Background. Providing emergency psychological assistance to the population affected by emergency situations (ES) today is an integral part of emergency response measures. The required psychological work with the victims and their relatives is carried out by psychologists of the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM), Russia. Children are a particular group of victims, so it is important to study how to help them in emergency situations.
The Objective of this paper is to summarize and analyze the experience of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, in organizing and providing emergency psychological assistance to children, parents and teachers of secondary schools.
Design. In the past few years, the experts of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, have gained experience in providing emergency psychological assistance to children after incidents in educational institutions. The paper describes the experience of psychologists in connection with the incident that occurred in January, 2018 in secondary school 127 in the city of Perm, Russia, where the teenagers attacked younger students and their class teacher. The authors describe the organization and areas of psychological in this situation. The contents and objectives of the psychological work at the emergency site, the process of expert advice in organizing mass events to inform parents and teachers, and examples describing the methods of providing emergency psychological assistance are described.
Results. The authors highlighted the recommended areas of special attention, and also articulated the features that the psychologist should take into account when providing psychological assistance to victims of emergency situations and incidents that occurred on the territory of educational institutions.
Conclusion. The category of those who need psychological assistance in the acute period is wider the category of those who are harmed and who witnessed the event. The public stir results in embracing those who did not participate in the event but was emotionally involved. It is safe to say that such situations affect more people, which induces the necessity of psychological support and implementation of an integrated approach in order to preserve the mental health of both children and adults, which requires involvement of experts of various profiles.
Keywords: emergency psychological assistance;
psychological service of Russian Emergencies Ministry;
Available Online: 01/30/2019
Background. Near-death experience is an altered state of consciousness at the time when the person is on the threshold of death. Near-death experience has a specific structure which includes such elements as extra corporal experience, moving in a dark tunnel, seeing bright light, meetings with the deceased persons, panoramic life review and many others. The condition is quite common nowadays particularly due to the success of resuscitation and a high level of emergency care organization). Experience in itself and its some consequences derivate a lot of psychological problems at the person, which he is afraid to tell not only medical staff, but also relatives because of danger of interpretation his (her) near-death experiences as marks of psychic illness.
The Objective of the analytical theoretical research was to study the experience of working with such patients, accumulated in Western medicine, psychology and psychotherapy, the organization of the training process and also the organization of psychotherapeutic support for survivors and members of their families.
Design. This article analyzes the foreign (most publications on this subject is carried out in the United States) works on the problem of treatment with near-death experiencer and psychological support for them, the material contained in these works is structured and summarized on the main problems in this area.
Research results. Based on the review and analysis of the reference literature a preliminary Atwater's adaptation model of the near-death experience is proposed, the integration of this experience is viewed as the main goal to be implemented by the experiencer independently or in collaboration with a psychotherapist, the universal rules of treating near-death experiencers are elaborated. There are rules of treating different groups of experiencers and different categories of people interacting with them are identified and integrated: the rules of treating children with near-death, the experience of organizing psychotherapeutic assistance to their relatives.
Conclusion. The compliance with the rules by physicians, psychotherapists and relatives of near-death patients contributes to the decreased emotional and social problems in the patient, and sometimes even prevents their occurrence.
Keywords: near-death experience;
altered states of consciousness (ASC);
Available Online: 08/01/2018