Available Online: 22.06.2022
Objective. The study aims to analyze structural and meaningful characteristics of family self-determination depending on the degree of responsibility among students in adolescence.
Methods. Empirical research was conducted with the use of psychodiagnostic techniques: a modified version of the semantic differential methodology by I.L. Solomin, the “Test of life orientations” by D.A. Leontiev, the questionnaire “The level of the ratio of “value” to “accessibility” in various spheres of life” by E.B. Fantalova, the projective technique “Incomplete sentences”, the questionnaire “Role expectations and claims in marriage” by A.N. Volkova, multidimensional functional diagnostics of responsibility by V.P. Pryadein. Regression analysis made it possible to assess the impact of responsibility on indicators of family self-determination.
Results. It is shown that responsibility determines the development of cognitive, value-emotional, regulatory-behavioral, motivational and reflexive components of family self-determination in adolescence. Responsibility has been found to have the greatest impact on the meaningfulness of life (determination coefficient R2 = 0.203) as well as on role claims in the sphere of social activity (R2 = 0.179).
Conclusion. Responsibility is a significant micro-level factor determining the process of family self-determination in adolescence. The development of responsibility among students will allow to form a holistic image “I am a family person”, to cultivate the values of marriage and family relations and life orientations, to integrate ideas on the time perspective, to reduce the number of extramarital births as a result of the actualization of parenthood as an important marriage motive.
Practical application of the results. The materials of the conducted research can be used in the development and implementation of educational programs at institutions of higher education. They can also be used to promote psychological and pedagogical conditions for self-determination of personality in the sphere of marital and family relations through the development of responsibility among modern students.
Objective. The research seeks to identify specific factors for the occurrence of depressive disorders that are common in athletes and to explore their relationship with the level of depression.
Methods. The study involved 46 adults, aged between 18 and 54 years, both sexes, engaged in different sports. Several techniques were chosen as diagnostic tools to study the level of depression, the level of perceived stress, emotional burnout and perfectionism in athletes.
Results. It was shown that the higher the level of emotional burnout, stress, perfectionism, decreased performance and lack of free time of the respondents, the higher their level of depressive manifestations.
Conclusion. The carried out research confirmed the significance of studying factors of depressive disorders and identified the necessity to develop ways to level these factors in athletes in order to avoid increasing depressive tendencies.
Objective. The main aim of the study was to test methods of tracking a hockey player’s posture using the DTrack2 and SteamVR Tracking 2.0 systems, as well as to compare static postural characteristics of professional hockey players and beginners, based on the analysis of changes in knee and hip joint angles and head position, during a five-minute stance-keeping task.
Results. Analysis of movements with the DTrack2 system and the SteamVR Tracking 2.0 system showed identical results, allowing further use of the SteamVR Tracking 2.0 system. Analysis of the positional tracking data showed that professional hockey players were characterized by a greater amplitude of oscillation (1–2 degrees) than novices (no more than 1 degree) when maintaining their stance. Professional hockey players are also characterized by a significantly smaller amplitude of oscillation of the head position during performance of tasks. Qualitative analysis of changes in angles of knee and hip joints showed that professional hockey players, in contrast to beginners, have a higher and more stable amplitude of movement parameters fluctuations during the whole study, which in turn allows to optimize energy expenditure and provide better posture stabilization.
Conclusions. Thus, the results of the study indicate the importance of correct head positioning in stabilizing the postural balance of a hockey player. For posture maintenance, the hip strategy of postural balance maintenance, associated with a greater amplitude of hip joint oscillation, is the most optimal.
Objective. The paper attempts to explore the perception of brands through qualitative methods. The tasks are to identify and analyze consumers’ associations with them, as well as to describe the criteria revealing the visual expressiveness of the brand, on the one hand, and the ways to increase consumer loyalty through changes in the company logo, on the other hand.
Method. The empirical study was carried out in several steps. At the preparatory stage of work, an incentive material was formed, consisting of 15 brand logos of different categories. When choosing stimulus material, two criteria were met, including the presence of images that are not related to brand’s products on the logo, and diversity in price categories and trademark areas. Data collection was carried out in the framework of a semi-structured interview with the use of associative techniques. The received submissions were categorized and interpreted in terms of thematic analysis. At the next stage, the elements of logos, according to which subjects evaluated the visual expressiveness of the brand, were identified.
Results and conclusions. The most attractive in terms of visual expressiveness logos were identified, thematic categories of associations about the brands under study were identified and interpreted. As a result, criteria for the visual expressiveness of the brand were formed and practical recommendations to promote consumer loyalty were proposed.
Objective. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of interaction within the dyad “mother — early age child with developmental disabilities (resulting from neurological pathology)”, as well as to construct a typology of interaction and to determine the conditions of developing interaction for young children.
Design. Sample included the dyad “mother-child of early age.” Comparison sample (n = 51) consisted of children with normotypic development (NT), the average age 24.8 months. The main sample (n = 54) included children with neurological pathology (NP); neurological diagnoses was the consequences of early organic damage of the central nervous system and cerebral palsy, the average age 25.2 months. Video observation of mother and child interaction in the process of joint activity with a set of toys was used as the research method. The data of primary analysis of video materials in accordance with the author’s scheme were subjected to secondary analysis (assessment of differences between groups, correlation and factor analysis).
Results. 4 types of interaction in the dyad “mother — early age child” are singled out. The types differ in the parameters such as: position of the mother in the interaction, level of dialogic interaction, content of the actions of mother and child with their influence on each other, creation of the zone of proximal development. The optimal type of interaction that is favourable for the development of the child is characterized by the activity of both the mother and the child, the involvement and productivity of the child. The type that could be regarded as favourable with certain restrictions is the type called “child dominance”, in which the activity of the child prevails, but the activity of the mother is insufficient. The unfavourable types are “mother dominance”, characterised by the predominance of mother’s activity, the obsessive-violent maternal posi- tion and the subordinate position of the child, and the parallel type, in which there is no joint activity of mother and child.
Conclusion. The study established the relationship between the mother’s actions in relation to the child and his/her productivity and activity, characterised the optimal type of interaction, which creates conditions for the development of the child and the correction of its deficiency. The task for future research is to develop programs that could be used to optimise mother-child interaction in those cases when the implementation of developing interaction is not entirely successful; such programs need to take into account the particular type of interaction within the dyad.
Objective. The aim is to study the strategy for dealing with planning problems in patients with schizophrenia.
Methods. Experimental group consisted of 40 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (age: 34.4±8.24 years; illness duration: 7.78±5.47 years). Control group included 40 healthy subjects (age: 32.5±7.28 years). TOL-DX and TOL-BACS were used to evaluate their planning. Psychomotor speed was assessed by Schulte tables.
Results. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly worse in TOL-DX, but not in TOL-BACS. To analyze dynamics of initial time in TOL-DX tasks, patients with schizophrenia were divided into a group of patients with planning disorders and a group of patients without planning disorders. The dynamics of changes in initial time in healthy subjects and patients without planning disorders was similar and was characterized by an increase in initial time with an increase in the number of moves required to solve tasks. At the same time, patients with schizophrenia with planning disorders showed approximately the same initial time, regardless of the complexity of the tasks. The amount of initial time in patients with planning disorders was lower than in healthy subjects in tasks with 5 moves (p < 0.07) and in tasks with 6 and 7 moves (p < 0.05).
Conclusion. The results obtained outline the role of reduction at the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia.
Objective. In this article, we use the concept of personality strengths in “Values in Action” (VIA) model. In particular, the role of personality strength as a “mediator” of the negative impact of professional burnout on the psychological well-being of the individual, represented by the concepts of life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy is considered. Within the framework of positive psychology, it has been repeatedly mentioned that 24 personality traits often act as a “buffer” that prevents the negative impact of external and internal factors, including stress, on a person.
Methods. To test this “buffer” function, we developed a “path model”. With the help of this model, we were able to assess the significance of each type of personality strengths as a “buffer” between professional burnout and psychological well-being. The model demonstrated high rates of consistency and validity.
Results. The results of the study confirm the presence of a “buffer” function in certain personality traits, so we identified 14 qualities out of 24 that exhibit a “buffer” function.
Conclusion. We identified 14 qualities out of 24 that exhibit a “buffer” function that prevents the negative impact of external and internal factors, including stress, on a person. Also, 4 personality strengths (curiosity, zest, optimism, and gratitude) turned out to be the most significant for maintaining the psychological well-being of the individual, which allows us to talk about the allocation of the “quartet of psychological resilience”.
Objective. Identification of the most stable components of subjective representations about success in life of a modern person.
Methods. The study was carried out using a structuring content analysis based on inductive category extraction. The detailed answers of the respondents to the question concerning the representations of life success were analyzed.
Results. The generalized categories of subjective representations about life success are revealed: significant values; a process that is realized through the orientation of a personality “on oneself”, “on business”, “on others”; set of achievements (results); conditional complexity/unilaterality. A meaningful description of each identified category is given with the provision of quantitative data on the frequency of their occurrence. The predominance of the orientation “on oneself” manifested in the designation of self-realization processes and life enjoyment is revealed. It was found that in the “result” category, the tendency to “have” benefits is most pronounced as compared to the tendencies to “be” and “achieve” goals accompanied by a partial representation of the result. Almost half of the respondents showed unilateral representations about life success, namely, including them in the description of ideas in one category. Along with this, constructive characteristics of representations about life success were revealed: the traditional nature of the most significant values (family, work, material well-being, health). Some of respondents have an orientation “to others” and a tendency to “be”.
Conclusion. The results obtained made it possible to compile a generalized picture of the subjective representations about the life success of a modern personality (using the example of Russians), which outlines the common features as well as reveals the most acute problems.
Available Online: 22.06.2022
Background. B. Smith’s Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) is one of the most psychometrically sound instruments for assessing resilience worldwide (Windle et al., 2011).
Objective. The aim of this study was to adapt the Russian version of the BRS.
Design. Psychometric properties of the Russian BRS were analyzed on the materials of a series of studies involving 696 respondents, including parents of disabled children, parents with many children, and students of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions.
Findings. The internal reliability of the Russian BRS was examined using the α-Cronbach coefficients, the values of which exceeded 0.8 in all study samples. The adapted scale demonstrated compliance with the original BRS factor structure containing direct and inverted test items, which provided the factor validity. Correlations between resilience and phenomenologically similar phenomena (hardiness, dispositional optimism, self-esteem, general self-efficacy, subjective vitality, life satisfaction, etc.) confirmed the convergent validity of the Russian BRS. In addition, parents of children with disabilities reported lower resilience than parents having many children, although statistically the results were not different from similar scores for students of higher and secondary specialized institutions.
Conclusion. Russian version of BRS is reliable, valid and can be recommended for use for the assessment of resilience in Russian-speaking respondents.
Background. The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation notes the need to review the measures used to reduce the risks of human factor in driving and to implement a preventive strategy.
Objective. The work is aimed at studying the psychological determinants of aggressive behavior of Russian drivers of passenger transportation in the context of their mental states during the COVID-19 period and to clarify the preventive strategy of the Russian Ministry of Labor to reduce the role of the human factor in accidents.
Design. The article presents the materials of an empirical study obtained on a sample of professional drivers of Moscow passenger vehicles. The study involved respondents (men) aged 26 to 59 years with work experience from 8 to 40 years. The method of determining the dominant state (DS-8) by L.V. Kulikov; test for measuring poorly realized manifestations of aggression “Hend-test” by E. Wagner; questionnaire Driving Anger Expression Inventory by J.L. Deffenbacher and R.S. Lynch; questionnaire “Dula Dangerous Driving Index” by C.S. Dula were used:
Results. It was found that the increase in the aggressiveness of drivers is determined by the intensity of their non-equilibrium mental states, primarily tension states, including those caused by restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Conclusion. Total social control, along with continuous video tracking of the driver’s behavior while driving, contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior. The specific “cumulative publicity effect”, which is caused by the multiplied combination of total social and personal video control in the workplace, contributes to the need to “dump” the cumulative stress on the object, which in any way prevents the realization of an urgent need. Due to the fact that the ability to self-regulate non-equilibrium mental states plays the most important role in the manifestation of aggressive behavior., A proper method to solve the problem is to develop an individual profile of the dynamics of a non-equilibrium mental state for the driver (“driver’s risk passport”) based on neural network information and analytical data of pre-shift testing. Such an individual passport will make it possible to predict risks when driving passenger transport and can become a reliable tool for implementing a preventive strategy to achieve a zero mortality rate in accidents.
Background. The manuscript provides a synthetic review of the multiple understandings of the concept of empathy. Recent studies generally limit their focus to some aspects of empathy; alternatively, others adopt a top-down methodology for conceptualization of its dimensions rather than the analysis of the multiple regulation of processes that result in empathy. This review is timely and relevant not only because it compares various types of empathy but also because it provides an analysis of the involvement of various empathy processes in a wide plethora of relationships.
Objective. The goa of the review was to establish the conceptual framework for the understanding of multiple types of empathy involvement in cognitive and affective/personality domains, as well as of theoretical discrepancies that can be overcome from the standpoint of unity of intellect and affect.
Methods. This synthetic review elucidates fundamental dichotomies that are central to understanding of empathy (cognitive-affective; immediate-mediated; situational-dispositional etc) as well as the wide range of associations established between empathy, emotional intelligence, and unstable personality core traits such as the Dark Triad.
Results. The results of the study are based on the systematic review of theories of empathy and suggest the need for differentiation between empathy as a product and empathy as a set of processes that might through different pathways achieve the same result and product — empathy. Thus, we argue that the seeming inconsistency between the multiple types of empathy can be resolved by postulating that it is subject to the principle of dynamic regulative systems (DRS) that allow for a rich combination of hierarchical structures of cognitive and emotional processes. This approach assumes that multiple processes underly regulation of empathy. This idea is rooted in Vygotsky’s idea of the unity of intellect and affect, pointing to the pivotal role of empathy as the binding and mediating trait between cognitive and personality/affective domains.
Conclusion. The review lays the foundation for the approach that omits the development of partial theories of empathy in favor of viewing it as a resulting product of multiple processes. Different types and forms of empathy that are frequently discussed in the literature reflect the development of hierarchical dynamic systems and processes.
The relevance of the publication is due to the increasing manifestations of religious radicalization of the population and the threat of terrorism in the post-Soviet space and, in particular, in the Republic of Kazakhstan. One of the least developed problems is the study of psychological regularities of the emergence and development of the phenomenon of religiosity, the motives for its formation and levels of its manifestation in believers, including the formation of extreme religious views and values in an individual. The aim of the work was to describe theoretical and applied research questions on the problem of the formation of religious radicalism, extremism and terrorism in believers and followers of Islam, as well as on the methodological problems of developing psychodiagnostic tools and technologies of psychological intervention in this area.
Results. The characteristics and dynamics of indices of criminal situations with radical religious extremism and terrorism manifestation in the Republic of Kazakhstan is presented. The features of psychoprophylaxis of religious extremism relapse and rehabilitation of people convicted for such crimes were considered. Some examples of such work,organized in Kazakhstan with women and children who were in terrorist activity zones for a long time were described. The necessity of studying the personal features of believers, their level of religiosity, the motivation for extremist views and the radicalisation of the personality, as well as the main targets of psychodiagnostics in order to predict behaviour from the perspective of public safety and to prevent the spread of radical ideology and values in secular society, have been substantiated. Among the main conclusions presented is the understanding of the need to develop fundamentally new approaches in psychodiagnostics of radicalization, extremism and terrorism in order to prognostically diagnose, rehabilitate and resocialize believers who have extreme criminal experiences. is behavioral analysis by means of different techniques, facts and documents with the use of methods of observation and diagnostic interview of a believer seem to be the most productive methods.
Background. For our country, the growth and improvement of the efficiency of small business is one of the strategic directions. However, not only financial and infrastructural factors can stimulate business growth, but also socio-psychological ones. The study of relations within families of entrepreneurs can become another direction for the development of small business in our country.
Objective. The aim was to study the type of family system in terms of the parameters of adaptability and cohesion among entrepreneurs in the sphere of small family business.
Design. The study was carried out using the FACES-3 method by D. Olson. The sample consisted of 129 small family business owners. Hypotheses include the following: 1) families of entrepreneurs have a balanced structure; 2) over the years of marriage, the cohesion in business families decreases; 3) the more children there are in the family, the higher the unity of family is.
Results. The study of the family system types showed that 78.3% of families belong to the semi-functional type. On the scale of “Cohesion”, divided (46.5%) and united (51.9%) types dominate. On the scale of “Adaptation”, the chaotic type prevails (76%). Hypothesis 1 was not confirmed. However, we understand high randomness as a way to form continuity in a business family. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed: real family cohesion decreases with increasing age of the business owner (p = 0.01). Hypothesis 3 was confirmed: the more children there are in a business family, the higher the real family unity (p = 0.05) is. The cohesion of entrepreneurs in large families is a potential for the family’s reputation capital and the formation of financial stability in the future.
Conclusion. The article formulates recommendations for the harmonization of family relations, aimed at maintaining and developing intergenerational ties. The results of the study allow us to formulate a proposal to the Family Business Centers regarding special support for large business families. The revealed patterns will help improve the demographic situation in the country and will contribute to the development of small business.
Background. Life satisfaction in older age is widely studied in connection with family and professional factors. However, the role of non-professional volunteer activity of older people in connection with the peculiarities of personal resource complex (meaningfulness, resilience, proactive coping) has not been studied enough yet.
Objective. The study of psychological predictors of life satisfaction in older people (on the example of clients of a charity fund).
Design. The study participants were 60 unemployed clients of the charity center aged 65–85 years (μ = 74.8 years), 44 women. 50% of the respondents are not only clients, but also volunteers of the Center. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Life satisfaction in different life spheres was assessed with the “Technique for diagnosing the level of social frustration” by L.I. Wasserman. The supposed personal predictors of life satisfaction were diagnosed by the following methods: “Indicator of coping strategies” by D. Amirkhan (adaptation by N.A. Sirota and V.M. Yaltonsky), “Test of Life Orientations” by D.A. Leontiev, “Test of resilience” by S. Maddi (modification by E.N. Osin and E.I. Rasskazova).
Results. Comparative and multiple regression analysis have shown that the level of satisfaction with the life of older people is not as much related to the nature of the family situation, as to an active life position. It is significantly higher with involvement in socially significant volunteer activities and with the productive use of the personal resource complex (meaningfulness, resilience, proactive coping), especially in terms of the belief in the ability to control behavior, relationships with others and the life situation as a whole.
Conclusion. The results of the presented study can be used in the practice of Russian gerontopsychology while organizing social assistance to older people on the basis of state and non-profit organizations.
Background. The transformation of social changes determins a qualitatively different format of professional thinking as a cognitive resource influencing performance efficiency and subjective well-being.
Objective is to present the results of varying research of professional thinking in socionomic professions by definig the peculiarities of thinking at different stages of professionalization and under various sociocultural conditions.
Design. The sample group consists of the representatives of socionomic professions at different stages of their professionalization: psychology students and students of management aged from 18 to 23 starting and finishing their education (n = 120), managers in the sphere of business and education (n = 218), preschool teachers (n = 70).
Results. The sample of students in socionomic professions has shown that the level of structural organization in professional thinking rises during the final stages of education. Moreover, the differences in structural components of elemental level are of partial kind. In particular, the level of social reflexivity, metacognitive knowledge among the students of gnostical type of activity is growing. The problematicity is also more structured and takes comprehensive context into consideration. The students of transformative tendency have growing levels of metacognitive activity, reduction of attempts to solve the problems related to the increase in flexibility and predictability. It has been demonstrated that metacognitive characteristics of professional thinking and capacity of supra-situational thinking are presented in a more explicit and profound way under the sociocultural conditions of rural preschool educational settings than of the urban ones. It has been elicited that such factors as work experience in the area of management (inverse relation) and environmental mega factor, i.e. working in the situation of the pandemic (direct relation) influence such qualities of supra-situational thinking as effi ciency, originality and validity.
Conclusion. The obtained results have broadened the concept of resource in professional thinking among socionomic professions. The necessity of further investigation of professional thinking as a cognitive resource on the componential subsystem level has been indicated.
Fly-in-fl y-out personnel in the Far North are exposed to extreme climatic, geographic, and production factors, and also remain in conditions of group isolation, which makes demands on fly-in-fly-out worker’ body that oft en exceed its reserves. The full adaptation impossibility is associated with unfavorable functional states of workers, which lead to a decrease in the level of mental health, productivity and work efficiency. Job tasks of workers in various industries differ in physical and physiological stress and in the degree of harmful production factors expression. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the psychological adaptation features in fly-in-fly-out personnel in industrial enterprises of the Far North. The study involved 145 fly-in-fly-out workers of oil, gas, and diamond mining industries in the Far North, 82 fly-in-fly-out builders in the south of the Russian Federation, who were a comparison group to identify the psychological adaptation features of fly-in-fly-out personnel in the Far North. Research methods are psychophysiological and psychological testing aimed at diagnosing conscious self-regulation of voluntary human activity and subjective control as key characteristics of psychological adaptation of workers. The results obtained allow us to conclude about the similarity of psychological characteristics that contribute to the successful adaptation of fly-in-fly-out personnel, regardless of the region where the industrial facility is located. These include internality in the areas of achievement, failure, family relationships, health and illness, as well as modeling, performance evaluation, and autonomy as regulatory processes. At the same time, their expression is specific, depending on the region of the object location and the industry.
Purpose and relevance of the article. The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of the founders of Russian ergonomics V.M. Munipov and V.P. Zinchenko, under whose guidance the author of the article studied and worked for a long time. The notions of “Human — Machine” system” and “human factor” are considered from the standpoint of the theory of acts of psychological interaction of people with the world developed by the author of the article. This made it possible to fill these notions with new psychological content, as well as briefl y describe the basic notions in the theory of acts.
Results. The interaction of the components of the world is considered as a kind of relationship between them, which includes their impact on each other and possibly on themselves. The ratio “А impacts on B” is identified with the ratio “A changes B in some direction”. Different directions in which the interacting components may change are related with the properties of these components that change in their values. The act of psychological interaction of a person with the components of the world is active on the part of this person, meaningful by him, mediated by the images of its components, is relatively complete and directed on achieving the results that someone needs, and also has a beginning on the timeline. Components of such an act include its objects and subjects, the activity of subjects, their meanings, properties and states, goals and motives, objects and means, tools and signs, conditions and ways (methods) of carrying out acts, processes and results, etc. The notions about these components are defined constructively (based on the previously introduced notions), as well as taking into account the functions of components in the activity of the subject. Different relations between the components of the act, which turn it into a psychological functional system are described.
Conclusions. It is shown that such a theoretical model of a psychological act can serve as a conceptual tool for the study and ergonomic design of any work acts of operators in “Human — Machine” systems.
Background. With the growing role of economic environment in the socialization of a modern person, there is an increasing interest in understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior when choosing goods. Economic realms are refl ected in the self-identification of the individual in relation to other people and social structures. The study of the relationship between social identity and the features of consumer behavior when choosing goods is relevant. At the same time, various aspects of social identity in connection with the peculiarities of consumer preferences remain poorly studied in social psychology
Objective. Background. With the growing role of economic environment in the socialization of a modern person, there is an increasing interest in understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior when choosing goods. Economic realms are refl ected in the self-identification of the individual in relation to other people and social structures. The study of the relationship between social identity and the features of consumer behavior when choosing goods is relevant. At the same time, various aspects of social identity in connection with the peculiarities of consumer preferences remain poorly studied in social psychology
Design.The study was conducted online by presenting respondents with a questionnaire that included questions about consumer preferences and components of social identity. The sample was targeted by experts: consumers of food products of local production, citizens of the Russian Federation, aged 25 to 67 years (N = 200).
Results. The interrelation of cognitive and value components of social identity with the peculiarities of consumer preferences concerning general attitude to products, their characteristics and selection criteria is revealed. More significant connections were found between value components and all manifestations of consumer preferences. The interrelation between local and world identity and preference for food products of domestic production, as well as the features of the criteria for choosing food products among consumers with diff erent severity of the cognitive component of social identity, has been revealed.
Conclusion. New data on the relationship between cognitive and value components of social identity and the characteristics of consumer preferences were obtained. They can serve as a basis for a deeper analysis of the identity structure, understanding the role of identity in consumer behavior. The main limitations of the study relate to the sample and the methods used.pandemic.
Relevance. With the rise of the Internet and the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs), the available ways of interpersonal communication have changed and expanded. From spring 2020 to the present, the epidemiological situation remains unstable due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Quarantine measures have led to a sharp reduction in face-to-face social contacts or to their complete absence. As a result, for most of the developed countries, computer-mediated communication has become the prior way to keep in touch with family, friends, colleagues, etc. These unprecedented circumstances bring our research to the fore, showing how ICTs can help maintain the social capital of Russians at the individual level.
Objective To determine how effective the use of ICTs is in maintaining of the social capital of Russians at the individual level during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Design.The study was conducted online by presenting the participants with a questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 300 respondents aged 18 to 71. All respondents are citizens of the Russian Federation. They answered questions, which determined the perceived COVID-19 threat level, the level of use of ICTs, and the degree of change in relationships with “strong” and “weak ties”.
Results. The direct relationship between the perceived coronavirus threat and individual social capital can be traced only in relationships with friends and residents of the country. There is no statistically significant relationship with family, colleagues, neighbors, and city residents. In the case of a high level of ICT use, the perceived coronavirus threat does not negatively correlate with the perceived closeness with family, friends, and residents of the country. At the same time, the role of ICT use in the relationship between the perceived coronavirus threat and perceived closeness with colleagues, neighbors and city residents has not been identified.
Conclusion. In general, the use of ICTs contributes to the maintenance of the social capital at the individual level during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Relevance. Due to the rapidly changing living conditions, self-regulation skills are the most important components of personality that allow to adapt to reality faster and organize activities in the most successful way. This becomes especially relevant for teenagers who are involved in a large number of classes and projects, in addition to their main activities at school.
Objectiveis to study the features of regulatory functions and their interrelations with various personality characteristics in adolescents engaged in scientifi c activities.
Study. The study involved 78 adolescents aged 14–17 years (Mage = 15, 96; SDage = 1.01) who were trained in the framework of the “Big Challenges” project of the SIRIUS educational Center in the direction of “Science’ in 2021. Several methods aimed at studying self-regulation, stress levels, subjective well-being and perfectionism in adolescents were chosen as diagnostic tools.
Results. It was shown that the level of self-regulation of adolescents in activity is better developed than their level of emotional self-regulation. It was also demonstrated that the level of general self-regulation in adolescents involved in science is signifi cantly interrelated with indicators of resilience and self-directed perfectionism.
Conclusion. The study confirmed the importance of studying the features of self-regulation in adolescents and revealed the need to develop practical recommendations for their development.
Background. Despite the prevalence of school bullying in Russia and data on the severity of the consequences for its participants, the Russian-language scientifi c literature lacks a systematic understanding of the prerequisites for bullying, which could serve as the basis for practical developments aimed at preventing bullying in educational organizations. This article aims to fill this gap and systematize longitudinal, regression and meta-analytic studies of predictors of bullying, cyberbullying and victimization.
Objective. The purpose of the article is to systematize data on predictors of school bullying and to model its escalation in school environment. To achieve this goal, a search, selection and theoretical analysis of a number of articles published over the past 5 years was carried out
Results. The performed theoretical analysis allows us to model the development of school bullying. The complex of individual-personal and environmental factors that increase the risk of bullying and victimization includes external behavioral and internal manifestations of schoolchildren, thoughts and judgements about themselves and others, social skills, personality traits, features of social contacts, perception of the school climate. Also, the risk factors can be attributed to a weak sense of belonging to school, a lack of support from peers and teachers, the peculiarity of social contacts and norms in the classroom. The peculiarities of upbringing and communication in the family and the attitude of parents of schoolchildren to aggression also play an important role in the emergence and escalation of bullying
Conclusion. The work carried out streamlines disparate ideas about the premises of bullying into a coherent picture that refl ects the complex nature of bullying predictors, and can be used as the basis for the development of preventive programs.
Background. Th e impostor phenomenon is the term used to describe high-performing individuals who fail to internalize their success in spite of their high achievements and experience constant fear that they will be found as frauds by their peers. The close links between the impostor phenomenon, perfectionism and professional motivation are oft en referred to, though no empirical studies of the nature of these links have been conducted.
Objective. The objective of this research is to study motivation and perfectionism as potential predictors of the impostor phenomenon in the work context.
Design. 320 working Russian respondents took part in this cross-sectional study. Th ey fi lled out the questionnaire containing three scales: Th e Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale, Th e Short Almost Perfect Scale (R. Slaney), Th e Scale of Professional Motivation (E. Osin, T. Ivanova, T. Gordeeva).
Results. Th e results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that maladaptive perfectionism and professional amotivation could be regarded as positive predictors of the impostor phenomenon in working Russian adults.
Conclusion. Th e results of the current study could be used in diagnostics and counselling of employees with maladaptive perfectionism and professional amotivation. Preventive measures aimed at adjusting employees’ attitudes to their professional obligations could prevent not only the development of the impostor phenomenon but a range of the related negative psychological and organizational outcomes.
Relevance. The article is devoted to the problem of monitoring the functional state of the operator, this topic has been and remains important, in particular, in the context of ensuring the safety of railway transport.
Purpose of the study. Analysis of the design and implementation of an automated telemechanical system for monitoring the wakefulness of railway drivers (TSMWRD), introduced in 1996, based on the registration of electrodermal activity (galvanic skin reaction).
Research objective. The selected method of monitoring the state of wakefulness and the algorithm of the operator’s actions in the event of diagnosing undesirable characteristics of the state during use (TSMWRD) can create additional stress conditions for drivers and increase the risk of accidents and violations of the rules.
Procedure and research methods. The research used the analysis of literature data. A qualitative empirical study was also carried out. It included a psychological analysis of the activities of modern railway drivers of various types, analysis of technical documentation, a method of conversation with train drivers, a method of structured interview with a group of class train drivers who are improving their qualifi cations (8 people).
Results. Modern automatic systems for monitoring the wakefulness of operators are considered, a description of the TSMWRD is given, the psychophysiological foundations of its application are discussed. Th e data of an empirical study are presented, proving the validity of the hypothesis that the use of the TSMWRD in the work of electric train drivers really creates additional problem situations and stressful conditions. As a result, the positive and negative aspects of the use of TSMWRD are presented, specifi c recommendations are given on its use and the appropriate training of drivers.
Conclusion. The analysis of the use of TSMWRD serves as an example of the importance of using engineering-psychological and ergonomic provisions in the design and implementation of new automated technical means of monitoring functional states in practice. Th eir implementation should be based on taking into account their infl uence on the operator’s simultaneous performance of his main professional activity.