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Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
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Leonov, Sergei V.

Леонов С.В.

Psycid: 2012-a-0037

Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University;

Ph.D in Psychology. Internal affairs director of the RPS.
Moscow, Russia


Leonov, S.V., Kruchinina, A.P., Bugrii, G.S., Bulaeva, N.I., Polikanova, I.S. (2022). Basic characteristics of postural balance of professional hockey players and novices. National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (46), 65–79. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0207

Background. Stance (or posture) is the fundamental posture of a hockey player, allowing him to perform various movements during training and playing processes. However, studies of postural balance of hockey players are scarce. 

Objective. The main aim of the study was to test methods of tracking a hockey player’s posture using the DTrack2 and SteamVR Tracking 2.0 systems, as well as to compare static postural characteristics of professional hockey players and beginners, based on the analysis of changes in knee and hip joint angles and head position, during a five-minute stance-keeping task. 

Results. Analysis of movements with the DTrack2 system and the SteamVR Tracking 2.0 system showed identical results, allowing further use of the SteamVR Tracking 2.0 system. Analysis of the positional tracking data showed that professional hockey players were characterized by a greater amplitude of oscillation (1–2 degrees) than novices (no more than 1 degree) when maintaining their stance. Professional hockey players are also characterized by a significantly smaller amplitude of oscillation of the head position during performance of tasks. Qualitative analysis of changes in angles of knee and hip joints showed that professional hockey players, in contrast to beginners, have a higher and more stable amplitude of movement parameters fluctuations during the whole study, which in turn allows to optimize energy expenditure and provide better posture stabilization. 

Conclusions. Thus, the results of the study indicate the importance of correct head positioning in stabilizing the postural balance of a hockey player. For posture maintenance, the hip strategy of postural balance maintenance, associated with a greater amplitude of hip joint oscillation, is the most optimal.

Received: 03/23/2022

Accepted: 05/16/2022

Pages: 65-79

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0207

By: ; ; ; ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Leonov S.V., Polikanova I.S., Bulaeva N.I., Klimenko V.A. (2020). Using virtual reality in sports practice. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (13)1, 18–30.

Background. The popularity of using virtual reality in various areas of life is growing steadily every year. The use of virtual reality in sports, including sports of the highest achievements, has both advantages and disadvantages that will be considered in this paper.

The Objective is to study main aspects of using virtual reality in sports, including the historical aspect of the method, the main current areas of using the method, the existing advantages and limitations of the method for using in sports practice, including sports of the highest achievements.

Results and conclusions of the study. It is shown using virtual reality technologies in sports has a whole range of advantages, including removing restrictions imposed by real sports: preventing sport injury; creating environmental conditions (weather, humidity, rivalry, etc.), lack of dependence on sport equipment, weather or location, and the ability to engage in hard-to-reach and expensive sports accordingly. However, there are a number of problems that make it difficult to use virtual reality in sports, in particular, using sport equipment and assessing skill transfer.

Received: 03/05/2020

Accepted: 03/16/2020

Pages: 18-30

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2020.0102

By: ; ; ; ;

Keywords: virtual reality; sport; high performance sports; artificial environments; sport psychology;

Available Online: 31.03.2020

Polikanova I.S., Isaev A.V., Leonov S.V. (2019). Individual typological features of the freestyle wrestlers’ nervous system and the dynamics of their psychophysiological parameters when exposed to strong physical activity. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (12)4, 53–63.

Background. The physical nature of fatigue is complex. Fatigue leads to the depletion of the internal resources of the body. As a result, the pace of work slows down, with accuracy, rhythm and coordination of movements to be disturbed. Freestyle wrestling is a complex sport that imposes a whole complex of strict requirements on athletes, not only physically (strength, physical fitness, endurance, etc.), but also on the psychological and physiological level (using cognitive resources when choosing actions, reaction speed, and features of attention processes in time pressure conditions, etc.). Therefore, it is important to study the effects of physical fatigue on the psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers. The identification of such indicators reflecting the maximized functional conditions for each specific sport and for freestyle wrestling, in particular, will improve the efficiency of training athletes.

The Objective is to study the dynamic development of psychological and psychophysiological indicators in freestyle wrestlers before and after increased physical activity using psychological and electrophysiological methods, as well as to identify possible types of character accentuations in freestyle wrestlers related to the specifics of psychological and psychophysiological presented to this sport requirements. Background. The dynamics of the functional state in freestyle wrestlers was studied before and after increased physical activity. Physical activity was a training session in order to prepare athletes for competitive activity. To study the psychological and psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers, SAN questionnaires of Spielberger-Khanin test were used on a par with electrophysiological methods (EEG). Before training, athletes filled out test forms (SAN, Spilberger-Khanin and Schmishek-Leonhard methods), after which background EEG recording was performed. For statistical data analysis, the Statistica 8 package (for Windows, V 8.0, StatSoft) and the T-test for dependent samples were used. Accentuations of character typical of wrestlers were revealed using K. Leonhard’s (modification of S. Schmishek) method of studying accentuated personalities. We compared the performance of wrestlers of the group with high hypertimity (group 1) and the group with low hypertimity (group 2) in terms of the dynamics of the frequency of theta rhythm and alpha rhythm before and after exercise.

Results. Physical fatigue caused by strong physical exertion significantly affected a decrease in the subjective feeling of well-being, activity, and mood among athletes. In addition, physical fatigue was expressed in a significant decrease in the dominant and average frequency of the theta rhythm in the right hemisphere, as well as in a significant increase in the alpha rhythm in the left hemisphere. Freestyle wrestlers are mainly characterized by a hyper-type character accentuation type associated with mobility and balance of the nervous system, according to the literature. In a state of calm wakefulness, fighters with a hyperthymic type of accentuation are characterized by a low level of anxiety and a low frequency of theta rhythm, which, according to published data, is associated with the activity of the anterior cingulate gyrus, which is involved in the implementation of cognitive processes such as awaiting rewards and making decisions. In the conditions of struggle, there is a sharp increase in the level of anxiety in hyperthymic athletes and a decrease in the dominant frequency of the alpha rhythm in the right hemisphere. Simultaneously, a decrease in the theta rhythm frequency is observed in all wrestlers.

Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to suggest the existence of a certain functional system in freestyle wrestlers, which allows adapting the body’s regulatory systems for the effective implementation of sports activities through the activation of certain brain structures, in particular, the anterior cingulate gyrus. However, this study is pilot (the sample was only 9 athletes), therefore, the results can be illegally extrapolated to a wide selection, but they can be considered as a reserve for further work in this direction.

Received: 10/29/2019

Accepted: 11/08/2019

Pages: 53-63

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2019.0406

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: fatigue; physical activity; wrestling; freestyle; EEG; spectral characteristics; Leonhard-Schmishek questionnaire; Spilberger-Khanin questionnaire; sport psychology; psychophysiological indicators of athletes;

Available Online: 31.12.2019

Veraksa A.N., Leybina A.V., Leonov S.V. (2019) The upcoming psychological forum has already made it into history of the European psychological congresses. National Psychological Journal. 2, 3.


Received: 06/04/2019

Accepted: 06/06/2019

Pages: 3

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2019.0201

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: congress ; 16th European Psychological Congress;

Available Online: 30.01.2019

Veraksa A.N., Leybina A.V., Leonov S.V. (2017). The new stage of preparing the European Congress of Psychology (ECP2019). National Psychological Journal. 3, 6-7.

July 1–14, 2017 Amsterdam, Holland, the 16th European Congress of Psychology (ECP2019) to be held in Moscow, Russia, on July 2–5, 2019, is presented within the 15th European Congress of Psychology (ECP2017)

Received: 07/20/2017

Accepted: 07/23/2017

Pages: 3-5

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0302

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: history of psychology;

Available Online: 10.10.2017

Korobeynikova E.Yu., Leonov S.V., Polikanova I.S. (2017). Psychological features of attention in archery. National Psychological Journal. 2, 35-45

The issue of attention is one of the leading in sports psychology. Quite often, athletes’ failures in competitions are ultimately connected with the attention processes, i.e. distraction, switching or loss of concentration. Simultaneously, each particular kind of sport is distinguished by a specific competitive situation and accordingly presents a number of requirements to athletes, including attention features. Archery is no exception. Thus, in shooting sports, concentration and stability of attention are often deemed as the most significant features of attention.

The paper is devoted to the study of the attention dynamic properties in archers. Attention features of athletes were assessed depending on the sports major, gender, age, experience and level of competence. 65 archers from different regions of Russia took part in the study, including 34 males and 31 females, the average age being 16.29 ± 1.74. Experience ranges from 1 year to 8 years, average experience is 4.46 ± 1.93.

The research results showed that archers are characterized by high indicators of stability of attention, and also high efficiency of solving attention problems. The professional success of archery was associated with the ability to distribute attention when necessary. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the features of attention for recurved and compound archers, which indicates the uniformity of tasks related to attention in the sporting practice of archers. Summing up, it is necessary to include skills in the distribution of attention in the program of psychological training of archers.

Received: 05/18/2017

Accepted: 05/27/2017

Pages: 35-45

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0205

By: ; ;

Keywords: sport psychology; attention in sports; attention properties; archery;

Available Online: 28.06.2017

Leonov S.V. (2017). Upgrading the International Status of the Russian Psychology. National Psychological Journal. 2, 3-4.

May 11, 2017 two important documents aimed at strengthening international cooperation and raising the status of Russian psychology are signed in Lomonosov Moscow State University

Received: 05/15/2017

Accepted: 05/17/2017

Pages: 3-4

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0201

By: ;

Keywords: history of psychology;

Available Online: 28.06.2017

Veraksa A.N., Leonov S.V. (2016). The Congress of the Chinese Psychological Society. National Psychological Journal. 4, 47.

A meeting of Chinese Psychological Society was held on October 14-16 in Sian (China). It united more than 3000 participants: Chinese scientists as well as representatives of UNESCO International Union of Psychological Science and Russian, Indian, Pakistani, Mongolian and American Psychological Societies.

The Meeting outcomes included agreements on joint scientific events and research projects of Chinese and Russian Psychological Societies. It might be a step towards establishment of Euroasian alliance in psychological science.

Received: 10/20/2016

Accepted: 10/22/2016

Pages: 47

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0406

By: ; ;

Keywords: history of psychology;

Available Online: 30.12.2016

Polikanova I.S., Korshunov A.V., Leonov S.V., Veraksa A.N. (2016). Association to dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) with developing fatigue as a result of long-term cognitive load. National Psychological Journal. 3, 115-126.

This research studies the effect of long-term cognitive load on developimg fatigue on a range of subjective, behavioural (reaction time) and electrophysiological (individual alpha rhythm), fatigue index parameters in carriers of various polymorphisms of DRD2 genes. Mental fatigue was modeled as a result of continuous cognitive tasks aimed at using attention and working memory for 2.5 hours.

The sample included 51 subjects (male right-handers, the average age - 20 ± 4 years) whose genetic analysis was conducted and polymorphism options of DRD2 gene Taq1A (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were identified.

The research results show that such load significantly affects almost the entire complex of indicators. Significant differences were found between the polymorphisms carriers A1A1 and A1A2 and A2A2 of DRD2 gene polymorphism in the reaction of choice, and also in fatigue index, which reflects the ratio of slow brain rhythms to fast. The results show the positive role of dopamine in developing fatigue.

Group of A2A2 («A1») polymorphism carriers was assumed to show lower fatigue, characterized in SVMR and PB significantly slower reaction time, and before and after long-term cognitive load, compared with carriers of polymorphisms A1A1 and A1A2 (« A1 + «).

Notably, the dynamics of error increase within all polymorphisms is the same, and genotype number of errors does not vary before or after fatigue. The dynamics of reaction time after the exhaustion of all SNPs is approximately the same. This means that polymorphisms are different not only in dynamics of fatigue but physical predisposition to sensory information processing.

Received: 08/16/2016

Accepted: 09/02/2016

Pages: 115-126

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0314

By: ; ; ; ;

Keywords: fatigue; cognitive load; EEG; EEG data; the individual alpha rhythm; the fatigue index; spectral characteristics; dopamine;

Available Online: 30.11.2016

Grushko A.I., Leonov S.V. (2015) Using eye tracking system in psychological training of football players. National psychological journal. 2 (18), 13-24.

The research describes the possibility of applying eye tracking in football. A total of 23 male professional football players from Russia participated in research (Mean age = 21,56; SD=1,5 y.o.). Experiment was conducted in natural settings on football field. All athletes had an appropriate warm-up before testing. All participants had normal vision. Participants’ eye movement data during dribbling task were recorded via mobile eye tracker – “Eye Tracking Glasses» (SensoMotoric Instuments).

We identify the most effective components of visual strategies during different stages of dribbling task: in pre-start routine, during dribbling, after kicking the ball into the goal. Focus of visual attention in pre-start routine: effective gaze patterns connected to the short preview of direction of future movements, gaze fixation to the particular zone of the goal. Effective gaze behavior in dribbling linked with anticipation in gaze focus (a combination of anticipatory and regressive saccades).

fixation duration during dribbling positively correlates to the shooting accuracy and efficacy of dribbling technique. These findings indicates that applying eye tracking technologies in sport practice could enhance performance of football players such as dribbling technique and shooting accuracy. Especially, via eye tracking tools scientists can investigate important issues like development of technique, sport attention, reaction time and anticipation.

Received: 05/30/2015

Accepted: 06/10/2015

Pages: 13-24

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0202

By: ; ;

Keywords: eye tracking; gaze tracking; sport psychology; football; psychological training for football players;

Available Online: 30.08.2015

Grushko A.I., Leonov S.V. (2013) Using systems of eye movements recording in the psychological preparation for the athletes. National Psychological Journal, 2, 106–116

The paper is devoted to the capabilities of eye movement recording technologies (eye-tracking) in the psychological preparation of athletes. The advantages of using eye-tracking in sport psychology are as follows: the ability to «see through the eyes of an athlete» ongoing training and / or the competitive challenge, the possibility of combining eye movement recording with other instrumental methods (methods of EEG measuring, GSR biofeedback technology, virtual reality, etc.), high ecological validity of experiments using eye tracking mobile systems, the ability to use eye tracking systems not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for training athletes. In chronological order, there are examples of practical implementation of eye-tracking systems in foreign and domestic sport psychology: the results of the eye-tracking in games and precise sports, martial arts and other sports are described.

The results of an experimental application of eye movement recording systems in climbing are considered. In particular, the paper discusses the possibility of using the eyetracking technology in teaching athletes effective strategies for visual search when previewing the climbing route. The results of express survey among rock climbers and mountaineers (N = 120 ) on the importance of the preview and analysis of climbing routes before their actual performance. The experiment using eye-tracking technology was conducted at the artificial relief. 23 climbers participated in the experiment. In this paper we use «Eye-tracking glasses SMI» mobile eye tracking system. As a result, visual strategies that are c

Received: 12/10/2013

Accepted: 12/23/2013

Pages: 106-116

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0214

By: ; ;

Keywords: eye movements recording; eye tracking; visual strategy; saccades; fixations; sport psychology; psychology of climbing and mountaineering;

Leonov S.V.(2012). Surviving a sports injury. National Psychological Journal,2(8),136-143

The article is devoted to the definition of sports injuries; factors influencing the experience of sports injury, expression patterns of pain in sport were analyzed. In this article we show that the rehabilitation of athletes should combine a comprehensive rehabilitation program of athletes being developed jointly by medical trauma, physical therapists, trainers, psychologists.

We analyzed factors that contribute to raising the level of injury in sport: changing coating sports grounds, the use of anabolic drugs. Analyzes approaches to rehabilitation programs of injured athletes. Detail the model of C. Ames and J. Duda, which was based on the implementation of the program of work with athletes, focused on goal setting, involvement of athletes in solving problems. The choice of tasks is determined by their degree of availability and accessibility them for athletes.

Pages: 136-143

By: ;

Keywords: sports psychology; injury; pain; psychological characteristics of recovery process;

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