Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy.
Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball) and team level (amateur and professional).
To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index). which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes); 12-14 years (24 athletes) and 18-25 years (41 athletes).
Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05). For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05). and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05).
Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group cohesion and the phenomenon of group unity. The authors explain this by the fact that for professionals the main motive of the activity is to receive a reward for the game. and for the amateurs - the pleasure from joint actions.
Available Online: 01.01.2018
The paper deals with three major periods of scientific work of Nikolai Alexandrovich Bernstein, the outstanding Russian scientist, the founder the motor activity theory of human and animal. In 2016 is the 120th anniversary of Bernstein´s birth.
The first period of his scientific activity, from 1922 when Bernstein started his research at the Central Institute of Labour Protection until the middle of the 30s of the 20th century. By this time, he formulated and published the basic principles and ideas of the annular motion control and sensor correction movements of varying complexity and various performance. The second period ends with the fundamental scientific work «On the Construction of Movements» awarded by the USSR State Prize in 1948. The book sums up Bernstein´s more than twenty years of research in the field of biomechanics and physiology of movement. The paper briefly describes the main assumptions of the three chapters of the book. The first chapter «Movements» reveals the evolutionary ideas about the origin of motor function and shaped the principle of the equation of building movements. The second chapter describes five levels with different functionality in varying degrees involved in the implementation of motor actions. The third chapter of the «Development and Decay» deals with the general laws of occurrence and levels of building movements being signs of confirming the level structure of motion in pathology and standards.
In 1950-60-ies of the 20th century Bernstein greatly expanded representation of the functional content and neural substrate levels of building movements, detailed the stages and phases of shaping and improvement of motor skills.
The author shows the importance of scientific achievements of N.A. Bernstein for modern research in the psychophysiology of movements.