Background. The influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on mental functions is not given a proper account in modern neurology and neuropsychology. The data published provide information on the state of higher mental functions (HMF) and on disturbances of the psychological well-being of children and adolescents after MTBI. The analysis of research materials in this area provides data on disorders associated with both local and cerebral symptoms, which form a diverse picture of cognitive and behavioural disorders.
The Objective is to study HMF in adolescents of 10-14 years old after TBI of mild severity as part of the methodology of neuropsychological syndrome analysis (Luria, 1973). Design. The study is based on the original set of techniques designed by A.R. Luria. We focused on assessing the status of various HMF components (motor areas, gnostic areas of memory and intelligence). We also studied the mental activity in its regulatory and dynamic aspects. The population included 31 patients with MTBI and 20 healthy subjects.
Results. The analysis of the results showed that violations of HMF in the acute period were represented by three types of syndromes. The leading place in each syndrome is occupied by deficiency symptoms of non-specific brain structures.
Conclusion. The information obtained enriches the knowledge of neuropsychology about the patterns of development of brain systems and related mental functions in adolescence, and also allows one to choose more suitable options for rehabilitation effects aimed at improving the adaptation of patients, enhancing their quality of life, and preventing negative consequences of MTBI.
In this paper virtualization and simulation technologies in the context of higher mental functions in information society are observed. The category of “simulacrum” considered within the representative model (Plato) and unrepresentative model (Deleuze, Baudrillard) is considered as a key factor for the theoretical analysis of virtual reality. Virtual reality is described as a space of simulacra, special signs that, unlike signs-copies do not fix any similarity, but fix dissimilarity with reference reality generating a sequence of simulations. A problem of subjectivity is highlighted, containing the merger of the subject and simulacrum in virtual reality. Thus, staying in a real world physically, the subject transits into a virtual world mentally. There it is endowed by a new virtual body, that has nothing in common with the subject’s corporeality. There are traps for technological simulacra related to the development of phantom reality and to the possibilities of combining virtual and true reality. Nowadays, technologies are becoming such power that is capable if erasing the border between a signifier and the signified. “Virtual” events play the leading role in information space. However, they generate real consequences, again acquiring real reflections and making an endless chain of switches between the real and the virtual events. As an example of destructive simulation, the use of virtual technologies for conducting military actions or for creating and promoting news events in mass media is given. It is stated that simulacra have become an inseparable part of cultural and historical reality of information society. It is indistinguishability of virtual and real entity that is defined as a reason of transformational processes of not only the identity but also of higher mental functions.
The paper gives a theoretical explanation and empirical verification of a conceptual emotion-regulating model, developed in the theoretical methodological context of cultural-active paradigm. A universal hypothesis concerning emotion regulation as a system including psychological and physiological levels has been verified empirically. The psychological level may be subdivided on motivational thinking level and operational-technical ones, ruled by such psychological mechanisms as reflection and symbolical mediation. It has been figured out that motivational peculiarities determine the manifestation of other analyzed components of the system of emotion regulation. This is true not only for healthy patients, but also for patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). The significance of reflection and symbolical mediation in the system of cultural-active paradigm and emotion regulation has been determined. It has been proved that emotion regulation among patients with MVP differs from that of healthy people, highlighted by a very strong conflict of goal-achieving and fail-avoiding motives, lack of personal reflection and distortion of symbolical mediation, and very limited emotion-regulative resources. It has been shown that patients with MVP differ from the control group, suffering from far more strong emotional stress. It distributes an overall negative impact, reducing the ability to use emotion-regulating resource in emotionally meaningful situations effectively.
Available Online: 08/30/2016
Based on the understanding of identity as an individual’s identity with the self within the cultural historical chronotope, and experienced as the feeling of belonging/ non-belonging to some communities, controllability/uncontrollability of situations and predictability/non-predictability of events, the paper describes the processes of identity transformation in the course of a technological development. Taken as the initial point, the idea of organ-extension (K. Marx, E. Kapp) and technological extension of man (S. Freud, M. McLuhan) means that technologies are the extension of a human body and its organs. The processes of technological extension assume a particular scale under condition of information society development, within which computer-, telecommunication-, transport-, bio-, nano- and other high technologies have become an actual cultural historical force that has a power to transform a human. Special attention is paid to the fact that unlike the precedent technologies that have just facilitated some or other human performance, modern technologies of information society do not only change the human topology, widen and expand human natural abilities but also really transform higher mental functions and mediate mental processes and relations between human individuals. Man becomes not only a biological and social creature but also a technological one, i.e. so called HOMO TECHNOLOGICUS. The scale and speed of cultural historical changes make the study of the technological extensions role in the transformation of identity a key point for developing ways of comprehending their role in the life of a modern person, and also for forecasting the evolution of relationship between man and machines in the future.
Part 2. Cultural activity approach to the issue of identifying strategies and mechanisms.
The first part of this paper argued the desirability of structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation in the theoretical and methodological framework of cultural activity paradigm with the construction of a psychologically-based typology of emotion regulation strategies in norm and pathology, and also psychological mechanisms enabling the regulation of emotions. This conclusion was based on the analysis of the basic concepts and paradigms in which the issue of emotion regulation is studied: cognitive and psychoanalytic approaches, concept and emotional development of emotional intelligence, cultural activity approach. The paper considers the procedure model of emotion regulation by J. Gross, identifies emotion regulation strategies and evaluates their effectiveness. The possibilities and limitations of the model. Based on the review of the today research the conclusion is arrived at that the existing labels on a wide range of regulatory strategies remain an open issue.
The author’s definition of emotion regulation is drawn. Emotion regulation is deemed as a set of mental processes, psychological mechanisms and regulatory strategies that people use to preserve the capacity for productive activities in a situation of emotional stress; to ensure optimal impulse control and emotions; to maintain the excitement at the optimum level.
The second part of this paper provides the general description of emotion regulation strategies, the approach to their typology, the psychological mechanisms of emotion regulation that lie in the basis of this typology, i.e. the main elements of the structural-dynamic model of emotion regulation. The work shows theoretical and methodological efficacy of empirical significance of signs and symbols and also personal reflection. The diagnostic system to allow empirically identify a wide range of emotion regulation strategies is suggested. The psychological mechanisms used by the subject to solve the problem of emotional control and protection in the emotional situations is emphasized.Three classes of emotion regulation strategies are given a particular account: indirect cognitive, transforming cognitive, and communicative and expressive ones.
Keywords: higher mental functions (APF);
indirect cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
transforming cognitive strategies of emotion regulation;
communicative and expressive emotion regulation strategies;
Available Online: 03/30/2015