Currently the Ministry of Finance is working on the issue of gradual increase of the retirement age, while various specialists are actively discussing the pros and cons of this potential change. The issue of determining the characteristics of the labour force participation of elder people and their participation in society is complex and multifaceted. A retired person’s capability for activity, willingness to get enrolled in society vary considerably depending on health, psychological well-being, self-attitude.
The paper examines one’s self-concept as a generalized set of ideas about their own physical, psychological, social features As a central component of identity and selfregulation of the retired citizens.
The results of the study presented in the paper reveal the retirement age as a period of human ontogenesis, during which their self-concept is undergoing a number of changes. Based on the theoretical analysis and empirical research, the following periods of the individual development at the retirement age is proposed: early retirement, mid retirement, late retirement. Each of the periods is described taking into account age peculiarities of self-awareness and the self-concept. The paper shows the crisis nature of the self-concept development in people of the retirement age. It also highlights normative age-graded crises: the retirement crisis, the crisis of self-sufficiency, the crisis of integrity. The paper also highlights gender-specific features of the self-concept in retired citizens.
The study was conducted using a sample of 120 unemployed pensioners from the cities Yekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk Oblast (Sverdlovsk region), Russia. To study the features of the self-concept of the retired citizens the following methods were used: «Who am I?» (M. Kun) for studying the content of the self-concept, the self-relation test (V. V. Stolin, S. R. Pantileev) for analysinge self-attitude of the retired citizens, the technique of personal differential for studying self-attractiveness, strength and activity of the retired citizens.
The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62) included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1), achievement motivation (2), learning and cognitive motivation, (3) and motivation of affiliation (4). This enabled to further estimate the factor and correlation analysis of the parameters studied, which shows that the system of values is significantly different in males and females of the same age, even in relation to the same mean value of motivation. Motivation, values and self-attitude organize stable systems – on the current sample allocated the four most common systems, i.e. the four factors that are specific for both males and females. Simultaneously, there are systems of values dependent on expressiveness and the combination of a certain type of motivation, and independent of the type of motivation.
Female educational and cognitive motivation and positional (status) motivation related to the values were merged into one factor, but for males one factor includes achievement motivation and (with the opposite sign) affiliation motivation. While the self-realization of females occurs in the process of learning (the value of «selfimprovement in their studies»), and in the future they see an opportunity for self-realization through the value of «happy family life», the males with this motivation connect their opportunity for self-realization with other values, i.e. «health», «recognition by other team members», «my authority.»