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Sagova Z.A., Dontsov D.A. (2018). The study of personal emotional sphere as a regulator of functional state in young athletes. National Psychological Journal, 4, 96–108.

Background. Sports activities set high demands on the personal qualities and abilities of athletes, which increases their emotional tension, and negatively affects their self-esteem, self-confidence and motivation. Studying manifestations of the personal emotional sphere of athletes allows choosing effective methods of psychological work to adjust their competitive states up to an optimal level.

The Objective of the research is to learn the specific features of the personal emotional sphere as a regulator of the functional state in young athletes.

Design. The paper analyzes the manifestations of personal emotional sphere of females aged 11-13 years involved in rhythmic gymnastics (N = 20). The results of the relationship and the ratio of the athletes’ personal parameters are presented.

Research Results. A direct significant relationship (p = 0.01) of the anxiety level in athletes with neuroticism, irritability, suspiciousness and sensitivity is revealed. A positive significant relationship (p = 0.01) of guilt and aggressiveness expressed mainly indirectly is established. The obtained features of the relationship of the studied characteristics of young athletes are generally consistent with the results of similar studies performed by other specialists.

Conclusion. The results can be viewed as manifestations of the adaptation mechanisms of young gymnasts in the tense conditions of sports activities, as well as fear of disapproval from a significant circle of people. The revealed emotional-personal characteristics of young sportswomen are probably due to psycho-physiological changes associated with adolescence and the specifics of sports activities. The results of the study generally raise additional questions and allow us to outline areas for further research on the problem under discussion. It is important to study the influence of the emotional state in athletes on the ability to fully recover from intensive physical burnout and follow sleep and rest schedule.

Received: 10/09/2018

Accepted: 10/24/2018

Pages: 96-108

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0409

Keywords: sport; artistic gymnastic; adolescence; emotional and personal sphere; functional state;

By: Sagova, Zurida A.; Dontsov D. A.;

Available Online: 01/30/2019

Devishvili V.M., Mdivani M.O., Elgina D.S. (2017). Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level. National Psychological Journal, 4, 121–128

Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. 

Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball) and team level (amateur and professional). 

To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index). which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes); 12-14 years (24 athletes) and 18-25 years (41 athletes). 

Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05). For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05). and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05). 

Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group cohesion and the phenomenon of group unity. The authors explain this by the fact that for professionals the main motive of the activity is to receive a reward for the game. and for the amateurs - the pleasure from joint actions.

Received: 07/16/2017

Accepted: 08/23/2017

Pages: 121-128

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0412

Keywords: cohesion of the group; cohesion of the sports team; subject; subject-subject interaction; level of subjective unity; amateur and professional teams; kind of sport; sport psychology;

By: Devishvili, Vazha M.; Mdivani, Marina O.; Elgina, Daria S.;

Available Online: 01/01/2018

Korobeynikova E.Yu., Leonov S.V., Polikanova I.S. (2017). Psychological features of attention in archery. National Psychological Journal. 2, 35-45

The issue of attention is one of the leading in sports psychology. Quite often, athletes’ failures in competitions are ultimately connected with the attention processes, i.e. distraction, switching or loss of concentration. Simultaneously, each particular kind of sport is distinguished by a specific competitive situation and accordingly presents a number of requirements to athletes, including attention features. Archery is no exception. Thus, in shooting sports, concentration and stability of attention are often deemed as the most significant features of attention.

The paper is devoted to the study of the attention dynamic properties in archers. Attention features of athletes were assessed depending on the sports major, gender, age, experience and level of competence. 65 archers from different regions of Russia took part in the study, including 34 males and 31 females, the average age being 16.29 ± 1.74. Experience ranges from 1 year to 8 years, average experience is 4.46 ± 1.93.

The research results showed that archers are characterized by high indicators of stability of attention, and also high efficiency of solving attention problems. The professional success of archery was associated with the ability to distribute attention when necessary. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the features of attention for recurved and compound archers, which indicates the uniformity of tasks related to attention in the sporting practice of archers. Summing up, it is necessary to include skills in the distribution of attention in the program of psychological training of archers.

Received: 05/18/2017

Accepted: 05/27/2017

Pages: 35-45

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0205

Keywords: sport psychology; attention in sports; attention properties; archery;

By: Leonov, Sergei V.; Polikanova, Irina S.;

Available Online: 06/28/2017

Sagova Z.A., Kapturova V.M. (2017). Professional reflection as the factor of success of a sports coach. National Psychological Journal. 2, 26-34.

Professional functions of modern trainers have long expanded from a simple function of training athletes to compete to the performance of the numerous roles of leader, organizer, psychologist, which are based on the ability of a coach to improve their professional skills and personal qualities. 

With the increasing popularity of sports, the means and conditions of sports training, the requirements to the quality of work and mastery of the main subjects of sports are increasing. The demand for a coach as a key figure in the education of successful athletes rises. 

The paper analyzes the research of criteria and factors of sports coach efficiency; the features of reflexive processes as one of the most effective ways of coach’s professional development. 

The correlation analysis performed in the work showed a significant connection between professional success and the reflexivity of trainers, which in general is correspondent with the results of similar studies performed in a number of other research fields. In the work there was no confirmation of the regular viewpoint in psychological studies of the relationship between the success of activity and the personality’s internality, which induced a number of new assumptions about the nature of the interaction of successful coaches with their pupils, leadership style, and personality traits.

The results of the study as a whole cause additional questions about individual psychological characteristics of respondents and allow to identify further research.

Received: 05/15/2017

Accepted: 05/24/2017

Pages: 26-34

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0204

Keywords: sport; sportsperson; sports coach; professional success; professional reflection;

By: Sagova, Zurida A.; Kapturova, Viktoriya M.;

Available Online: 06/28/2017

Kaminsky I.V., Veraksa A.N. (2017). Conventional theories and modern views on the nature of the mental motor image used in sport. National Psychological Journal. 2, 16-25.

The paper is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of motor imagery widely used by athletes in a variety of sports as an effective psychological training method. The research introduces basic approaches, theories and modern views on the issue. There are a wide variety of views on the mechanisms underlying mental practice of motor tasks. In particular, mental image can be considered from exclusively cognitive perspective or as a direct and essential background for producing movement. 

To signify the notion of mental image in specialist studies the terms «mental study» or «mental training» are used. The research devoted to this issue has significantly influenced the conceptual understanding of the motor image nature. 

There are opposing theories, who employ the mental image that is regarded as a basic cognitive component and does not consist in direct interaction with the executive link of the motor system. On the other hand, there are theories that view the mental image as the immediate basis of the movement that stores information about all its parameters. 

Modern studies, including neuroimaging methods, confirm inseparability of these approaches and central locale of trigger mechanism that modulates physiological reactions and also its generality for real and imaginary action.

In conclusion, taking into account recent data on the nature of motor imagery, special attention is paid to practical aspects of using it in sports, which is different from conventional approaches and recommendations on motor imagery use.

Received: 05/14/2017

Accepted: 05/23/2017

Pages: 16-25

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0203

Keywords: Motor imagery; mental training; imaginative sphere; vegetative eactions; sports training;

By: Veraksa, Aleksandr N.; Kaminsky, Igor V.;

Available Online: 06/28/2017

Barabanshchikova Valentina V., Ostanina Maria V., Klimova Oxana A. (2015). Procrastination phenomenon in individual and team sports athletes’ activity. National Psychological Journal. 3, 91-104.

The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping), and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo) and teams (hockey, football, volleyball). Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368) there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495). 

The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463), the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220) and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465) are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368).

Received: 06/30/2015

Accepted: 08/12/2015

Pages: 91-104

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0310

Keywords: procrastination; professional distortions; individual and team sports; sportsperson;

By: Barabanshchikova V.V.; Ostanina, Maria V.; Klimova, O. A.;

Available Online: 11/15/2015

Morozov Alexander V. (2015). Psychological issues of the russian sport (towards the 31st Summer Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). National Psychological Journal. 3, 81-90.

The paper deals with the psychological issues of the Russian sport in general (including internal and external, objective and subjective ones). The attitudes of the most authoritative sports experts are analyzed. Various media discuss the performance of Russians in the Olympics of the third Millennium, the role and importance of psychology in modern sport and also in preparation of elite sport athletes for such important tournaments as the Olympic Games. The paper discusses fundamental differences of psychological preparation of the Russian and foreign athletes, comparative analysis of national team performances of Russia in the summer Olympics and Paralympic Games over the past 20 years, i.e. in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The paper analyses the strongest team performances on the global level in the latest Summer Olympic games and the probabilistic prediction of the performance results in the Summer Olympics in Brazil in reference with November doping scandal in the Russian Athletics Federation associated with charges of the Russian athletes in the mass doping followed by a loud dismissal of a number of sports officials and coaches, with two Russian athletes to be disqualified and stripped of their medals of London Olympics-2012, and also a RAF member in the IAAF to be suspended, which puts into question the possibility of Russian national athletics team participating in the next Olympics. The paper outlines current problematic issues the solution of which is urgent for the 21st Summer Olympics 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and should contribute to a fundamental change in the psychological, spiritual, moral atmosphere not only of an individual athlete, but for all Russian sport in general.

Received: 10/15/2015

Accepted: 10/30/2015

Pages: 81-90

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0309

Keywords: psychological preparation; team spirit; mental tension; mental status; mental status; psychological makeup of the athlete; psychological relief;

By: Morozov, Alexander V.;

Available Online: 11/15/2015

Kovalev A.I. (2015). Modern psychological science to sport. National psychological journal. 2 (18), 33-39.

In April 2015 the 7th All-Russian Festival of Student Sport took place. It was established seven years ago by the decision of the Academician V.A. Sadovnichy, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University. This year the sports festival has embraced more than two hundreds of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation.
A variety of sporting events with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, performances by famous athletes, delivery standards and other sport events allowed to attract both participants and spectators of all ages, professional sports facilities and the degree of preparedness. 

A distinctive feature of the Festival’2015 was the fact of timing the celebration of the 70th anniversary of Victory in the 1941-1945Great Patriotic War in Russia. As a result, the program of the festival in addition to traditional sports and competitive events also includes sports and patriotic elements, i.e. trips to places of military glory, lectures and discussion clubs devoted to the development of sport and athletes during the war. Another innovation this year was held in the framework of the festival of scientific-practical conference “Fundamental science – sport”. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference allowed to unite representatives of different areas of knowledge, e.g. psychologists, biologists, doctors, philosophers and educators. The wide coverage of the audience and the speakers allowed to hold the conference in the format of online video simultaneously with the Tomsk State University, St. Petersburg State University, Southern Federal University and Perm State Humanitarian Teacher-Training University. To emphasize the importance of both fundamental and practical research, the conference was divided into two parts: the plenary session which highlighted the important methodological issues of interaction between science and sport, and the youth section of the conference that included reports on the application papers.

Received: 06/17/2015

Accepted: 07/28/2015

Pages: 33-39

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0204

Keywords: All-Russian Festival of Student Sport; the conference «Basic science - sport»; the 70th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War; patriotic education; student sport;

By: Kovalev, A. I.;

Available Online: 08/30/2015

Isaev A.V., Isaychev S.A. (2015). Quantitative and qualitative indicators of developing anticipation skills in wrestling athletes. National psychological journal. 2 (18), 25-32.

Actual problems of modern psychology are fundamental studies of the phenomenon of anticipation, the search for new methodological approaches to the study of its mechanisms and processes of development are considered. There is a particular interest in the anticipation issue in sport, where the probabilistic forecast of the situation is crucial for winning. The paper presents the results of testing methods for anticipation skills in wrestling. The main objective of the study was to find psycho-physiological and behavioral indicators to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the degree of anticipation. The skills formation procedure was based on the reinforcement of the correct choice of behaviour in simulated situations of decision-making using multiple choices technique. Stimuli were videos of simulated situations in wrestling. Simultaneous recording of oculomotor activity and registration of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was carried out.

wrestling. Simultaneous recording of oculomotor activity and registration of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was carried out. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method. After completing training the number of errors and the decision taking time span reduced. Expert assessment of the main qualifying factors showed a significant increase of the test group. On the psychophysiological level, there is a reduction of oculomotor activity in selecting the right answers, reducing the number of fixations, the number of fixations and saccades reverse on the text of questions and answers. Analysis of EEG parameters showed a gradual decrease in the index of brain activation when analysing simulated situations and dynamic movement of the peaks of activity in the frontal areas of the temporal and occipital areas during the series of trainings.

Received: 07/26/2015

Accepted: 08/02/2015

Pages: 25-32

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0203

Keywords: anticipation; sportsperson; freestyle wrestling; psychophysiological assessment; sports trainings;

By: Isaev Alex V.; Isaychev S. A.;

Available Online: 08/30/2015

Grushko A.I., Leonov S.V. (2015) Using eye tracking system in psychological training of football players. National psychological journal. 2 (18), 13-24.

The research describes the possibility of applying eye tracking in football. A total of 23 male professional football players from Russia participated in research (Mean age = 21,56; SD=1,5 y.o.). Experiment was conducted in natural settings on football field. All athletes had an appropriate warm-up before testing. All participants had normal vision. Participants’ eye movement data during dribbling task were recorded via mobile eye tracker – “Eye Tracking Glasses» (SensoMotoric Instuments).

We identify the most effective components of visual strategies during different stages of dribbling task: in pre-start routine, during dribbling, after kicking the ball into the goal. Focus of visual attention in pre-start routine: effective gaze patterns connected to the short preview of direction of future movements, gaze fixation to the particular zone of the goal. Effective gaze behavior in dribbling linked with anticipation in gaze focus (a combination of anticipatory and regressive saccades).

fixation duration during dribbling positively correlates to the shooting accuracy and efficacy of dribbling technique. These findings indicates that applying eye tracking technologies in sport practice could enhance performance of football players such as dribbling technique and shooting accuracy. Especially, via eye tracking tools scientists can investigate important issues like development of technique, sport attention, reaction time and anticipation.

Received: 05/30/2015

Accepted: 06/10/2015

Pages: 13-24

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0202

Keywords: eye tracking; gaze tracking; sport psychology; football; psychological training for football players;

By: Leonov, Sergei V.; Grushko A.I.;

Available Online: 08/30/2015

Barabanshchikova V. V., Klimova O. A. (2015). Representations of work engagement and workaholism in modern psychological research. National psychological journal. 2 (18), 3-12.

Nowadays athletes in order to achieve high results and achievements should donate their own interests and private life because of spending much more time for countless flights, acclimatization, everyday workout and competition. So they are short of time to fully replenish their psychological and physiological resources, resulting in accumulation of negative human functional states. Without application of any external psychological interventions there is a high probability of occurrence and development of occupational deteriorations in athletes. The main objective of this theoretical research was to identify and analyze the specificity of occupational deteriorations which can develop in sport as a career. In the presented research paper we described the major occupational deteriorations such as burnout (Maslach et al, 2008), workaholism (Schaufeli et al., 2008), perfectionism (Xolmogorova, 2010), type A behaviour (Ryska et al., 1999) and procrastination (Milgram et al., 2000). 

Accumulation of negative human functional states can entail one or even more occupational deteriorations that will play important role in career termination from sport. Workaholism, burnout, perfectionism, type A Behaviour and procrastination has their own specific manifestations, which can also appear in postretirement from sport activity. The most popular approaches to occupational deteriorations, operationalization and specific features of their appearance and particular manifestations are emphasized, and also various consequences in athlete’s life are described. Thus, occupational deteriorations are one of the most topical and pressed forward issues, which need further development in the framework of conceptualization and inventory development in modern psychology.

Received: 03/23/2015

Accepted: 04/06/2015

Pages: 3-12

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0201

Keywords: professional deformations ; burnout; perfectionism; workaholism; procrastination; type A Behaviour; sport; profession; sport activities;

By: Barabanshchikova V.V.; Klimova, O. A.;

Available Online: 08/30/2015

Kaminsky I.V.(2013).Various aspects of psychological skills in training cross-country skiers . National Psychological Journal, 2(10), 117-126

Modernization of equipment as well as extension of competition schedules and programs that have taken place over the past few decades have dramatically influenced professional activities of cross-country skiers. In particular, acuteness of competitive struggle has extremely increased and as a result psychological preparation of an athlete has become a very important and sometimes crucial factor.

Today, cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding sports associated with critical aerobic loading and cyclic explosive contractions involving all main muscle groups. Characteristic motor activity is highly uniform and automatic that potentially leads to negative psychological states decreasing motor efficiency. Athlete’s high motivation is the main tool to withstand this phenomenon. Muscles arbitrary relaxation rate (ARR) is considered to be the most important parameter of contractive activity. ARR is determined by the function of CNS inhibitory systems and decreased during emotional stress, which can be managed using respective psychological skills training (PST) features. Such interrelationship allows to reveal complex systemic links between various types of training and introduces the problem of the appropriate integration of PST into the entire training system. Available research data suggest that self-talk and mental imagery are quite useful as PST tools without regard to a skier’s level of expertise. Based on an individual interpretation for summarized data the author posed the following hypothesis: conversion from automatically executed to consciously controlled components of activity is involved to functionality of mental imagery; the conversion efficiency can be enhanced by means of attitude of intentional search for such components during visualization.

Received: 10/26/2013

Accepted: 11/12/2013

Pages: 117-126

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0215

Keywords: internal dialogue; cross-country skiing; sport psychology; psychological preparation of athletes; self-regulation; mental imagery;

By: Kaminsky, Igor V.;

Safonov V.K. (2006). Sport Psychology at the Department of Psychology of St.Petersburd State University. National Psychological Journal,1(1), 114-115

The subject and tasks of sport psychology as an integrated practical area of psychological science are outlined. Features of specialists' training in this field at the St.Petersburg State University are shown.

Pages: 114-115

Keywords: sport psychology; training in the field of sport psychology; St. Petersburg State University;

By: Safonov, Vladimir K.;

Veraksa A. N., Gorovaya A. E. (2010). Effect of imagination on the results of sport activity of novice football players.National Psychological Journal,2(4), 131-135

This article describes the connections between the use of types of mental imagery by athletes and the level of their imagination. Basing on the model of imagery use proposed by K.Martin, S. Moritz and C.Hall the authors used a Russian version of "The Sport Imagery Questionnaire" (SIQ) with soccer players 8, 10 and 14 years old. The data shows that subjects with a higher level of imagination are more inclined to use mental imagery in their practice; the age differences in types of imagery usage are shown.

Pages: 131-135

Keywords: mental imagery; imagination; psychological preparation of athletes; sports psychology; tests of movement skill; SIQ;

By: Veraksa, Aleksandr N.; Gorovaya A.E.;

Veraksa A. N. (2012) “Sports psychologist” profession. National Psychological Journal, 1(7), 134-138

This paper summarizes the main idea of the sports psychologist’s occupation. The principles of sports psychology, problems which he is facing as well as methods of solving problems are described. Particular attention is given to practical examples from the experience of well known sports psychologists.

Pages: 134-138

Keywords: sports psychology; sport psychologist; counseling; education;

By: Veraksa, Aleksandr N.;

Leonov S.V.(2012). Surviving a sports injury. National Psychological Journal,2(8),136-143

The article is devoted to the definition of sports injuries; factors influencing the experience of sports injury, expression patterns of pain in sport were analyzed. In this article we show that the rehabilitation of athletes should combine a comprehensive rehabilitation program of athletes being developed jointly by medical trauma, physical therapists, trainers, psychologists.

We analyzed factors that contribute to raising the level of injury in sport: changing coating sports grounds, the use of anabolic drugs. Analyzes approaches to rehabilitation programs of injured athletes. Detail the model of C. Ames and J. Duda, which was based on the implementation of the program of work with athletes, focused on goal setting, involvement of athletes in solving problems. The choice of tasks is determined by their degree of availability and accessibility them for athletes.

Pages: 136-143

Keywords: sports psychology; injury; pain; psychological characteristics of recovery process;

By: Leonov, Sergei V.;


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