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Polikanova I.S., Isaev A.V., Leonov S.V. (2019). Individual typological features of the freestyle wrestlers’ nervous system and the dynamics of their psychophysiological parameters when exposed to strong physical activity. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (12)4, 53–63.

Abstract

Background. The physical nature of fatigue is complex. Fatigue leads to the depletion of the internal resources of the body. As a result, the pace of work slows down, with accuracy, rhythm and coordination of movements to be disturbed. Freestyle wrestling is a complex sport that imposes a whole complex of strict requirements on athletes, not only physically (strength, physical fitness, endurance, etc.), but also on the psychological and physiological level (using cognitive resources when choosing actions, reaction speed, and features of attention processes in time pressure conditions, etc.). Therefore, it is important to study the effects of physical fatigue on the psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers. The identification of such indicators reflecting the maximized functional conditions for each specific sport and for freestyle wrestling, in particular, will improve the efficiency of training athletes.

The Objective is to study the dynamic development of psychological and psychophysiological indicators in freestyle wrestlers before and after increased physical activity using psychological and electrophysiological methods, as well as to identify possible types of character accentuations in freestyle wrestlers related to the specifics of psychological and psychophysiological presented to this sport requirements. Background. The dynamics of the functional state in freestyle wrestlers was studied before and after increased physical activity. Physical activity was a training session in order to prepare athletes for competitive activity. To study the psychological and psychophysiological indicators of wrestlers, SAN questionnaires of Spielberger-Khanin test were used on a par with electrophysiological methods (EEG). Before training, athletes filled out test forms (SAN, Spilberger-Khanin and Schmishek-Leonhard methods), after which background EEG recording was performed. For statistical data analysis, the Statistica 8 package (for Windows, V 8.0, StatSoft) and the T-test for dependent samples were used. Accentuations of character typical of wrestlers were revealed using K. Leonhard’s (modification of S. Schmishek) method of studying accentuated personalities. We compared the performance of wrestlers of the group with high hypertimity (group 1) and the group with low hypertimity (group 2) in terms of the dynamics of the frequency of theta rhythm and alpha rhythm before and after exercise.

Results. Physical fatigue caused by strong physical exertion significantly affected a decrease in the subjective feeling of well-being, activity, and mood among athletes. In addition, physical fatigue was expressed in a significant decrease in the dominant and average frequency of the theta rhythm in the right hemisphere, as well as in a significant increase in the alpha rhythm in the left hemisphere. Freestyle wrestlers are mainly characterized by a hyper-type character accentuation type associated with mobility and balance of the nervous system, according to the literature. In a state of calm wakefulness, fighters with a hyperthymic type of accentuation are characterized by a low level of anxiety and a low frequency of theta rhythm, which, according to published data, is associated with the activity of the anterior cingulate gyrus, which is involved in the implementation of cognitive processes such as awaiting rewards and making decisions. In the conditions of struggle, there is a sharp increase in the level of anxiety in hyperthymic athletes and a decrease in the dominant frequency of the alpha rhythm in the right hemisphere. Simultaneously, a decrease in the theta rhythm frequency is observed in all wrestlers.

Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to suggest the existence of a certain functional system in freestyle wrestlers, which allows adapting the body’s regulatory systems for the effective implementation of sports activities through the activation of certain brain structures, in particular, the anterior cingulate gyrus. However, this study is pilot (the sample was only 9 athletes), therefore, the results can be illegally extrapolated to a wide selection, but they can be considered as a reserve for further work in this direction.

Received: 10/29/2019
Accepted: 11/08/2019
Pages: 53-63
DOI: 10.11621/npj.2019.0406

Sections: Sport Psychology;

PDF: /pdf/npj-no36-2019/npj_no36_2019_053-063.pdf

Keywords: fatigue; physical activity; wrestling; freestyle; EEG; spectral characteristics; Leonhard-Schmishek questionnaire; Spilberger-Khanin questionnaire; sport psychology; psychophysiological indicators of athletes;

Available Online 31.12.2019

Table 1. Frequency characteristics, EEG pinpoints and analyzed rhythms.

Rhythm

Frequency

EEG Pinpoint

Theta

4-8 Hz

F3, Fz and F4

Alfa

8-14 Hz

Р3, Pz and Р4

Beta LF

14-20 Hz

С3, Cz and С4

Beta HF

20-35 Hz

С3, Cz and С4

Table 2. Dynamics of the theta rhythm frequency in Group 1 (high hyperthymity) and Group 2 (low hyperthymity) before and after increased physical activity in the left hemisphere (F3).

Theta Rythm

Before increased physical activity

After increased physical activity

Domineering Frequency

Group 1

4,99 (1,58)

4,05 (0,05)

Group 2

6,25 (6,26)

5,4 (0,55)

Average Frequency

Group 1

5,37 (0,51)

5,09 (0,1)

Group 2

5,95 (0,3)

5,35 (0,38)

Table 3. Dynamics of the domineering alpha rhythm frequency in Group 1 (high hyperthymity) and Group 2 (low hyperthymity) before and after increased physical activity in the right hemisphere (P4).

 

Before increased physical activity

After increased physical activity

Group 1

10.14 (0,82)

9.46 (1,32)

Group 2

10.04 (0,51)

10.51 (0,61)

Acknowledgments

The study was supported by the RFBR grant No. 19-013-00951\19

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Polikanova I.S., Isaev A.V., Leonov S.V. (2019). Individual typological features of the freestyle wrestlers’ nervous system and the dynamics of their psychophysiological parameters when exposed to strong physical activity. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (12)4, 53–63.

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