Background. In many countries frontline emergency workers of different specialties face the need to inform people of their relatives’ death and to support them during the acute period following the message. The need for psychological training in this area is evident. However, the research in this area is not only complicated in terms of logistics, but also hindered by a number of ethical difficulties.
The analysis presented in this paper has significant practical value and draws on the unique professional perspective of the EMERCOM emergency psychologists who provide psychological support to people experiencing loss in an acute period — relatives and loved ones of those who died in emergencies.
Objective. To give an outline of approaches to psychological support in cases of loss, of the factors influencing adaptation to a loss, and of the opportunities for early psychological interventions.
Design. The theoretical overview presents the analysis of foreign experience and main approaches to announcing the death of a relative. The following section describes and analyses the main approaches and practical experience of the EMERCOM psychologists. The conclusion outlines the possibilities of a systematic approach to providing emergency psychological aid in cases of loss.
Results. The study presents a list of characteristics of support providers, recipients and situations that need to be taken into account when choosing a strategy of work with people experiencing a recent loss.
Conclusion. The study allows to single out three main thematic blocks, the consideration of which is necessary when choosing a strategy for dealing with loss in an acute period. First, features of the situation; second, characteristics of the person experiencing loss; third, the characteristic of the support provider. The process of psychological support, as described in the paper, includes assessment and consideration of the objective characteristics of the situation, the recipient’s characteristics and response, and the characteristics of the specialist himself. The interpretation of relationship between these factors and their influence on the condition of the person who experiences a loss allows the psychologist to choose the most effective strategy for providing psychological support.
Background. The paper is based on specifics of the professional activity of specialists of the State Inspectorate of Small Size Vessels of Russian EMERCOM (SISSV) is a highly demanding job that requires specific individual psychological features to successfully fulfill their duties. Such individual psychological features are important for experts, and also for candidates to the positions in the GIMS used as recruitment criteria.
The Objective. of the study is to identify job skills that determine the professional effectiveness of SISSV experts, to identify the relationship between job skills and career success and to determine psychological indicators strongly associated with success.
Design. An expert survey (N = 40) was conducted to determine psychological indicators that contribute to professional success of SISSV experts. We carried out psychological assessment of acting SISSV experts (N = 275) to determine the presence and the level of necessary skills. Based on expert assessments, the inspectors were assigned to either successful or unsuccessful groups. The resulting polar groups were compared using Mann-Whitney criterion. Correlation analysis (Spearman) was used to access the strength of association between professional success and job skills. We also used factor and regression analyses to model the structure of job skills associated with professional success of acting SISSV specialists and job applicants.
Results. allowed to establish reliable differences between the polar groups on following characteristics (p ≤ 0.05): intelligence, abstract and operative thinking, intellectual liability, attention characteristics (volume, concentration, selection, distribution). They were defined as job skills for SISSV experts. The results of correlation analysis (p = 0.01, p = 0.05) showed that the specialists professional success depended on the presence and level of formation of job skills. We determined the structure of job skills associated with professional success.
Conclusion. The obtained results may be used to optimize the processes of psychological monitoring and psychological selection of the acting specialists of SISSV of Russian EMERCOM and applicant for the position.
Background. Providing emergency psychological assistance to the population affected by emergency situations (ES) today is an integral part of emergency response measures. The required psychological work with the victims and their relatives is carried out by psychologists of the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM), Russia. Children are a particular group of victims, so it is important to study how to help them in emergency situations.
The Objective of this paper is to summarize and analyze the experience of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, in organizing and providing emergency psychological assistance to children, parents and teachers of secondary schools.
Design. In the past few years, the experts of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, have gained experience in providing emergency psychological assistance to children after incidents in educational institutions. The paper describes the experience of psychologists in connection with the incident that occurred in January, 2018 in secondary school 127 in the city of Perm, Russia, where the teenagers attacked younger students and their class teacher. The authors describe the organization and areas of psychological in this situation. The contents and objectives of the psychological work at the emergency site, the process of expert advice in organizing mass events to inform parents and teachers, and examples describing the methods of providing emergency psychological assistance are described.
Results. The authors highlighted the recommended areas of special attention, and also articulated the features that the psychologist should take into account when providing psychological assistance to victims of emergency situations and incidents that occurred on the territory of educational institutions.
Conclusion. The category of those who need psychological assistance in the acute period is wider the category of those who are harmed and who witnessed the event. The public stir results in embracing those who did not participate in the event but was emotionally involved. It is safe to say that such situations affect more people, which induces the necessity of psychological support and implementation of an integrated approach in order to preserve the mental health of both children and adults, which requires involvement of experts of various profiles.
Available Online: 30.01.2019
Background. Currently there is a need to adopt a special federal law that covers psychological counselling of the population. The lack of such law is preventing use of uniformed terminology across the country and separating governmental and non-governmental psychological counselling rendered. Such gap also does not correspond with the interests of the clients that counselling is focused on since the experts who are allowed to extend those services are undetermined and undefined.
Objective The paper is directed at analyzing the status quo of legal regulation of the psychological counselling, finding gaps in such regulation and proving the need in a special federal law.
Research Progress. The paper takes an account of the current state of regulation of psychological counselling in the Russian Federation and foreign countries using the comparative legal analysis approach.The research resulted in a finding that there is the need in a special federal law on psychological counselling.
Conclusion. Special federal law on psychological counselling of the population is necessary to elaborate and eventually to implement for uniformity in counselling and in social work services, and also to protect the rights and interests of those who seek councelling, as well as determining the qualifications of those to render such services.
Practical Application. The research results can be used while drafting and passing a special federal law on psychological counselling and executive regulatory acts.
The paper uses the experience of psychological service of EMERCOM in Russia. The notion of emergency psychological aid in emergency situations involving analyzing and predicting risk of adverse social and psychological mass phenomena in emergency and risk management approaches.
For example, a particular emergency situation caused by the fire and the collapse of Admiral Shopping Center in Kazan (Republic of Tatarstan), which took place 11 March 2015, the basic principles of organizing experts of the psychological service of EMERCOM of Russia, involved in elimination of emergency situations effects, including expert practice and challenges. General approach to the provision of emergency psychological assistance to the victims and relatives of those killed and injured during the emergency and organization of such work in specific areas are outlined: on-site emergency, «hotline» phone in the Bureau of Forensic Medicine.
Organization of interdepartmental cooperation of EMERCOM psychological service experts of Russia with other services engaged and disaster relief efforts are briefly touched upon. The paper raises issues of cooperation with psychologist organizations within the framework of the unified state system of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations to ensure prolonged psychological assistance to the victims and relatives of those killed and injured.In the conclusion, factors in a given emergency situation that could affect the psychological state of the victims are estimated.
Available Online: 15.11.2015
The organization of psychological services of Russian Emergencies Ministry is considered. Its main objectives and areas of work are described. Particular attention is paid to the activities of Russian Emergencies Ministry psychologists who provide emergency psychological care.