Relevance. One of the main criteria of an athlete’s competitiveness and a condition for achieving high sports results is his ability to manage his functional state. Deterioration in functional state and decreased performance are often the result of an imbalance between sleep and wakefulness. The study of the features of the manifestation of sleep disorders in athletes is important not only for understanding the processes themselves, but also for the development of diagnostic procedures, preventive, corrective and rehabilitation programs.
The objective: to reveal the relationship between certain characteristics of sleep and the functional state of athletes. Method and sample. The relationship between the characteristics of sleep and the functional state of athletes was studied. The research program included diagnostics of the main components of the current functional state: well-being, activity, mood using the SAN method (Doskin et al.) as well as filling out a questionnaire with questions about the quantitative and qualitative state of sleep in athletes the night before. The sample consisted of 45 athletes – wrestlers and basketball players 17–19 years old. The collection of information took place before training sessions.
Research results. Difficulties with falling asleep on the eve of the examination had a negative impact on the mood and an integral indicator of the functional state of athletes, here was a tendency to a deterioration in well-being. A light and quick morning awakening is positively associated with high rates of well-being and activity, as well as with a moderate improvement in mood. Most of the subjects experienced difficulty waking up, which negatively affected the parameters of the functional state. Waking up during the night prevents the feeling of proper rest and reduces the activity of athletes. The results obtained by us are consistent with the results of studies of a number of specialists on this topic.
Conclusions. The study of the peculiarities of the functional state in connection with some characteristics of the sleep of athletes gives grounds to single out two factors as significant: difficulties with falling asleep at night and difficult awakening in the morning. The study is pilot, and therefore the results obtained should be considered as material for further work in this direction.
Background. The COVID-19 pandemic, along with a threat to somatic health and human life, poses a challenge to people’s mental health. The search for predictors of the negative consequences of the pandemic for the mental health is an urgent task for the psychological community.
Objective. to test the assumption that the psychological impact of a pandemic may be more significant for people with a potentially more severe course of the disease and an increased likelihood of death (representatives of the risk group), than that of the general population, and can be accompanied by more pronounced psychoemotional disorders.
Design. In the first two months after the introduction of restrictive measures for the COVID-19 epidemic, an online survey of the population was conducted on social networks using valid methods suitable for screening studies. We used a specially developed questionnaire and included psycho-diagnostic techniques in the “Google questionnaire” format. The study involved 449 people aged 12 to 82 years old, average age 30 years old, moda1 – 22 years old. The sample was divided into the main and control groups. The main group – the risk group – was 81 people, the size of the control group or the conventionally named “health group” – 368 people.
Results. It was revealed that the commitment to self-isolation is not associated with the respondents’ belonging to the risk group. Despite the discovered connection between belonging to the risk group and the fear of contracting coronavirus infection, psycho-emotional disorders at a statistically significant level of significance were more often diagnosed in the “health group” (45%), and 26% in the risk group. Among the members of the risk group, a high level of experience of loneliness is less common (1% versus 8% for the “health group”).
Conclusion. On the whole, the results showed a significant negative effect of the new conditions on the mental state of people. The hypothesis that people from the risk group turned out to be more susceptible to psycho-emotional distress during the period of self-isolation has not been confirmed. The most active part of the population appeared to be most vulnerable to distress. For them the current situation turned out to be frustrating to their usual needs.
Background. of the article is determined by the need to study educational processes and the educational environment in the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic in particular.
The objective of the study is to analyze the characteristics of the educational environment determined by the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic and the requirements of self-isolation and distance learning, as well as psychological threats to the safety of the educational environment in these new conditions.
Design A study of to the security of the educational environment in a pandemic was conducted. These threats were identified in an exploratory study in the first month of the self-isolation regime (April 2020). We analyzed information provided by junior psychology university students (n = 31); teachers (n = 19) and psychologists of Moscow schools (n = 6); schoolchildren – pupils of 5–7 grades (n = 76) and parents of schoolchildren (n = 18). All information was collected remotely, provided on condition of anonymity and voluntariness. Discourse processing was carried out by the method of content analysis and thematic analysis with subsequent expert assessment. The chosen methodological plan of qualitative research allowed the use of individual experiences as indicators of mass consciousness for the analysis of collective states.
Results. It was revealed that the current situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly changes the concept of «educational environment». The traditional characteristics of the school educational environment are complemented by factors resulting from the process of “expansion” and “shift” of the educational environment, on the one hand from the school environment to the home environment, and on the other hand from the offline format to the online format. The following new perspectives of the educational environment security defined by the situation of self-isolation are highlighted: distance learning; stay in a home environment, diminishing of direct communication; intensification of communication in the network; forced interaction with the immediate environment; the need to coordinate interaction between teachers and parents; the importance of Internet communication; dynamic processes in the family as in a small group, etc. Situations linked to the dynamics of family and interpersonal relationships, health, the physical environment at home, and the online format of the educational process cause the most important emotions in all participants of the educational process during self-isolation.
Conclusions. The program of activities of the educational support service in the school environment should be supplemented with experience and new practices of life in isolation. In a situation of «expanded» educational space and distance learning, educational policy is obliged, while leaving school a priority, to take into account the emergence of new priority subjects in the educational environment that require attention.
Relevance. The introduction of quarantine measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020 has dramatically changed the format of social life leaving an imprint on social interactions within large and small groups. Moving school and college students to the distance education format and the employees of many enterprises to the remote format of work has brought changes both at the level of relationships within school teams and at the level of family relationships.
The objective of the study is to determine the external and internal factors of mutual understanding between parents and children during the period of isolation.
Design. The sample consisted of 214 parents of schoolchildren living in the cities of the Central Federal District, mainly in the Kaluga Region. The survey was conducted online in April-May 2020 and used Google Forms. External stress factors (housing conditions, financial problems, the sufficiency of computer technology and the quality of Internet connection for remote work / study for all family members) as well as the degree of mutual understanding were studied using a questionnaire. To assess internal factors TIPI-RU, “SHPANA” (PANAS), Brief Cope questionnaires and a questionnaire of behavior style in conflict were used.
Based on the results of the study a model for the indirect influence of external stressors (financial problems, the sufficiency of computer technology and the quality of Internet connection) on the mutual understanding of children and parents was developed. This influence is mediated by affective states, coping strategies and the style of behavior of parents in conflict. Such personal qualities of the parents as conscientiousness and emotional stability are also important. Mutual understanding between parents and children is facilitated by a positive emotional attitude of parents, their use of coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, planning, humor, acceptance, as well as styles of behavior in a conflict aimed at reconciliation and compromise.
Conclusions. The results of the study showed the need for a differentiated and individual approach to the study of the psychological reactions of the population to the situation of a pandemic and quarantine. Many families perceived the current situation as an opportunity to devote more time to communication and self-development, to the development of children and relationships. The results obtained may reflect the regional specifics – the study was carried out in cities with a less stringent (compared to Moscow) isolation regime during the quarantine period.
Relevance. The coronavirus pandemic has had a significant negative impact on the mental health of the population leading to an increase in anxiety disorders, depression, sleep disorders, eating disorders and alcohol abuse. This situation urgently demanded the introduction of a new method of providing psychological assistance, taking into account the inaccessibility of its full-time forms (“face to face”) in an epidemic.
The objective of the article is to acquaint Russian mental health professionals with the specifics of the application and the effectiveness of short-term distance cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in minimizing viral anxiety associated with the coronavirus pandemic.
Results. The general specificity of conducting distance cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is described, its advantages and disadvantages are highlighted. The components of remote examination of the mental state of a patient with viral anxiety are described. The modules are presented and the effectiveness of the E.M. Anderson short-term protocol of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is shown. It is aimed at influencing the patient’s anxiety caused by the virus by minimizing dysfunctional strategies for regulating negative emotions (anxious rumination, catastrophization, health anxiety) and replacing them with more flexible ones (acceptance and responsibility, a sense of optimal awareness, a positive time perspective for the future, decatastrophization).
Conclusions. The available data show that in the digital age, the use of adapted distance protocols of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy can be an effective tactic for reducing dysfunctional viral anxiety by promoting adaptive emotion regulation strategies, which has significant potential for improving public health in Russia.
Background. The characteristics and predictors of proactive coping still remain insufficiently studied topics in psychology. At the same time, the study of a person’s perception and assessment of possible future-related difficulties becomes more and more relevant in the context of accelerating social changes.
The objective of the research is to identify culturally specific and culturally universal patterns in the choice of proactive coping strategies, depending on the interaction of personal and situational determinants.
Design. The research was conducted in the form of an online survey involving students from Moscow (N = 311) and from Tashkent (N = 272) as respondents. Participants in the study consistently completed questionnaires to assess the preferences of various strategies of proactive coping, the level of general self-efficacy, the degree of tolerance to uncertainty, and the current experience of positive / negative affect.
Results. In the course of the study it was revealed that the previously adapted Russian-language version of the methodology of proactive coping strategies by E. Greenglass has cultural invariance. Comparison of respondents from Russia and Uzbekistan in terms of the severity of proactive coping strategies showed that Moscow respondents prefer strategies of seeking information and emotional support to a greater extent than Tashkent ones. Testing the model of interaction of situational and personal variables showed that it is the interaction of emotional state and self-efficacy that determines the preference for strategies of proactive, reflexive, preventive coping and strategic planning strategies both in Russia and in Uzbekistan. The interaction of tolerance to uncertainty with emotional state positively predicts only the preference for a proactive coping strategy in both samples and negatively predicts the choice of a strategic planning strategy among respondents from Uzbekistan.
Conclusion. The obtained results demonstrated more cultural versatility than cultural specificity in favoring different strategies for proactive coping. Two directions of further research are possible: conducting a meaningful analysis of the image of difficult situations from the point of view of both cultural specificity and cross-cultural invariance. The second direction is expanding the spectrum of the studied determinants of proactive coping, including possible social values and personal value orientations.
Background. The COVID-19 virus has created a global situation of unpredictability, uncertainty and crisis. Each person lived through the period of self-isolation in different ways. Hardiness, as well as belonging to a particular country plays an important role as a personal resource in this adaptation.
The objective of the study was a comparative analysis of the severity of hardiness in young people in a situation of self-isolation during the spread of coronavirus in Russia and Israel. We assumed as a hypothesis that the level of hardiness in Russia and Israel would be comparable, due to the approximately equal number of factors (in all their variety) of instability, especially in a situation of an additional distress factor – the COVID-19 pandemic.
Design. The research was carried out through Internet resources. The sample consisted of 40 people: 20 from Russia (8 men and 12 women) and 20 from Israel (10 men and 10 women). The age of the subjects ranged from 25 to 40 years (the average age of Russians is 29.1, the average age of Israelis is 31.8). Psycho-diagnostics of hardiness was carried out using S.Maddi’s Hardiness Test (translation and adaptation by D.A. Leontiev, E.I. Rasskazova).
Results. It was revealed that the general level of hardiness and its three separate components (“involvement”, “control”, “risk taking”) is slightly higher among young people in Israel than among citizens of Russia. Statistically significant differences (Uemp = 64 (Ucr = 114 at p ≤ 0.01; 138 at p ≤ 0.05) were found only in terms of “risk taking”.
Conclusions. The hypothesis that there are significant differences in the level of hardiness among young people living in Russia and Israel during the period of selfisolation was partially confirmed. The components of “involvement”, “control” and the general level of hardiness are just slightly higher in residents of Israel than those of Russia, but the component of “risk taking” is significantly higher in residents of Israel.
Relevance of the article. COVID-19 is a serious global problem, that humanity is facing today. Different countries provide various measures to confront the epidemic. But not only measures differ from country to country, but people’s attitude to this problem is also quite different. In Japan the number of victims is relatively low, and it can be suggested that several socio-psychological factors of the Japanese society underlie this phenomenon.
Aim of the current research is to describe psychological measures of confronting COVID-19 in Japan, and to analyze religious, cultural and psychological features of the Japanese people, that could predeterminate the effectiveness of measures conducted by the Japanese government to confront the epidemic.
Course of the research. Current article is devoted to the two main features of Japanese policy confronting COVID-19: sanitary masks and self-restriction policy (jishuku).
The attitude of the Japanese people to the epidemic, and the measures conducted by the government are analyzed from psychological point of view. Also, basic social and psychological factors that supposedly helped to control the epidemic and the features of governmental policy in confronting COVID-19 are described.
Results. Important feature of the Japan’s anti-COVID-19 policy was an absence of strict measures suppressing individual freedom. But in spite of that, government’s appeal for the mask use and social distance was carefully followed by the people. It can be probably explained by a historically based tendency of the Japanese people to conduct themselves in accordance with the social rules, a daily habit of sanitary masks usage, and also a special attitude to cleanliness and hygiene.
Conclusion. Fight against COVID-19 requires systematic, coordinated and constructive approach, use of several scientific disciplines, human resources and technological solutions. Probably the Japanese experience in this problem would help international community to confront epidemic.
Relevance. The current situation of the pandemic and a number of other crisis situations in modern society have shown the insufficient development of the methodology of clinical psychology which for a long time has been focused on the study of various kinds of clinical groups, the creation of single techniques, individual correction and psychotherapy. As it turned out, such a multidisciplinary and mostly naturalistic organization of clinical psychology does not meet the problems that arise in the modern mass information society, in particular in crisis situations. The study shows that cultural-historical clinical psychology meets criteria of multiple challenges.
The objective of the article is to analyze the possibilities for the development of clinical psychology in a crisis situation of a pandemic, to compare the possibilities and ways of both traditional and cultural-historical psychology to respond to the challenges of new social and cultural realities. Our task in this research was to broadly present the main directions of development of clinical psychology with an orientation towards increasing compliance with the requirements of modern culture.
Results. A number of trends in the development of clinical psychology, its progress in the direction of cultural-historical clinical psychology are outlined. The possibilities of a shift from ascertaining studies to anticipatory and project ones are shown. This type of a shift means moving from the study of facts and data correlations to the study of cultural and historical mechanisms of the formation of disorders and psycho-techniques of corrective and preventive influence. The prospects for the move of culturalhistorical psychology in the direction from the receptive study of clinical groups to the control of the formation of patho-psychological phenomena in large social groups and information spaces are outlined.
Conclusions. A new field of methodological and ontological developments is presented with the aim of creating a systematic applied cultural-historical psychology that can actively and in anticipatory manner answer the questions of modern society and culture. The research has shown the possibility of involving this area of psychological science in solving urgent practical problems arising during the pandemic and other crisis situations.
Background. Our understanding of the world is largely based on the image of the native state, i.e. 'a small homeland' that shapes the development of a person, and identifies their social identity. The development of the information society provides more and more powerful tools for the media to influence the recipient's view of the world and representations of the human society as a whole. A man has to get all the information about the territory of the rest of their country, except for'the small homeland', via the media content. This content is cropped up with stereotypes and leads to the disintegration of society. Therefore, it is important to study the features of such media influence, their strength and validity.
Objective is to study regional images of Russia among young people from different Russian regions, and to identify the media role in shaping of regional images and image of Russia as a whole.
Design. This pilot research has a limited sample. 30 recipients (Mage=22.6 years, SD=2.78; 11 males from 15 regions of Russia) took part in this research.
The methods included a survey and a series of detailed interviews, psycho-semantic scaling and projective methods. The psycho-semantic research assumed description of the following regional images: the North of Russia, Central Russia, the South of Russia, the Northern Caucasus, the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia, the Far East.
Results. It is shown statistically that participants of the research tend to evaluate their personal views differently from those that, they believe, are shaped through the media. The images generated by the media are rather positive and point mainly to the advantages of territories, not to mention their possible disadvantages. The majority of respondents have very little personal experience of interacting with Russian regions. Their understanding of regions mainly correspond to the regional images shaped through the media. Moreover, these images are stereotypes and highlight the emotional side. A categorical structure of the perception significantly differs in factor content from the structures shown in the study results of an integral image of Russia and separate states (Matveeva, 2010; Mitina, Petrenko, 2009). It has its own specific features and is not reduced in the aggregate to the overall image of Russia.
Conclusion. When building regional images and the overall image of Russia, the respondents focus on the moral evaluation which helps to construct their personal image, and then they go on with the representations shaped through the media. These image of Russian region differ from the overall image of Russia. The paper represents the results of a pilot study, therefore, the results can hardly be extrapolated to a wider sample, but they can be considered in further research.
Background. Imagination is necessary to create a plastic image in the theatre, choreography, cinema, and aesthetic sports. There are studies of the psychophysiology of imagination in the process of artistic creation using EEG, fMRI, and stabilometric platform. However, comprehensive studies of method acting using objective quantitative methods have not become widespread.
The Objective of the study was to reveal the relationship between stabilometric and electrophysiological parameters in actors when imagining the two opposed objects, the tower and the jellyfish, while maintaining a vertical posture.
Design. The study was conducted over two days on 12 volunteers (4 males and 8 females aged 20-22), students of the Higher School of Performing Arts (K.Raikin Theater School). Asobjects for imagination and mental transformation the participants were o ered two images: a jelly sh and a high stable tower. The tasks for the actors were set in a randomized order. Participants were asked to complete the “Romberg Test” on a stabilometric platform (European feet position), and mentally represent a behaviour (movements, actions, emotions) that an actor could perform on a stage to show a given image. All actions had to be performed mentally only, while the original vertical position of the body should not be changed. Simultaneously, the multichannel EEG was recorded.
Results. The normalized index of the mechanical energy (Av) and the surface area of the centre of pressure uctuations (S) were significantly lower while maintaining a vertical posture in the process of representing the tower compared to the representation of the jelly sh (p <0.05, Wilcoxon Test). Other stabilometric parameters were also lower in the image of the tower but did not reach the level of signi cance (p> 0.05). As to EEG spectral parameters, the representation of the jelly sh compared to the tower was characterized by a signi cantly lower power frequency of 3-4 Hz in the right hemisphere, frequencies of 8-9 Hz in the anterior temporal leads symmetrically (except for Fp1 and Fp2), 11-12 Hz symmetrically except for the posterior leads (O1, O2, T5, T6), 12-13 Hz in the right hemisphere except for Fp1 and Fp2, and, nally, less high-frequency power of 20- 21 Hz on almost all leads (except Fp1 and Fp2), 24-25 Hz on the right (except Fp2) and frequencies above 24 Hz in both occipital leads (all p <0.01).
Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that the mental representation of the tower provides a more stable posture and reduced the physiological cost (energy consumption) of this process. There were also identified some differences in the central mechanisms (according to the EEG parameters) of maintaining a vertical posture with the mental representation of the two opposed images. The main di erences between the EEG in the image of the tower and the jelly sh were observed in the central and parietal leads, corresponding to the localization of the somatosensory cortex, vestibular areas, and the body scheme representation. The results of the study could be used to objectify the effectiveness of different programs of ideomotor training of actors.
Background. It is a generally shared belief that “Bednaya Liza” (1792; "Poor Liza") of N.М. Karamzin is a classic example of the Russian sentimental school. Actually it is not sufficient just to attribute this story to the particular genre. A careful reading of “Poor Lisa” we will appear to allow identifying basic, archetypal psychological mechanisms that determine the characteristics of modern artistic perception in a latent form. The work continues the line of psychological research on the interpretation of a literary text identified by L.S. Vygotsky as ‘reader's criticism’. A number of psychological techniques and hermeneutic methods of text analysis are used.
The Objective is to reveal explicit or implicit literary techniquesused by Karamzin, e.g. plot construction, speech and behaviour characters, description of the landscape, etc., and also to consider the psychological characteristics of the real behaviour of the characters, i.e. motives, affective reactions, behavioural norms, social expectations, moral and ethical assessments, worldview, etc.
Design. The paper provides an artistic and real analysis of the story used by the author to play two games with the reader. Both of them are played by the author and the reader simultaneously, where both artistic and real plains are combined on "one playing ground", i.e. the ground of the literary piece, which making different combinations determine the reader's experience.
Results. A number of psychological phenomena are highlighted that are quite clearly manifested in the perception of the story "Poor Liza". The phenomena are compared with the text features and those artistic techniques that generate them. The issues concerning the study of authentic psychological mechanisms, authentic artistic experience and eliciting their meaning when reading a story are considered. The author brings together the explanatory models and concepts used in philological and psychological works in order to clarify the genuine sentimental feelings
Background. Nowadays, the research of playing activity in the home environment is insufficient. Meanwhile, theoretical and empirical analysis has shown the importance of the play in the development of executive functions, and the results obtained in the study can be used as practical recommendations for preschool specialists and parents of senior preschool age children.
The Objective is to study the relationship between the components of executive functions and children preferences in the play and its duration at home.
Design. Children aged 5-6 years (N=163, 52% of males) and their mothers participated in the study. In the first stage, the development of the following components of executive functions in preschool children was assessed: inhibition, verbal and visual working memory and cognitive flexibility. Information on children's play preferences at home were obtained as a result of parents filling in a specialized questionnaire, which contained questions about the duration of play and its content.
Results. Analysis of play preferences revealed that the majority of preschool children in our sample have favorite toys (85%): males prefer games in constructing materials and transport, while females prefer puzzles and sets for creativity, as well as play with soft toys and dolls, and also pretending ‘family’ members games. It was found that girls successfully coped with tasks on cognitive flexibility, inhibition and verbal working memory than boys. The most preferable type of games for senior preschoolers are board games and active games, and also construction sets. Children who prefer constructing materials and transport were less successful at cognitive flexibility task than children who don't play construction games. Children who prefer soft toys and sets of figures perform a lower level of spatial working memory than children who prefer other kinds of games. Children who prefer to play board games have a higher level of inhibition. Children whose favorite character often changes were more successful in inhibition task than children who have one steady favourite character.
Conclusion. The study showed that board games, puzzles, and playing with different subjects and pretending various characters have the most developing potential for older preschoolers. No differences in game duration depending on the level of development of executive functions were found.
Background. The results of the contemporary research on the psychological characteristics of graduates of closed institutions indicate that adolescents who are brought up in closed institutions have distorted ideas about the family and range from idealized to supernegative. After their graduating from closed institutions, the ideas about the family lie in the basis for establishing their own family, resulting in graduates creating reliable family relationships, leading an asocial lifestyle, sending their children to the same institutions that they have graduated from. The study of the causes of family image distortions in adolescents left without parental care will allow us to work with the causes and, render aid help graduates of closed institutions to shape a complete, structured family image and thus help them socialize in the human community.
The Objective. Research on the relationship between identity and family image among graduates of closed institutions. We assumed that there is a connection between identity, in terms of its components, and the family image of graduates of closed institutions.
Design. The paper analyzes personal identity and the family image in closed institution graduates, as well as the relationship between the components of identity and the family image of graduates of closed institutions.
Results. The hypothesis was confirmed. The personal identity in terms of structural components (the communicative ‘self’ and the material ‘self’) is associated with the image of the family in closed institution graduates.
Conclusions.The study revealed the need to study the relationship between the components of personal identity and family image.
Background. Neuropsychological diagnosis and rehabilitation are among the fundamental practical tasks facing a clinical psychologist in accordance with applicable legal documents. The modern rehabilitation system is a partnership between patients with brain injuries, their families and various specialists involved in the rehabilitation process. Sick patients and their family continue living in the society of other people, and they have to solve issues of social interaction in a new status and with new limited opportunities. Cognitive and emotional, psychological and behavioural problems are interconnected, and neuropsychological rehabilitation should be appeal to all these problems.
The Objectives of the paper are: analysing and generalization of diagnostic and rehabilitation experience accumulated in neuropsychological rehabilitation; identifying of quality criteria for neuropsychological diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients with impaired cognitive functions in brain injuries, which should be followed by a practicing clinical psychologist in the process of rehabilitation work.
Results. Based on the analysis of applied research and practical guidelines, the recommended diagnostic tools for identifying thinking disorders are presented, the main directions and methods of rehabilitation work with thinking disorders that have been shown to be effective, including the organization of the dynamics of thought processes, the organization of the operational side of thinking, the organization of the regulatory side of thinking.
Conclusion. The findings can sustain practical work of a clinical psychologist with patients with disturbed thinking and brain damage. The findings outline the main directions of diagnostic and rehabilitation work for the practicing psychologist.
Background. The paper presents results of a study about perception of school bulling among Russian students. Being a type of aggressive behavior, bullying needs to be interrupted by psychologists, teachers and parents, preventive intervention is also required. However, there are few studies about dynamics of bulling perception in males and females a few years after graduation. It is during this period that not only participation, but also the intensity of the experience of school bullying as a significant event of the past, can affect the further choice of a career, success in life, and psychological and emotional state.
Objective. The study is aimed at solving several problems. The prevalence of different types of bullying (social aggression, verbal bullying, physical bullying, cyberbullying) in high school was analyzed, and bullying was assessed in terms of the distribution of roles. We also studied the influence of socio-demographic factors of bullying and conducted a comparative analysis of two age groups (high school students and primary school students) and a retrospective analysis of students' perception of school bullying.
Design. The sample included 700 junior students from a number of Russian cities (males – 12%; females – 88%). During the research, the following methods were used: online questionnaire, methods for evaluating bullying (Adolescent Peer Relation Instrument, Social Bullying Involvement Scales, Cyberbullying and Online Aggression Survey).
Findings show, that every second school student took part in school bulling, and there are positive correlations between bulling roles (aggressor, victim, witness). There are gender and socio-economic differences between respondents who were involved in bulling or avoided participation in bullying. With age, there is a tendency to decrease the number of respondents who participated in physical bullying, however, there is still a high percentage of participation in other types of bullying.
Conclusion. High level of adolescent bulling underscores the necessity of preventive intervention at school of including teenagers in bulling underscores the necessary of preventive intervention at schools.
Background. 75 years passed after the Second World War finished. What do we remember about these years? What are the sources of our memories? What do we know about the life and activity of our teacher in psychology?
The Objective of the paper is to analyze the professional activity of the famous psychologists, future professors of the Moscow State University Psychology Department during the Second World War.
Design. The paper describes the professional activity of famous Russian psychologists (A.R. Luria, A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Halperin, A.V. Zaporozhets, B.V. Zeigarnik and others) aimed to rehabilitation of brain damaged Russian soldiers. The value of this work for the development of the psychological science and for the mentality of psychologists all over the world is underlined.
The work of the remarkable scientists in the rear evacuation recovery hospitals is described: in a hospital organized by A.R. Luria at the sanatorium in the village of Kisegach near the city of Chelyabinsk in the Southern Urals, as well as in the hospital in the village of Kourovka near Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), whose supervisor was A.N. Leontiev. It is shown how in Kisegach they solved the problems of cognitive impairment in wounded soldiers, and in Kourovka they were engaged in the restoration of motor functions. It is emphasized that, along with enormous practical activity, psychologists conducted significant theoretical work, in which the results of practice were generalized and analyzed.
The paper informs the reader about today’s psychologists around the world and how they appreciate the contribution of Russian psychologists who worked during the World War II and honour their memory. The V International Congress in memory of A.R. Luria, dedicated to the 115th anniversary of the birth and 40th anniversary of the death of Alexander Romanovich Luria.
Conclusion. The knots of memory do not only unite the generations but also become a fulcrum for all of us in understanding the personal sense and value of the Psychological Activity.
Based on the study of rehabilitation processes, Leontyev’s theory of activity and psychological practice proved that the analysis of mental functioning disorders is impossible without a systematic approach to the facts revealed.
Background. As a rule, something complicated and threatening to a person is associated with borderline disorder, something that even psychotherapists sometimes cause concern and an ambivalent attitude. Therefore, an understanding of the internal processes of a borderline disorder is especially important, as it reduces fears and promotes better interaction with people who live with this disorder.
The Objective of is to phenomenologically uncover the core of borderline, to present the psychotherapeutic methods of working with borderline patients.
Design. The disorder is described on the level of symptoms in an overview and is understood as a relationship disorder both inwardly as well as outwardly. A phenomenological approach to the specific suffering of Borderline patients reveals, in the depth of this impulsive, intense and unstable personality, an unendurable pain connected to the inner loss of self. The phenomenon of Borderline proves to be a fundamental being split accompanied by a split experience of the world. In this tension, the rearing up becomes comprehensible as a psychodynamic struggle essential for survival. Due to the painfulness and threat of these lacking and injured ego-structures this dynamic can only slowly be dismantled in therapy and replaced by increasing personal behavior. Finally, main features of treatment of the specific problems of Borderline happening are presented.
Conclusion. A professional approach allows breaking this destructive circle and offer patients (and their families) development prospects. This is the greatest task of psychotherapy. Such work can be a source of in-depth experience for the therapist that can be gained through successful therapy.
Background. Studying motivation, value orientations and personal qualities of volunteers in the digital world is very relevant today. It is designed to promote the broader involvement of youth in social volunteer projects. Participation in volunteering projects satisfies the needs of the individual in self-actualization, and also develops maturity and social recognition.
The Objectiveof the paper is to provide the reader with a theoretical analysis of volunteering as an event, in particular digital volunteering of today’s youth.
Design. The major classifications of motives for participation in volunteering are analyzed. The features of semantic aspects of youth participation in volunteer activities are discussed. The phenomenon of digital volunteering as a contemporary aid event is considered. The types of digital volunteering activities are proposed. The main advantages and opportunities of digital volunteering are presented, in comparison with the traditional form of voluntary activity.
Conclusion. The issues of psychological characteristics of a person choosing digital volunteering as a type of voluntary activity remain undisclosed. The prospect of empirical research should lie in the study of the moral and ethical values of youth involvement in digital volunteer work as citizenship and social responsibility.
Background. Virtual reality (VR) is becoming more and more widespread in various spheres of human life – in science, education, industry, and leisure. In particular, children are increasingly using VR. However, there is an insignificant number of methodological studies on the effects of virtual reality on children.
The Objective of this paper is to consider virtual reality technologies as a tool of developing a modern child. In accordance with the goal, the tasks were set to analyze the results of the application, the possibilities and limitations of using VR as a tool that mediates the process of mental development.
Design. The paper considers the qualitative features of Virtual Reality technologies in contrast to other digital technologies. The analysis of the VR impact on children of different ages in terms of finding the limits of VR applicability is given. It is noted that immersion in virtual environments of children of different age groups occurs with varying degrees of intensity, which is first of all determined by cognitive functions development in these age groups. The positive effects of VR application as an educational tool in the digital environment are highlighted. As a result, it was shown that successful immersion of a child in the virtual world and effective immersion means requires the development of adaptation skills to the new form of the surrounding world, where successfulness is possible only when shaping relevant operations and actions.
Results. The analysis of the existing results of the VR research as a means of developing a modern child has revealed a number of significant facts that determine further methodological research in this area. These include a shift in emphasis in the VR studies from consideration of risks and negative consequences towards qualitative positive effects from their application in order to overcome the limitations of using digital technologies that are considered classical.
Conclusion. VR has significant prospects both as a research tool and as a developing tool relevant to the evolving digital space.
Background. Cyberaggression is widespread phenomenon in the online environment, that doesn’t cause direct physical harm but has a lasting negative impact on the psychological state of participants.
Objective. The study analyzes the relationship between offline and online aggression, the prevalence of various types of cyberaggression among adolescents and youth and their emotional experience, as well as parents' awareness of it.
Design. The study comprises of 3395 participants: 1554 adolescents aged 12-17, 736 young people aged 18-30, and 1105 parents of adolescents aged 12-17 from 8 federal districts of Russia. Respondents answered questions about the relationship between online and offline aggression, the collision with cyberaggression and emotional response to it.
Results. The school is ahead of the Internet as a space of encounter with hostile situations. Most respondents believe that people are more likely to experience hostile situations in real life than online. Most adolescents face different types of cyberaggression. Adolescents are more likely to encounter flaming, trolling and cyberhate, and less likely to encounter cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Youth is more likely to encounter flaming. The least emotionally significant situations are flaming and cyberhate. Trolling causes strong feelings in every third adolescent, cyberstalking in every fifth, cyberbullying in every second. At the same time, parents are not aware of their children's experience with cyberaggression and the intensity of their experience.
Conclusion.The spread of various types of cyberaggression and the emotional response to them require the development of differentiated approaches to the prevention of various situations of cyberaggression and the development of specific coping strategies in the collision with them.
Background. The increase of public satisfaction with the quality of medical care is one of the Russian healthcare issues. A method for increasing public satisfaction lies in modernizing the model of medical care, i.e. a shift from the paternalistic approach to the patient-oriented one in medical counseling. For its successful implementation, the image of the patient in the attending physician is of great importance.
Objective. We hypothesized that targeted doctor training in professional communication skills will cause a qualitatively-quantitative change in the semantic content of the patient’s image. Therefore, the objective is studying changes of the patient’s image in medical students in the course of their participation in quasi-professional activities.
Design. In order to test the hypothesis, we conducted an experimental study that included 250 (78.2% females, 21.8% males) first-year students of the Faculty of Medicine and Prevention, the Ural State Medical University. The average age of the participants is 18.8 years. To eliminate distortions in the responses of the participants, the patient’s image was studied from the perspective of a psychosemantic research approach. An important criterion in choosing an approach and a research method was the desire to identify implicit and in most cases indirect characteristics of the patient’s image. To study the subjective semantic spaces representing a set of subjective systems of meanings in relation to a patient, the method of bipolar and unipolar personality semantic differential was used
Results. The results of factorial and comparative analysis (T-Student) by the methodology “Bipolar and unipolar personality semantic differential” showed that the content of the patient’s image as a semantic space of the world’s image of doctors with targeted training in professional communication skills tends to change when performing educational and professional tasks of clinical practice.
Conclusion. The contents of the semantic category “patient image” is significantly expanding filled with various semantic meanings. Accordingly, various changes in the behaviour of future doctors turn to be possible. The results of the study can serve as the basis for integrating a targeted training of professional communication skills into the medical educational programs, which will increase the quality of doctors’ preparedness for practical activities and help increase public satisfaction with the quality of medical care.
Available Online: 31.03.2020
Background. In today’s science, the issue of changes in the internal affairs bodies management is one of the most crucial ones. In carrying out their duties the department heads must protect the rights and legitimate interests of citizens in accordance with the law. They are allowed to restrict the rights of citizens if it is required by their professional duties. That is why further development of a scientifically based approach to high department heads in the internal affairs bodies as a trigger for transformation processes should be recognized as absolutely relevant.
Objective. Identifying major personality traits required for high executive posts in the internal affairs body; identifying the most significant personality traits and management style of the department heads in the territorial internal affairs bodies; studying individual psychological determinants of career adaptability of internal affairs bodies department heads.
Design. The empirical research was carried out in the internal affairs agencies of the Krasnoyarsk Krai territorial unit and included three stages: 1. Conducting a survey among employees to identify the most significant personality traits required for high executive posts in the internal affairs body. The sample included 250 respondents with work experience from 3 to 25 years. 2. Conducting a survey aimed at determining the management style. The sample included 44 respondents. 3. Studying individual career adaptability of internal affairs bodies department heads. The following methods were used: “Adaptivity” (multi-factor personality test) method by A.G. Maklakov and S.V. Chermyanin was used to diagnose social adaptation; R. Cattel’s polyfactorial personal questionnaire; G. Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) questionnaire; A.Kokoshkarova Questionnaire for neuroticism and tendentious personal deviations (QNTPD); Bass-Darki aggression methods. To determine neuropsychic stability, the “Prognosis” method was used. The sample included 44 respondents.
Results. The level of career adaptability in department heads of the territorial internal affairs agencies of the Krasnoyarsk Krai Territory is directly related to neuropsychic stability, which is due to the presence of significant correlations with the “Prognosis” method (0.8267). There are significant correlations of career adaptability with indicators of neurasthenia (0.4398) and vegetative disorders (0.4121) according to Kokoshkarova method. According to the results of the mathematical-statistical analysis of the relationships of career adaptability with the Cattell method, significant correlations were identified: C (-0.3659) – increase in emotional stability with the development of career adaptability; L (0.2758) – confidence; H (-0,2617) – leader’s courage and psychological readiness for justified risk; M (0,1922) – adaptability to everyday service and practical views protects the manager from losing touch with reality; N (0.1198) – career adaptability develops, straightforward behavior substitutes avoiding excessive scheming or inappropriate flexibility.
Conclusion. The results can be used by practical psychologists when working with department heads of the territorial internal affairs agencies located in the republics of Hakassia, Tyva, Altay, Krasnoyarsk Krai, in the regions of Irkutsk, Kemerov, Tomsk. Further research to determine the impact of management conditions on transformations in the department heads ‘s personality is to be conducted.
Background. The paper is based on specifics of the professional activity of specialists of the State Inspectorate of Small Size Vessels of Russian EMERCOM (SISSV) is a highly demanding job that requires specific individual psychological features to successfully fulfill their duties. Such individual psychological features are important for experts, and also for candidates to the positions in the GIMS used as recruitment criteria.
The Objective. of the study is to identify job skills that determine the professional effectiveness of SISSV experts, to identify the relationship between job skills and career success and to determine psychological indicators strongly associated with success.
Design. An expert survey (N = 40) was conducted to determine psychological indicators that contribute to professional success of SISSV experts. We carried out psychological assessment of acting SISSV experts (N = 275) to determine the presence and the level of necessary skills. Based on expert assessments, the inspectors were assigned to either successful or unsuccessful groups. The resulting polar groups were compared using Mann-Whitney criterion. Correlation analysis (Spearman) was used to access the strength of association between professional success and job skills. We also used factor and regression analyses to model the structure of job skills associated with professional success of acting SISSV specialists and job applicants.
Results. allowed to establish reliable differences between the polar groups on following characteristics (p ≤ 0.05): intelligence, abstract and operative thinking, intellectual liability, attention characteristics (volume, concentration, selection, distribution). They were defined as job skills for SISSV experts. The results of correlation analysis (p = 0.01, p = 0.05) showed that the specialists professional success depended on the presence and level of formation of job skills. We determined the structure of job skills associated with professional success.
Conclusion. The obtained results may be used to optimize the processes of psychological monitoring and psychological selection of the acting specialists of SISSV of Russian EMERCOM and applicant for the position.
Background. Registration and analysis of bioelectric activity of the brain while performing the mental task allows us to obtain objective information about the physiological processes of the brain.
The Objective of the paper is to analyse session dynamics of changes in Theta rhythm(4-8 Hz), Delta rhythm (1-3.99 Hz), as well as slow (0.99-0.1 Hz) biorhythms of the human brain by registering the spectrum of the difference function of bioelectric activity (FBA) in the process of positional computer game.
Design. The efficiency of positional computer game of 65 female subjects in the age range of 18-58 years was analyzed. In 7 players in the course of four sessions of the game, the bioelectric activity of the brain in the range from 8 Hz to 0.13 Hz was studied.
Results. It is shown that the difference function of bioelectric activity at the significance level p=0.05 differs for each hemisphere in the frequency range. The changes in the frequencies of excitation (maxima) and inhibition (minima) of the difference function of bioelectric activity of the brain with an increase in the number of game sessions in each hemisphere in the ranges of theta, Delta and slow rhythms are revealed. A psychophysiological model of the player’s operations is proposed, which is consistent with the obtained data. The Statistica 10.0 package was used for statistical analysis.
Conclusion. In the final sessions of the positional computer game, the activity of the left hemisphere is reduced than the right one. As the strategy of the game has already been tested, the main elements of the game are already in memory, the novelty is almost absent. This is consistent with the transition from a successive (step-bystep) method of information processing to a simultaneous (one-step) analysis of the game position, which is characterized by rapid automatism in decision-making and performance.
Background. In modern psychology the study of mechanisms of creative thinking is of great interest. Attention is one of the important factors affecting the operation of intuitive thinking component.
The Objective of the paper is to study the effect of anticipatory attention on the insight and analytical frequency in solving anagrams.
Design. During the experiment, the participants performed two successive tasks. The first task included stimuli identification when the subjects were presented with stimuli — anagrams and pseudowords. The task was to identify the anagram correctly. In the second task (if the stimulus had been the anagram), the participants had to solve the anagram, noting whether the solution was analytical or an insight. The anagram and pseudoword had different letter order. The participants were divided into two groups: the experimental group whose subjects were informed about the difference and were asked to use it for a lexical solution and the control group whose subjects were not informed about the difference.
It was expected that the identification of the anagram in the first task will shape anticipatory attention patterns for the experimental group, which will affect the frequency of insight solutions in the second task. Results. The subjects of the experimental group were found to have a correlation relationship between the speed characteristics of the first and second tasks for analytical solutions. For insight solutions, no such connection was found.
Conclusion. The results demonstrate that insights and analytical solutions are the result of two separate processes of finding solutions that proceed in parallel.
Background. The paper considers the issue of categorical search for three-dimensional geometric shapes. The results of the previous studies on the real-world objects showed that pre-attentive extrafoveal analysis provides an effective identification of the target, reflecting in the right direction of the first saccade compared with the random search.
Objective. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of extrafoveal analysis during categorical search for pyramids in two groups of participants: mathematicians and psychologists.
Design. 15 mathematicians and 17 psychologists aged 18-25 participated in the study. Each participant performed 144 trialssearching for the target pyramid among the distractor pyramids. In the series 2and 9, any eye movements were prohibited to study covert attention.
Results. The findings of the experiment failed to reveal any differences in the use of extrafoveal analysis and accuracy in both groups. We observed dramatic individual differences, revealed in various degrees of extrafoveal analysis in the search process and in changing the strategy of the task solving. Special series which prohibited eye movements, demonstrated a significant role of covert attention in the categorical search, as well as the possibility and effectiveness of extrafoveal analysis even though while free instruction it could not be used by all participants and all cases.
Conclusion. During categorical search both foveal and extrafoveal processing of stimuli, as well as pre-attentive analysis and covert attention, were simultaneously involved. The dynamics of their interaction was determined by low-level perceptual processes, individual characteristics of the subjects, the task specificity and the instruction.
Keywords: categorical search;
механизмы зрительного поиска;
Available Online: 31.03.2020
Background. The subject matter of developmental psychology has almost never been subject to critical analysis, but it is obvious there are problems in this field. In particular, it is hard to shape the major issue of analysis in developmental psychology: personality development, psyche, age characteristics, or all of the above mentioned issues. For the further research of developmental psychology as a science, it is very important to identify the main fundamentally different areas and subject matter of research that are somehow studied, however spasmodically, often within other branches of psychology or even in other sciences.
The Objective of this paper is to clarify the subject matter of developmental psychology as a science, to verify that developmental psychology dwells on several fundamentally different areas and subject matters of research, in accordance with which it is necessary to shape the research of this science.
Design. The paper identifies fundamentally different areas of developmental psychology considered as separate subject matters of research. It is recognized that the structure of modern developmental psychology does not correspond to the subject matter of research. As a result, some areas of personality development are not identified as separate subdisciplines or sections of developmental psychology (e.g. variational personality development, development of personality substructures) lack research and are not presented in textbooks developmental psychology.
Conclusion. Developmental psychology can identify the following types of research subject matters: normative and variational human development, the development of psychological substructures of personality and psychological characteristics of age groups. It is necessary to restructure the developmental psychology based on the subjects of research highlighting the following subdisciplines: regular mental development, variable personality development, mental development (development of psychological substructures of personality), age-based studies (age groups psychology).
Keywords: developmental psychology;
the fields of study of developmental psychology;
sub disciplines of developmental psychology;
normative and variational development;
development of personality subsystems;
psychology of age groups;
Available Online: 31.03.2020
Background. The BPS-SR (Boredom Proneness Scale-Short Form) is a brief and most efficacious version of the famous Boredom Proneness Scale developed by R. Farmer and N. Sundberg (Struk, 2017).
Objective. This study is aimed to adapt the Russian BPS-SR version.
Design. Psychometric indicators of the Russian BPS-SR version have been assessed on the sample of males (N=151) serving sentences in prison.
Findings. The factor structure of the BPS-SR, estimated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, has demonstrated the scale homogeneity and thus confirmed the original BPS-SR authors’ hypothesis suggesting the advantage of the scale comprising only direct test items. The BPS-SR reliability (α-Cronbach=0.86) and validity indicators also have confirmed the psychometric adequacy of the Russian scale adaptation. The boredom proneness has proven to be positively associated with apathy, hopelessness, loneliness and male depressive syndrome, which allows considering it a possible factor in psychological maladjustment as an adult. The social and demographic characteristics evaluation performed using the one-way analysis of variance ANOVA has showed that age, marital status, having or not having children, offense type and sentence term do not significantly contribute to the boredom proneness, while the BPS-SR indicators depend directly on the respondents’ education. The respondents having obtained the higher and specialized secondary education have proven to be less prone to boredom than respondents having the basic secondary or full secondary education.
Conclusion. The conclusion infers that the adapted BPS-SR can actually be considered a psychometrically reasonable means to diagnose boredom proneness in Russianspeaking respondents.
Background. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are nowadays widely used in various domains. Their use is connected with a broad range of psychological problems, in particular, within engineering psychology.
Objective. In this paper, typical engineering-psychological problems of interface design for UAVs are considered.
Design. Literature survey on topic related to UAV control. Results. Problems of managing sensory isolation, negative effects of automation failures, connection losses and monotony, as well as problems of supporting the work of UAVs operator teams were identified and solutions proposed. We also study methodological and methodical questions within the domain of interface design for controlling UAVs.
Conclusions. Designing interfaces for UAVs is a complex psychological task. There are perspectives of use for virtual reality, AI, predictive displays, and adaptive automation. There is need for general recommendations concerning UAVs interface development.
Background. The popularity of using virtual reality in various areas of life is growing steadily every year. The use of virtual reality in sports, including sports of the highest achievements, has both advantages and disadvantages that will be considered in this paper.
The Objective is to study main aspects of using virtual reality in sports, including the historical aspect of the method, the main current areas of using the method, the existing advantages and limitations of the method for using in sports practice, including sports of the highest achievements.
Results and conclusions of the study. It is shown using virtual reality technologies in sports has a whole range of advantages, including removing restrictions imposed by real sports: preventing sport injury; creating environmental conditions (weather, humidity, rivalry, etc.), lack of dependence on sport equipment, weather or location, and the ability to engage in hard-to-reach and expensive sports accordingly. However, there are a number of problems that make it difficult to use virtual reality in sports, in particular, using sport equipment and assessing skill transfer.
Background. A wide circle of multidisciplinary researchers share interest in motivation factors of Wikipedians, i.e. virtual volunteers, members of the online world’s largest online encyclopedia «Wikipedia», who consolidate personal resources to manage comprehensive aggregation of free knowledge. Nevertheless, the question of the driving forces of this prosocial behaviour is still open.
Objective. It is assumed that for a full understanding of the determined online activities of Wikipedians we need to analyze the value orientations to which they give personal preference. In accordance with this, the following goal was set: to identify the shared values of the experienced transnational core of Wikipedia authors.
Design. Based on the semantic units derived from previous cycles of disparate academic studies of Wikipedia’s practical development, we conducted a content analysis of a transnational survey. The recipients were 65 authors of multilingual Wikipedia segments (83% males and 17% females) with average experience of 9.9 years compilation of encyclopedic articles.
Results. The constitutive system of invariant internal and external value orientations characteristic of Wikipedians is disclosed. It is found that in the most cases Wikipedians find a number of personal significant reasons for participating in the Wikipedia, the reasons resonating with their inner essence.
Conclusion. The internal value orientations of Wikipedians include: self-development (self-improvement, self-assertion, self-realization); reciprocal (mutual) altruism; a tendency to high quality and systematization of knowledge; a pleasure of creation; autonomy; recreation (hobby, entertainment); meaningfulness; preservation of personal heritage. The external value orientations include: preservation and development of the cultural heritage / language segment; promotion and popularization of Wikipedia (its ideology and principles); low transaction costs and convenience (attractiveness) of the system; affiliation; social identity; improvement peace («Weltverbesserungs Antrieb»); building bridges between cultures and languages. It is summarized that a detailed study of the identified value orientations and also other psychological characteristics of Wikipedia volunteers can significantly expand theoretical concepts of functioning and the applied value for the organization of volunteer practices to disseminate knowledge as the highest value of humanity.
Background. The paper is dedicated to the psychological description of the musical movement method as a particular practice of esthetic education. The practice of the musical movement (MM) was originally created as an artistic one and only gradually began to acquire the features of the pedagogical system. Over time, works appeared where attempts were made to psychological understanding of the processes taking place in the bosom of this practice: changes, transformations of music perception under the influence of movement, expressive movement, etc. However, a more complete reflection of the psychological content of the MM method was not accomplished.
The Objective of the research is to provide a psychological description of the musical movement method as a specific practice of aesthetic education and to explain the notion of MM as a psychotechnical method.
Background. The paper shows that the subject matter of the MM method is not so much the movement as such, its performing part, but the internal, psychological aspect of experiencing and meaning production. Achieving the unity of internal and external, experience and movement, motivation and action, meaning and gesture are the basis of the main goals of musical movement. Musical-motor exercises are considered to be the main tool of the method with which you can learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. It is shown how the musical-motor form accumulates the experience of experiencing music and reflects different semantic levels of musical content: from onomatopoeia and rhythmic imitation, modeling of emotional intonation to the existential layer of music.
Results. The goal of the artwork in mastering the MM method coincides with the pedagogical task: to achieve openness of the personality, its deep, genuine involvement in dialogue with music through movement and gesture. The task set in the musical movement is to give a motor response to sounding music, which affects the motivational-value sphere of the human individual. Classes in the music movement are unique situations that simulate the processes of creativity and are aimed at developing the capacity for creative realization.
Conclusion. The musical-motor exercise is a unique tool that allows one to learn the movement and comprehend the images of musical-motor forms. The musical-motor exercise accumulates the experience of experiencing music. Due to the perception of music in its full shape and form and penetration into the existential world of music, human feelings begin to achieve the sublime multidimensional level in everyday life.
Background. The influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on mental functions is not given a proper account in modern neurology and neuropsychology. The data published provide information on the state of higher mental functions (HMF) and on disturbances of the psychological well-being of children and adolescents after MTBI. The analysis of research materials in this area provides data on disorders associated with both local and cerebral symptoms, which form a diverse picture of cognitive and behavioural disorders.
The Objective is to study HMF in adolescents of 10-14 years old after TBI of mild severity as part of the methodology of neuropsychological syndrome analysis (Luria, 1973). Design. The study is based on the original set of techniques designed by A.R. Luria. We focused on assessing the status of various HMF components (motor areas, gnostic areas of memory and intelligence). We also studied the mental activity in its regulatory and dynamic aspects. The population included 31 patients with MTBI and 20 healthy subjects.
Results. The analysis of the results showed that violations of HMF in the acute period were represented by three types of syndromes. The leading place in each syndrome is occupied by deficiency symptoms of non-specific brain structures.
Conclusion. The information obtained enriches the knowledge of neuropsychology about the patterns of development of brain systems and related mental functions in adolescence, and also allows one to choose more suitable options for rehabilitation effects aimed at improving the adaptation of patients, enhancing their quality of life, and preventing negative consequences of MTBI.
Background. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of disabilities and death. CHD is known to be a multifactorial disease and in the process of complex research, it is important to take into account the role of psychological factors. The presence of gender specificities in the formation and course of cardiovascular diseases determines the need to study the psychological characteristics of men and women with CHD in order to plan and develop prevention and rehabilitation programs.
Objective. The present research is aimed at studying the psychological features in men and women with CHD before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at the stage of preoperative care: 1) the study of asthenic condition in patients with CHD (men and women) during inpatient treatment before CABG; 2) the study of the severity and structure of anxiety in patients with CHD (men and women) before CABG; 3) the study of psychopathological symptoms including depressive manifestations in patients (men and women) before CABG; 4) the study of personality peculiarities in patients with CHD before CABG.
Design. In the course of the present study 60 patients with CHD before CABG were surveyed with a gender distribution of 30 women and 30 men. The study was carried out on the basis of Almazov National Medical Research Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (St. Petersburg, Russia). The average age of patients was 60.9 ± 7.6. The study included the clinical interview and the following methods of psychological testing were used: Asthenic State Scale, Integrative Test of Anxiety (ITT), Symptom Check List-90-Revised, and The Big Five Personality Test.
Results. In women with CHD before CABG, the higher level of asthenia and anxiety (both state and trait) was found as compared with men. Also in women in comparison with male patients higher rates of such manifestations in the structure of their psychological features as “somatization”, “interpersonal sensitivity”, “depression”, “phobic anxiety” were noted. According to the results of the study of personality peculiarities, it was found that among men with CHD the indicator of emotional stability is higher than in women.
Conclusion. It is necessary to take into account the possible variants of a sensitive emotional response which may be more common in women at the stage of impatient treatment before CABG (including such manifestations as anxiety, low mood, emotional sensitivity, asthenia). In accordance with this, during psychocorrectional work, it is important to apply techniques aimed at working with those emotional-negative experiences that may worsen noticeably in connection with the upcoming surgical intervention.