July 1–14, 2017 Amsterdam, Holland, the 16th European Congress of Psychology (ECP2019) to be held in Moscow, Russia, on July 2–5, 2019, is presented within the 15th European Congress of Psychology (ECP2017)
Keywords: history of psychology;
Available Online: 10.10.2017
The paper is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of motor imagery widely used by athletes in a variety of sports as an effective psychological training method. The research introduces basic approaches, theories and modern views on the issue. There are a wide variety of views on the mechanisms underlying mental practice of motor tasks. In particular, mental image can be considered from exclusively cognitive perspective or as a direct and essential background for producing movement.
To signify the notion of mental image in specialist studies the terms «mental study» or «mental training» are used. The research devoted to this issue has significantly influenced the conceptual understanding of the motor image nature.
There are opposing theories, who employ the mental image that is regarded as a basic cognitive component and does not consist in direct interaction with the executive link of the motor system. On the other hand, there are theories that view the mental image as the immediate basis of the movement that stores information about all its parameters.
Modern studies, including neuroimaging methods, confirm inseparability of these approaches and central locale of trigger mechanism that modulates physiological reactions and also its generality for real and imaginary action.
In conclusion, taking into account recent data on the nature of motor imagery, special attention is paid to practical aspects of using it in sports, which is different from conventional approaches and recommendations on motor imagery use.
Most modern psychologists who deal with preschool age emphasize the development of executive functions as one of the most important factors in this age. The paper compares two most important and common approaches to disclosing and diagnosing voluntariness in the preschool age: the model of executive functions «unity with diversity» of A. Miyake and the skills theory of L.A. Venger. The model of the executive functions considers three main components of executive functions: working memory; flexibility of attention or switching; restraining control. The basis of cognitive abilities theory is the concept of cultural facilities (sensory standards, visual models, etc.) that are being developed throughout the preschool period. In accordance with these two diagnostic complexes were drawn up, aimed at diagnosing voluntariness in preschool years. The study involved 48 children aged 5-6 years, kindergarten students (24 girls and 24 boys) conducted in Moscow, Russia. The results showed that despite a variety of theoretical approaches to early childhood and voluntariness they reverberate the same reality.
The most revealing methods (the results of which you can predict the eventual consequences) were elaborated: the method of «Inhibition» (subtest of neuropsychological diagnostic complex techniques NEPSY-II, Korkman et al, 2007) in the case of A. Miyake model, and methods of «Schematization» in the abilities theory of L.A. Venger (Venger, Kholmovskaya, 1978).
A meeting of Chinese Psychological Society was held on October 14-16 in Sian (China). It united more than 3000 participants: Chinese scientists as well as representatives of UNESCO International Union of Psychological Science and Russian, Indian, Pakistani, Mongolian and American Psychological Societies.
The Meeting outcomes included agreements on joint scientific events and research projects of Chinese and Russian Psychological Societies. It might be a step towards establishment of Euroasian alliance in psychological science.
Keywords: history of psychology;
Available Online: 30.12.2016
This research studies the effect of long-term cognitive load on developimg fatigue on a range of subjective, behavioural (reaction time) and electrophysiological (individual alpha rhythm), fatigue index parameters in carriers of various polymorphisms of DRD2 genes. Mental fatigue was modeled as a result of continuous cognitive tasks aimed at using attention and working memory for 2.5 hours.
The sample included 51 subjects (male right-handers, the average age - 20 ± 4 years) whose genetic analysis was conducted and polymorphism options of DRD2 gene Taq1A (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were identified.
The research results show that such load significantly affects almost the entire complex of indicators. Significant differences were found between the polymorphisms carriers A1A1 and A1A2 and A2A2 of DRD2 gene polymorphism in the reaction of choice, and also in fatigue index, which reflects the ratio of slow brain rhythms to fast. The results show the positive role of dopamine in developing fatigue.
Group of A2A2 («A1») polymorphism carriers was assumed to show lower fatigue, characterized in SVMR and PB significantly slower reaction time, and before and after long-term cognitive load, compared with carriers of polymorphisms A1A1 and A1A2 (« A1 + «).
Notably, the dynamics of error increase within all polymorphisms is the same, and genotype number of errors does not vary before or after fatigue. The dynamics of reaction time after the exhaustion of all SNPs is approximately the same. This means that polymorphisms are different not only in dynamics of fatigue but physical predisposition to sensory information processing.
This article describes the connections between the use of types of mental imagery by athletes and the level of their imagination. Basing on the model of imagery use proposed by K.Martin, S. Moritz and C.Hall the authors used a Russian version of "The Sport Imagery Questionnaire" (SIQ) with soccer players 8, 10 and 14 years old. The data shows that subjects with a higher level of imagination are more inclined to use mental imagery in their practice; the age differences in types of imagery usage are shown.
This paper summarizes the main idea of the sports psychologist’s occupation. The principles of sports psychology, problems which he is facing as well as methods of solving problems are described. Particular attention is given to practical examples from the experience of well known sports psychologists.