Background. Plastic, expressive aspects of human behaviour remain underresearched by psychologists. The focus on practices of improvisation is determined by the fact that they show most vividly how expressive movement comes into being.
Objective. The aim of the study is to provide psychological analysis of improvised dance action, to identify the conditions of its generation. The hypothesis put forward concerns the formation of overall personal attitude that makes one ready to perform expressive movement in the context of musical-motional improvisation. It seems probable that the principles of movement organisation within free dance practices concern the formation of attitude that lets one perceive spontaneous, involuntary impulses to movement, changes of tonus and breath.
Design. The study is a piece of theoretic-psychological analysis of improvisation dance practice. In terms of methodological and theoretical basis the study relies on cultural-historical psychology and theory of action, as well as on N.A. Bernsteins conception of movement building. There theories allow to reconstruct the conditions of expressive movement generation in the context of musical-motional improvisation.
Results. The analysis performed has shown that the principles of movement organisation, the technical aspects of the practices studied are aimed at increasing the degree of freedom of movement. It allows to enhance the receptivity to spontaneous reactions and impulses and to widen the orientation within the context of musical-motional improvisation. It makes one move in a more meaningful way and to integrate the personality into improvisation.
Conclusions. Alongside with the practices of structured dances and reproductive approaches to mastering expressive movement, there are cultural-historical practices of improvisation dances. The analysis of such practices allows to single out psychological conditions and and peculiarities of movement organisation that make one generate spontaneous actions, find and try new objectives, plastic forms. Generation of spontaneous movement and musical-plastic improvisation are possible due to tuning up the whole human personality. Openness as personal attitude has its meaningful as well as motional component.
Background. The paper is dedicated to the psychological description of the musical movement method as a particular practice of esthetic education. The practice of the musical movement (MM) was originally created as an artistic one and only gradually began to acquire the features of the pedagogical system. Over time, works appeared where attempts were made to psychological understanding of the processes taking place in the bosom of this practice: changes, transformations of music perception under the influence of movement, expressive movement, etc. However, a more complete reflection of the psychological content of the MM method was not accomplished.
The Objective of the research is to provide a psychological description of the musical movement method as a specific practice of aesthetic education and to explain the notion of MM as a psychotechnical method.
Background. The paper shows that the subject matter of the MM method is not so much the movement as such, its performing part, but the internal, psychological aspect of experiencing and meaning production. Achieving the unity of internal and external, experience and movement, motivation and action, meaning and gesture are the basis of the main goals of musical movement. Musical-motor exercises are considered to be the main tool of the method with which you can learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. It is shown how the musical-motor form accumulates the experience of experiencing music and reflects different semantic levels of musical content: from onomatopoeia and rhythmic imitation, modeling of emotional intonation to the existential layer of music.
Results. The goal of the artwork in mastering the MM method coincides with the pedagogical task: to achieve openness of the personality, its deep, genuine involvement in dialogue with music through movement and gesture. The task set in the musical movement is to give a motor response to sounding music, which affects the motivational-value sphere of the human individual. Classes in the music movement are unique situations that simulate the processes of creativity and are aimed at developing the capacity for creative realization.
Conclusion. The musical-motor exercise is a unique tool that allows one to learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. The musical-motor exercise accumulates the experience of experiencing music. Due to the perception of music in its full shape and form and penetration into the existential world of music, human feelings begin to achieve the sublime multidimensional level in everyday life.
The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people.
Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development.
Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.
The paper raises the issue of signs and symbolic meaning in developing human personality. From the standpoint of cultural historical psychology personality as a kind of totality of subjectivity may be considered as a higher mental function that should be disclosed in terms of its historical genesis and the cultural resources that are to develop it. The role of the plastic image as a cultural means of allowing a person to conceptualize himself/herself and his/her place in the world as a kind of integrity and value is showed. The genesis of the plastic sign of literal physical transformation (tattoos, etc.) to more conventional forms when the plastic image takes on a symbolic value (mask, dance, actor’s part in the theater and others) is considered. Its history can reveal such representations of a person as personality and individuality. The emergence of the most rudimentary forms of cultural behaviour demonstrates an active, transforming the relation of person to him/herself. Bodily changes, cultural «mutilation» and other transformations of physical features are the first signs and symptoms of separation from the nature and development of identity and mechanism of identification with the family name and the image of the totem. The sculptural portrait and anthropomorphic images point to the allocation of the individual family, society and the awareness of a person as a citizen of the state, make their own decisions and to responsibility for oneself. Further theatrical culture shaped a view of a person as an actor who can carry a role without merging with it completely, taking a decision from different positions.
The paper aims to systematize modern concepts of body image and body scheme. For the analysis of theoretical models the following criteria were allocated: explication of the mechanism underlying the formation and restructuring of body image, development of certain aspects of body image which are explained by the presented concepts. Separately the issue of the difference between the body scheme and the body image is discussed that seems relevant in connection with the specific features of the neural mechanisms of body image. In the study of the phenomenological level of bodily experience the assumption that the body scheme is fragmented and has no hierarchical structure is considered. Significant differences in viewing basic mechanisms of developing the body image associated with attention to various bodily phenomena are showed. Psychodynamic, cognitive, socio-cultural, feminist and interdisciplinary approaches are analyzed, which permitted to identify mechanisms of integration-differentiation, cognitive generalization and internalization-introjection. The analysis suggests the consideration of the body image in the context of issues on the appropriation of the body. If person is considered as a tool for shaping and maintening integration of mental processes, the patterns of interconnected and interdependent changes in the processes that occur in the construction of the image of the external situation and the body image acquires a special psychological meaning. It becomes necessary to allocate correctly the structure of the integrating object in which the subject is involved during the normal course of life, and in exceptional cases, i.e. in the presence of physical defects, the sudden change of appearance, etc. These development objects determine specific form of body image and its possible distortions.