Background. Framing effect is rarely studied in relation to individual differences. In cognitive psychology, it reflects distortions in decision-making depending on the context (phrasing) of statements about alternatives, and framing is found within medical professional samples.
Objective. The objective of the study are asfollows: 1. to identify the differences in the students of medical and non-medical universities and susceptibility to framing, 2. establish in both groups similarities of individual decision-making styles (coping with uncertainty if any) in self-assessments (intelligence, risk taking and personality) and in willingness to take risks and tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, 3. to identify the specific relationship between susceptibility to the framing effect (FE) in medical students with their personal properties.
Design. The paper describes the study of framing on medicine (n = 78) and psychology students (n = 122). It is demonstrated that in Kahneman and Tversky’s “Asian disease problem”, the psychology students show reframing effect while medical students don’t show difference in answers. Participants who choose different answers in negative phrasing of the issue differ in self-esteemed risk taking and intolerance for uncertainty; but there is no difference in positive version of the problem. Differences in personality profiles of the future members of medical and non-medical students have been established, both in terms of the personality variables and their associations to the dynamic regulatory systems. Medical students are characterized with less procrastination and higher risk readiness. Self-esteemed risk is correlated with risk readiness in both samples (and negatively connected to rationality within the psychology student sample). Unexpectedly, risk preparedness is also correlated with intolerance for uncertainty in both groups. Medical students are characterized by specific correlation between risk readiness and personal self-esteem (good/bad person scale). Self-esteemed risk proposed is shown to be not only connected to corresponding questionnaire scale of personal risk preparedness but also to correlate to the choice in the framing effect issues.
Results. These and other connections report about specifics of personal characteristics structure within the group of medical students.
Available Online: 01/01/2018
The role of mass media in spreading the ideas of tolerance and multiculturalism in society is analysed. Challenges they are faced w in connection with the relevant issue are formulated.
The nature of terrorism as an extreme situation in modern risk society of is analysed. The interconnection between terrorism and xenophobia, discrimination and the spread of intolerance attitudes are shown. Possible ways of searching for effective measures to manage xenophobia risk, combating the ideology of terrorism and accepting tolerance as an essential basis of interaction between individuals and groups in society.
The principles of building tolerant attitudes in the Russian society which are developed on the basis of the social constructionism methods, evolutionary and cultural and historical approaches to the study of complex systems, concepts of social action and social risk are outlined. The theoretical and practical requirements of modern society are thoroughly and comprehensively analysed.
The history of scientific conflict discourse based on the analysis of philosophic studies, social psychology, economics, and evolutionary biology is shown. The main current theories concerning the conflicts in society and ways to resolve them are considered. The views of local and foreign scientists in the paradigm of tolerance and the perspectives of building tolerant behavior in modern society are presented.