Relevance. One of the main criteria of an athlete’s competitiveness and a condition for achieving high sports results is his ability to manage his functional state. Deterioration in functional state and decreased performance are often the result of an imbalance between sleep and wakefulness. The study of the features of the manifestation of sleep disorders in athletes is important not only for understanding the processes themselves, but also for the development of diagnostic procedures, preventive, corrective and rehabilitation programs.
The objective: to reveal the relationship between certain characteristics of sleep and the functional state of athletes. Method and sample. The relationship between the characteristics of sleep and the functional state of athletes was studied. The research program included diagnostics of the main components of the current functional state: well-being, activity, mood using the SAN method (Doskin et al.) as well as filling out a questionnaire with questions about the quantitative and qualitative state of sleep in athletes the night before. The sample consisted of 45 athletes – wrestlers and basketball players 17–19 years old. The collection of information took place before training sessions.
Research results. Difficulties with falling asleep on the eve of the examination had a negative impact on the mood and an integral indicator of the functional state of athletes, here was a tendency to a deterioration in well-being. A light and quick morning awakening is positively associated with high rates of well-being and activity, as well as with a moderate improvement in mood. Most of the subjects experienced difficulty waking up, which negatively affected the parameters of the functional state. Waking up during the night prevents the feeling of proper rest and reduces the activity of athletes. The results obtained by us are consistent with the results of studies of a number of specialists on this topic.
Conclusions. The study of the peculiarities of the functional state in connection with some characteristics of the sleep of athletes gives grounds to single out two factors as significant: difficulties with falling asleep at night and difficult awakening in the morning. The study is pilot, and therefore the results obtained should be considered as material for further work in this direction.
Background. Among the most important factors of success in sports there are self-regulation skills of that are formed through goal-attainment. In the context of achieving high sports results, the concept of achieving the goal of J. Nicholls deserves special attention (Nicholls, 1984). According to the research, the goals of athletes can predict their emotional state and the likelihood of anxiety in the upcoming competition.
The Objective is to reveal the connection between the state of pre-competitive anxiety and the goal-setting features as a way of self-regulation in curling athletes. In accordance with the researcher conclusions of the specifics of goal orientation, we assume that athletes with an ego goal orientation are characterized by a higher precompetitive anxiety compared to athletes with a task goal orientation.
Design. The article analyzes the types of target orientations and the state of anxiety in 56 curling athletes in the pre-competition period (m = 16, f = 40). The study used the following methods: Spielberger’s anxiety scale and R. Martens’ personal competitive anxiety scale with both methods in adaptation of Yu.Hanin, author’s questionnaire to establish the focus of the curler athletes’ goals.
Results. The assumption that athletes with an ego goal orientation are characterized by a higher precompetitive anxiety compared to athletes with a task goal orientation did not receive confirmation, which contradicts the results of studies performed by other specialists. The lack of connection between precompetitive anxiety and the orientation of the goals in athletes is probably determined by the specifics of curling as a team sport. It was established that men and women do not have significant differences in adherence to one or another orientation of goals (p> 0.05), however, significant gender differences were found in terms of personal and competitive anxiety (p≤0.01; p <0.05).
Conclusions. The performed work allowed us to identify new areas for further research, such as: the role of the coach in the target-setting for athletes; the study of factors that influenced the results.
Background. Sports activities set high demands on the personal qualities and abilities of athletes, which increases their emotional tension, and negatively affects their self-esteem, self-confidence and motivation. Studying manifestations of the personal emotional sphere of athletes allows choosing effective methods of psychological work to adjust their competitive states up to an optimal level.
The Objective of the research is to learn the specific features of the personal emotional sphere as a regulator of the functional state in young athletes.
Design. The paper analyzes the manifestations of personal emotional sphere of females aged 11-13 years involved in rhythmic gymnastics (N = 20). The results of the relationship and the ratio of the athletes’ personal parameters are presented.
Research Results. A direct significant relationship (p = 0.01) of the anxiety level in athletes with neuroticism, irritability, suspiciousness and sensitivity is revealed. A positive significant relationship (p = 0.01) of guilt and aggressiveness expressed mainly indirectly is established. The obtained features of the relationship of the studied characteristics of young athletes are generally consistent with the results of similar studies performed by other specialists.
Conclusion. The results can be viewed as manifestations of the adaptation mechanisms of young gymnasts in the tense conditions of sports activities, as well as fear of disapproval from a significant circle of people. The revealed emotional-personal characteristics of young sportswomen are probably due to psycho-physiological changes associated with adolescence and the specifics of sports activities. The results of the study generally raise additional questions and allow us to outline areas for further research on the problem under discussion. It is important to study the influence of the emotional state in athletes on the ability to fully recover from intensive physical burnout and follow sleep and rest schedule.
Professional functions of modern trainers have long expanded from a simple function of training athletes to compete to the performance of the numerous roles of leader, organizer, psychologist, which are based on the ability of a coach to improve their professional skills and personal qualities.
With the increasing popularity of sports, the means and conditions of sports training, the requirements to the quality of work and mastery of the main subjects of sports are increasing. The demand for a coach as a key figure in the education of successful athletes rises.
The paper analyzes the research of criteria and factors of sports coach efficiency; the features of reflexive processes as one of the most effective ways of coach’s professional development.
The correlation analysis performed in the work showed a significant connection between professional success and the reflexivity of trainers, which in general is correspondent with the results of similar studies performed in a number of other research fields. In the work there was no confirmation of the regular viewpoint in psychological studies of the relationship between the success of activity and the personality’s internality, which induced a number of new assumptions about the nature of the interaction of successful coaches with their pupils, leadership style, and personality traits.
The results of the study as a whole cause additional questions about individual psychological characteristics of respondents and allow to identify further research.