ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
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Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
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Tkhostov Aleksandr Sh.

Тхостов А.Ш.

Researcherid: I-4782-2012

Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University;

Head of the Department of Neuropsychology and Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Moscow, Russia


Alekseev, A.A., Rupchev, G.E., Tkhostov, A.Sh. (2022). On the role of reduction at the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in schizophrenia. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal [National psychological journal], 2 (46), 35–44. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0204

Background. The present study is devoted to the analysis of the role of shortening in the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia. This question, widely discussed in literature, is important and relevant in psychology, since it allows us to study various strategies applied to performing planning tasks in healthy subjects and patients with mental disorders. In the future, the obtained data can be used in the psycho-correction of planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia, as well as to improve the efficiency of planning in healthy people. 

Objective. TThe aim is to study the strategy for dealing with planning problems in patients with schizophrenia. 

Sample. Experimental group consisted of 40 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (age: 34.4±8.24 years; illness duration: 7.78±5.47 years). Control group included 40 healthy subjects (age: 32.5±7.28 years). 

Methods. The “object” and “visual” versions of the Tower of London test (TOL-DX and TOL-BACS) were used to evaluate planning. TOL-DX provides the test subject with the opportunity to choose how to solve the problem: whether to plan actions in advance (before they are completed), or to build a plan as the tasks are completed. TOL-BACS limits the choice of subjects to planning actions before they are carried out. The main indicator is the number of tasks solved correctly (optimally) (Alekseev, Rupchev, Katenko, 2012). Psychomotor speed was assessed by Schulte tables. 

Results. Patients with schizophrenia coped significantly worse with the “object” version of the test, but showed a productivity comparable to that of healthy subjects in the “visual” tasks. To analyze the dynamics of changes in the latent time (time to think on the tasks) depending on the number of moves in the “object” version of TOL patients with schizophrenia were divided into a group of patients with planning disorders and a group of patients without planning disorders. The dynamics of changes in latent time in healthy subjects and patients without planning disorders was similar and was characterized by an increase in latent time with an increase in the number of moves required to solve tasks. At the same time, patients suffering from schizophrenia with planning disorders showed approximately the same latent time, regardless of the complexity of tasks. The amount of latent time in patients with planning disorders was lower than in healthy subjects at the level of statistical trend in tasks with 5 moves and statistically significantly lower in tasks with 6 and 7 moves. 

Conclusion. The results obtained outline the role of reduction at the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia.

Received: 05/29/2022

Accepted: 05/29/2022

Pages: 35-44

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0204

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Alekseev A.A., Rupchev G.E., Tkhostov A.Sh. (2021). Planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia: potential role of short-term memory and attention, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (42), 51–60. doi: 10.11621/ npj.2020.0405

Background. Although planning disorders in schizophrenia are a fairly reliably established fact, the mechanisms of these disorders remain not fully clarified. Given the complex nature of planning, the presence of its disturbances can be influenced by disturbances of other mental processes.

Objective. Comparison of the links between planning, short-term memory, attention and abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia and in normal.

Design. 50 patients with schizophrenia (14 females, age 34.92 ± 8.54; illness duration 8.34 ± 5.87) and 50 healthy volunteers (14 females, age 32.42 ± 7.26) were examined. Assessment included: Tower of London-Test (TOL-DX) for planning assessment; Benton’s test (BVTR) for short-term memory assessment; sub-test Similarity (from WAIS) for abstract thinking assessment; Schulte Tables for assessment of attention; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to assess cognitive flexibility.

Results. Patients showed significantly worse results in all parameters, which indicates that patients have impairments in all assessed cognitive functions. The revealed relationships between planning and other cognitive processes in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects were significantly different. In healthy subjects, the effectiveness of planning was found to be associated only with abstract thinking. At the same time, in patients with schizophrenia, associations were found between the effectiveness of planning and all the other cognitive processes (short-term memory, attention, set-shifting).

Conclusion. The preservation of planning in schizophrenia is associated with the preservation of other mental processes. Short-term memory and attention are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for the realization of the planning process.

Received: 07/16/2021

Accepted: 07/29/2021

Pages: 51-60

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0205

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.07.2021

Rasskazova E.I., Tkhostov A.Sh. (2021). Eagerness to be vaccinated against coronavirus as an indicator of trust to official medical recommendations: the role of anxiety and beliefse. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2021, (41)1, 76-90. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0107

Background. The success of coronavirus vaccination programs is largely determined by people’s willingness to be vaccinated following the official guidelines, which depends on perception of risk, concerns about safety and efficacy, and trust in the source of the recommendations.

Objective. To study the subjective readiness for vaccination against coronavirus and its relationship with pandemic anxiety, protective actions, and attitudes towards vaccination.

Design. At the end of 2020, 525 people aged 18 to 65 lled out the scales of anxiety and protective actions in the situation of pandemic, anxiety and cognitive beliefs about vaccination, and replied to the questions about their and their relatives’ coronavirus disease experience and their readiness for vaccination.

Results. 13.2–17.0% of respondents were ready to be vaccinated against coronavirus, 18.5% had a flu shot in 2020. Low readiness for vaccination was not due to refusal (24.6–30.6%), but to doubts and mistrust (59.0–60.4%) in the context of such dominant emotions as anxiety about the possible negative consequences of vaccination, fear of not receiving medical care and fear of infecting one’s family or friends. Concerns about the need for vaccination are related to suspicions that vaccination is for someone’s benefit and that there are other, better ways of prevention, rather than than to doubts about the effectiveness of vaccination or its importance for health. Having more friends who experienced coronavirus disease is associated with higher rates of pandemic anxiety. Severe or fatal cases of coronavirus illness among personal acquaintances is associated with pandemic anxiety and manifestations of over-monitoring signs of illness.

Conclusion. The results of the regression analysis suggest that the decision to get vaccinated in the nearest future is based both on cognitive confidence in the importance and effectiveness of vaccination and on less pronounced anxiety about risks and side effects. The readiness to refuse vaccination is mainly due to cognitive beliefs.

Received: 02/26/2021

Accepted: 03/12/2021

Pages: 76-90

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0107

By: ; ;

Available Online: 30.03.2021

Ermusheva A.A. Vinogradova M.G., Tkhostov A.Sh. (2020). Categorization of bodily sensations in psychodermatological disorders. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (13)4, 75–84. doi: 10.11621/npj.2020.0406

Background. Categorization is one of the cognitive processes that ensure objects definition based on selected key features. Studying the aspects of categorization of bodily sensations allows to investigate the making sense of bodily sensations which seems promising in the context of exploring pathological bodily sensations.

Objective: to study the aspects of categorization in psychodermatological disorders.

Design. The study involved 113 patients with mental disorders with complaints of pathological bodily sensations (63 patients with psychodermatological disorders: delusional infestation (n = 33), neurotic excoriation (n = 30); 50 patients with depression with somatic symptoms). There were used the “Short Health Anxiety Inventory” and the psychosemantic method “Choice of descriptors of intraceptive sensations” with instructions: to choose bodily sensations of the healthy state, to classify sensations according to their similarity.

Results. In psychodermatological disorders, health anxiety was lower in comparison to depression with somatic symptoms. The analysis of bodily sensations categorization of the healthy state revealed a significantly smaller descriptors number from classes of general somatic sensations, dynamics sensations, exteroceptive sensations and pleasant bodily sensations in psychodermatological disorders. In bodily sensations classification two general categories of bodily experience were distinguished: bodily sensations associated with the illness experience and bodily sensations of habitual functioning.

Conclusion. Although there were the differences in health-anxiety and specificity of clinical manifestations in patients with mental disorders with complaints of pathological bodily sensations, the comparability of categorical structures of bodily experience was described, which manifested itself in features of general categories of bodily experience in psychodermatological disorders and depression with somatic symptoms.

Received: 11/03/2020

Accepted: 12/17/2020

Pages: 75-84

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2020.0406

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.10.2020

Tkhostov A.Sh., Vinogradova M.G. (2018) Psychological issues of rehabilitation of mental patients. National Psychological Journal, 11(2), 32–37

Background. At different stages of the development of the society, the principles that lie in the basis of rehabilitation programs and are justified by experts of various fields are changing. The opportunities that modern society possesses, the resources that it is ready to spend to solve a wide range of rehabilitation problems, are transformed, evolve and require scientific reflection.

The Objective is to discuss modern principles of rehabilitation and social integration of mentally disturbed individuals.

Design. The role of the subject of the rehabilitation program and the role of society in implementing the programs are discussed. The principle of general and targeted rehabilitation work is justified, the principle of continuity and increasing specificity of psychological assistance, the principle of the subject's own activity are identified.

Research results. The need to address not only the conscious motivation of the subject, but also the consideration of unconscious motives for participation in rehabilitation activities and in maintaining health is disclosed. The fixed notion of norm as the ideal and the difficulty of changing stereotypes towards a mentally disturbed person are discussed.

Conclusion. On the one hand, rehabilitation of a mental patients should be based on the developed and appropriately maintained personality orientation, the ability to take partial responsibility for mental condition and development. On the other hand, the patient needs societal support, preparedness of society to integrate into an active social life and to change the established stereotypes.

Received: 04/27/2018

Accepted: 05/11/2018

Pages: 32-37

DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0204

By: ; ;

Keywords: rehabilitation of mental patients; psychological assistance; motivation; rehabilitation principles; social integration;

Available Online: 01.08.2018

Rostovtseva, N.A., Rasskazova, E.I., Tkhostov, A.Sh., Emelin, V.A. (2022). Cyberchondria: an independent phenomenon or the manifestation of hypochondriac traits online, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1 (45), 76–93.

Background. The concept of cyberchondria is proposed to describe a psychological phenomenon that manifests in the increase in health anxiety after excessive search for medical information. The structure of cyberchondria is quite heterogeneous. Features of actions (compulsive actions in search of information about health and diseases online) the relation of these actions to other human activities (excessive search), emotional (distress after the search) and behavioral (the search for confirmation) consequences of those actions, as well as mentalsetting (mistrust in medical experts) can be revealed in this structure. The question of the independence of cyberchondria, which is closely connected to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, health anxiety, hypochondriacal behavior and user activity, is also controversial.

Objective. The article aims to detect the relationship between cyberchondria and signs of excessive Internet use , somatization, hypochondrization, and health anxiety.

Design. The present study (before the coronavirus pandemic) involved 127 healthy respondents aged 18 to 70 years old and 33 active users of online medical websites. The respondents filled out the Cyberchondria Severity Scale, the scales of hypochondriacal behavior, beliefs about the body and health, health anxiety, Internet addiction and a number of checklists assessing their user activity and behavior related to health and illness.

Results. In the structure of cyberchondria, it is possible to reliably distinguish closely related components of the search for confirmation, compulsive actions, excessive and repetitive search, and distress after the search. Excessive search for information is more often associated with viewing images of diseases, seeking the confirmation along with reading reviews (i.e., it more often complements an actual search for a medical care, or cross-checks the results). Compulsive actions and distress are most closely associated with searching for information on social networks. Mistrust in healthcare professionals is weakly associated with cyberchondria. It reveals itself in a rare inclination to seek for a formal medical opinion both online and offline. However, a greater propensity for seeking for the information about alternative medicine on the Internet is observed. Manifestations of cyberchondria (apart from the mistrust in medical professionals) are closely associated with an excessive user activity and the tendency for somatoform symptoms and hypochondriacal behavior. This supports the hypothesis that cyberchondria is a specific behavior that is based on other clinical-psychological phenomena.

Received: 01/08/2022 22:45:00

Accepted: 01/25/2022 22:45:00

Pages: 76-93

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0107

By: ; ; ; ;

Tkhostov A.Sh., Rasskazova E.I., Emelin V.A. Psychodiagnostics of subjective perception of personal identifications: using a modified method “Who Am I?”. National Psychological Journal, 2(14), 60-71

The interdisciplinary approach in studies of identity has to employ methods that allow to study and compare the prognostic value of diagnostic criteria of identification which are suggested within the line of various concepts. The objective of this research is to study the steadiness and correlation of identification values according to a number of criteria, and also their relationship to subjective well-being, coping strategies, and also the severity of psychopathology symptoms in subjects without mental illness. The method of “Who Am I?” by M. Kuhn and T. McPartland was completed by a quantitative Likert scale to which extent each identity is liked (emotional evaluation), is often actualized (significance), is important for the subject (psychological centrality), and is recognized by others (perceived social recognition).

The two samples, psychology students (n1=82) and adult subjects (n2=50), show sufficient consistency of identification values, impossibility to interchange the criteria, and the possibility of reliable calculation of a single indicator coherence/incoherence in evaluations identifications. Positive assessment, psychological centrality and awareness of their identities more often contribute to choosing active behavioural and cognitive coping strategies. The additional consideration of consistency in values results in better prediction of the inclination to positive reformulation, appeal to religion and focus on emotions. Relationship of the importance of identification and depression was mediated by the emotional assessment: frequent thoughts about identification prevented depression only in the subjects with positive emotional evaluation of identity. In general, the use of quantitative assessment allows us to complete the qualitative analysis of identifications by general indicators of subjective experience of identity.

Received: 05/27/2014

Accepted: 06/18/2014

Pages: 60-71

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2014.0208

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: identity; subjective perception of identification; significance; perceived social recognition; subjective well-being; depressiveness; coping strategies;

Tkhostov A.Sh., Surnov K.G.(2006). Culture and Pathology: Side Effects of Socialization. National Psychological Journal,1(1), 20-27

The article argues the necessity of psychological research on the problem of "cultural pathology" and the development of evidence-based programs confronting adverse impact of mass media culture that imposes ideals, rules and values far from humanistic on modern individual, often being the reason of neuroses. It discusses aims and objectives of the task, which should include not only the study of the problem, but also the development of a unified methodological and diagnostic apparatus, as well as the development of preventive measures-psychological and educational activities that help a person to resist the imposed values.

Pages: 20-27

By: ; ;

Keywords: mass culture; system of values; the mass media; the impact of media on the consciousness;

Tkhostov A.Sh., Surnov K.G. (2007). Motivation of the Terrorists.National Psychological Journal,1(2), 27-32

The article regards terrorism as a psychological mechanism that satisfies a number of human needs in a certain way. The authors analyze the following psychological drives of the terrorists: the death instinct, aggression, and the needs for communication, security, new experiences, selfactualization, and selfidentity.

Pages: 27-32

By: ; ;

Keywords: terrorism; psychological needs; psychology of terrorists;

Tkhostov A. Sh. (2010). Psychological ambiguity of the concept of violence.National Psychological Journal, 2(4), 56-59

Concepts of "violence" and "effort" in the context of the development of the child are discussed. Nature, importance and relation of these concepts in modern psychology are shown. The idea of "humanistic" nonviolent pedagogy is analyzed. The value of "effort" for the normal development of personality is shown.

Pages: 56-59

By: ;

Keywords: socialization; violence; effort; nonviolent pedagogy; development of the person;

Emelin V. A., Rasskazova E. I., Tkhostov A. S. (2012). The psychological affects of information technology. National Psychological Journal, 1(7), 81-87

The analysis of the psychological aspect of technological progress is shown. Its psychological effects such as the development and chronology of mental illness, cyborgisation, invalidation, excess availability and loss of privacy, “blurring” the boundaries of corporeity, increase in dependence risk, change in the structure of needs and activity are considered. Developments of diagnostic criteria for each category of impact are shown.

Pages: 81-87

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: technical progress; psychological effects of technological progress; mental illness; cyborgization; disability; excess availability and loss of privacy; “blurring” the boundaries of corporeality; structure of needs; structure of activity;

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