords: emotion regulation;
procedure model of emotion regulation;
structural dynamic model of emotion regulation;
emotion regulation strategies;
cognitive strategy reassessment;
strategy of suppressing expression of emotions;
The article is devoted to the theme of international collaboration between Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov (MSU) and State University of New York (SUNY). The main goals, directions and perspectives of international cooperation in the sphere of education are discussed.
The subject of this paper is to discuss the possibility of the applying modern philosophical concepts which allow to distinguish between types of scientific rationality (classical, nonclassical and postnonclassical), to elicit the theoretical and methodological principles of the functioning and development of clinical psychology. The work reveals that the basic provisions of Vygotsky’s cultural historical theory.
The methodology of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach commenced postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with postnonclassical vision and psychological research method, as well as with postnonclassical thinking of researchers. It was objectified, that the works of Vygotsky and Luria articulated general methodological requirements for organized study of the human psyche, which generally correspond to the requirements put forward by modern science as necessary to deal with complex self-developing systems. Certain argument have been found to prove that according to Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach, psychological syndromes are described as dynamic structures that acquire the qualities of self-control, selforganization, self-determination and adaptive appropriateness, which give reason to consider them as open self-developing systems.