The objective of the paper is to research the relations between psychological and didactic requirements for designing training technologies of ensuring the educational results specified by the Federal State Educational Standards of a new generation.
A necessity of solving three interrelated tasks is highlighted. The first task is aimed at selecting achievements of A.N. Leontiev’s academic school by to further include them into the psychological training program of educators. The second one is directed at realizing the “projection” of psychological theory provisions into the system of didactic notions. The third one consists in developing educational methods of various study fields on the basis of the novel didactic knowledge and experimental verification of these methods.
The general approach to solving the tasks mentioned is proposed hereunder. The most important principles of A.N. Leontiev’s theory for the sphere of education have been emphasized.
It is suggested to introduce a number of notions in didactics to be adequately described in the activity structure. A set of methods for the developing students’ learning activities, which is the basis of their main ability (the ability to learn), is proposed.
Educational technology in the activity paradigm achieves educational results that are legitimated in the Federal State Educational Standards. The model of developmental education has been probated within the educational program “Small Academy of Lomonosov Moscow State University”, and also in the works of a number of school experts who were involved in the experiment.
An analysis of the cultural and historical theory of L. Vygotsky is considered. It is shown that in its essence this theory belongs to non-classical psychology. The main ideas concerning the development of the human individual in education put forward by scientists in the framework of this theory are considered.
Keywords: L. Vygotsky;
cultural and historical approach;
development of the person;
zone of proximal development;
theory of developmental education;
zone of potential development;
zone of further development;
In this article the authors, without setting a special aim of the comparative analysis of the history and current state of the Russian and English pre-school and primary education (in England schooling starts at 4 years age, in Russia – at 6-7 years age), describe the logic of the transition from pre-school to the school education system, analyzing how, by whom and by what professional organisations in England psychological problems of transition are solved.
The results of the research conducted by the authors in order to identify the characteristics of the psychological content of the internal dialogue in school students and establishing ways to build the inner dialogue in the learning process are shown. This work is based on planned approach to development of conceptual mental activity by P.Y. Galpern.