The paper is devoted to analysis of the potential of P.Ya.Galperin’s theory of gradual development of human intellectual activity for studying social cognition in children. In this area of studies the theory of gradual development of human intellectual activitycan be used to understand the child ability to manage the interpersonal situation of conflicts and to develop complex communicative skills.
There are three main areas that can employ the notions of P.Ya.Galperin’s theory. The first one relies on this method in teaching practice. The second one is devoted to the study of how social interaction in developing mental actions affects the process of gradual development of human intellectual activity and the characteristics of this activity. Within the third area, this method can be used to study the development of social knowledge in childhood.
The paper includes the examples of the experimental modeling of communicative situations as conditions for unfolding orientation processes and subsequent development of social and intellectual strategies for resolving problem in communicative situations.
The theory and method of gradual development of human intellectual activity allows to outline new directions in the research of social cognition in childhood according to three areas, namely, change of conventional practices of training communicative skills in childhood; development of the cognitive component of social emotional and communicative competence; description and elaboration of age-specific and developmental abilities to survive in complex communicative situations and plan future actions, which is a necessary condition for the development of social intelligence.
The experiments carried out within the framework of the research analysed participants’ ability to manage interpersonal relations in communicative situations. The orientational strategies used by children ib the course of the experiments were closely studied and classified.
Available Online: 10.10.2017
We discuss evolutionary precursors of social intelligence in complex social systems, and dostinguish levels, forms ans types of social intelligence in humans. On the basis of experimental studies of social intelligence in children, we distinguish high, middle and low levels of social intelligence.. The importance of distinguishing levels, forms and types of social intelligence for a number of theoretical and practical issues of preparing a modern child for the effective appropriation of (and functioning in) complex social systems is accentuated.
The problems of social intelligence in the form of deception and manipulation in adults and children. Those cases are considered when the deception does not contradict the moral norms. Children use social intelligence in the form of cheating an adult as a necessary prerequisite of a free moral choice and the subsequent internal moral motivation.
In this article the authors, without setting a special aim of the comparative analysis of the history and current state of the Russian and English pre-school and primary education (in England schooling starts at 4 years age, in Russia – at 6-7 years age), describe the logic of the transition from pre-school to the school education system, analyzing how, by whom and by what professional organisations in England psychological problems of transition are solved.
The authors give an idea of two models of modern preschool education: artificially accelerative model, where the logic of pre-school education is replaced by formal studies that simulate school learning, and developmental education model that takes into account the rich potential of preschool age.
In the paper the authors solve two problems: first they demonstrate the implementation of the first and second mixed models of preschool education in England and secondly they analyze the role of child psychologists in solving the problems that arise in the implementation of this model. The system of pre-school education and training in England is outlined. An account of public institutions where it is carried out, and in which of them the program is presented, is given. It is shown what professions (educators, psychologists, medical personnel, etc.) are involved in the English system of preschool education, and what functions they perform.
The paper describes which goals are set in child care centers of England, and what means they use to solve them. The authors analyze the logic of the transition from preschool to school education system in England. They provide how and what professional organizations are incentivising the transition and how the accompanying psychological problems are solved.
The role of psychologists in solving problems that arise in the implementation of a particular model of the English preschool education is studied. As the standard position of psychologist is not registered with a kindergarten or primary school, psychologists do not produce direct influence, but only produce indirect impact on the system of early childhood care and education in the course of problem solutions.