The paper is devoted to the concept of «zone of proximal development» (ZPD). This fundamental concept is revealed in the framework of the ergative model of the subject of work and learning. The prime postulate of the model is the statement about the genetic unity of the subject of collective activity (the ergasystem) and the individual subject. The similarity of structures was followed by the cultural and historical development of homo sapiens, which occurred in the labour conditions that promoted building human relations. Generalized functions in the ergasystem and the corresponding positions can approximately be as follows: «executor», «leader», «ideologist» and «strategist».
The paper states that the subject of educational activity is represented by the same basic characteristics. At any learning stage, the teacher must judge the necessary pedagogical influences according to which subject positions to be improved. Using the ZPD toolkit, the teacher directs efforts to raise the general maturity of the learner, which will develop the ability to learn independently.
In order to verify the assumption mentioned above, the method of the teaching experiment was used, during which the students of the secondary vocational education and high school students were attending additional training courses at the Department of Further Education, The Small Academy, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Extra training courses included project or research activities of trainees, so groups of students acted both the subject of collective work and the subject of learning. The first results of the pilot experiment showed that productive work of the teacher and student can be carried out at the intersection of the subject spaces of these activities, where the boundaries of the ZPD can be outlined.
Keywords: Galperin P.Y.;
zone of proximal development;
ergatic model of labour and educational activity;
ability to learn;
extra training of schoolchildren;
subject of labour activity;
subject of educational activity;
Available Online: 10.10.2017
The objective of the paper is to research the relations between psychological and didactic requirements for designing training technologies of ensuring the educational results specified by the Federal State Educational Standards of a new generation.
A necessity of solving three interrelated tasks is highlighted. The first task is aimed at selecting achievements of A.N. Leontiev’s academic school by to further include them into the psychological training program of educators. The second one is directed at realizing the “projection” of psychological theory provisions into the system of didactic notions. The third one consists in developing educational methods of various study fields on the basis of the novel didactic knowledge and experimental verification of these methods.
The general approach to solving the tasks mentioned is proposed hereunder. The most important principles of A.N. Leontiev’s theory for the sphere of education have been emphasized.
It is suggested to introduce a number of notions in didactics to be adequately described in the activity structure. A set of methods for the developing students’ learning activities, which is the basis of their main ability (the ability to learn), is proposed.
Educational technology in the activity paradigm achieves educational results that are legitimated in the Federal State Educational Standards. The model of developmental education has been probated within the educational program “Small Academy of Lomonosov Moscow State University”, and also in the works of a number of school experts who were involved in the experiment.
The results of the research conducted by the authors in order to identify the characteristics of the psychological content of the internal dialogue in school students and establishing ways to build the inner dialogue in the learning process are shown. This work is based on planned approach to development of conceptual mental activity by P.Y. Galpern.