Since the time of Galileo (1564—1642), Western civilization has increasingly fallen under the spell of science. Despite this fact, anthropological and psychological research has shown that magical beliefs are present in both children and adults in modern Western industrial cultures. How can a belief in magic coexist with a belief in science in the mind of a rational, educated adult? A possible explanation is that magical beliefs survive in the rational mind by going into the subconscious. Experiments examining this hypothesis will be reviewed; theoretical and practical implications of the existence of subconscious magical beliefs in modern rational adults will be analyzed.
We discuss evolutionary precursors of social intelligence in complex social systems, and dostinguish levels, forms ans types of social intelligence in humans. On the basis of experimental studies of social intelligence in children, we distinguish high, middle and low levels of social intelligence.. The importance of distinguishing levels, forms and types of social intelligence for a number of theoretical and practical issues of preparing a modern child for the effective appropriation of (and functioning in) complex social systems is accentuated.
The problems of social intelligence in the form of deception and manipulation in adults and children. Those cases are considered when the deception does not contradict the moral norms. Children use social intelligence in the form of cheating an adult as a necessary prerequisite of a free moral choice and the subsequent internal moral motivation.
In this article the authors, without setting a special aim of the comparative analysis of the history and current state of the Russian and English pre-school and primary education (in England schooling starts at 4 years age, in Russia – at 6-7 years age), describe the logic of the transition from pre-school to the school education system, analyzing how, by whom and by what professional organisations in England psychological problems of transition are solved.
The authors give an idea of two models of modern preschool education: artificially accelerative model, where the logic of pre-school education is replaced by formal studies that simulate school learning, and developmental education model that takes into account the rich potential of preschool age.
In the paper the authors solve two problems: first they demonstrate the implementation of the first and second mixed models of preschool education in England and secondly they analyze the role of child psychologists in solving the problems that arise in the implementation of this model. The system of pre-school education and training in England is outlined. An account of public institutions where it is carried out, and in which of them the program is presented, is given. It is shown what professions (educators, psychologists, medical personnel, etc.) are involved in the English system of preschool education, and what functions they perform.
The paper describes which goals are set in child care centers of England, and what means they use to solve them. The authors analyze the logic of the transition from preschool to school education system in England. They provide how and what professional organizations are incentivising the transition and how the accompanying psychological problems are solved.
The role of psychologists in solving problems that arise in the implementation of a particular model of the English preschool education is studied. As the standard position of psychologist is not registered with a kindergarten or primary school, psychologists do not produce direct influence, but only produce indirect impact on the system of early childhood care and education in the course of problem solutions.