Introduction. The Taylor Complex Figure (TCF) technique is one of the neuropsychologist’s tools and is used to diagnose children after 4 y.o. and adults for assessing visual spatial characteristics, visual constructive skills and visual memory.
However, the lack of quantitative standards for using the Taylor method obtained within the Russian sample makes it difficult to apply it both in research and in practical work.
The Objective is to obtain age standards of the “Taylor Integrated Figure” technique on children 4–17 years old, and also to validate it according to the results of a neuropsychological examination.
Procedure. The study used the quantitative approach to assess the “Taylor Integrated Figure” children of 4–17 years. Each of the 18 elements of the figure was evaluated by the quality of the pattern and the correctness of the placement in space. The figure obtained by copying the original image and the figure reproduced by memory 20 minutes after copying were separately evaluated. Additionally, a qualitative assessment of the figures was carried out according to the level of development of metric and structural topological representations. The study involved 377 children, of which 243 boys and 134 girls aged from 52 to 214 months (average age - 117 ± 42 months).
Results. The nonlinear dependence of the estimated indicators on age was found. Age standards for the implementation of the technique for 5 age groups (4–5, 6–7, 8–9, 10–12, 13–17 years) were calculated. Indicators of the complexity of working with each element of the figure were obtained. Based on the analysis of the success ratio of the simplest and most complex elements of the figure, a mathematically grounded threshold for making a decision on the presence of aggravation has been proposed. The validity of the technique was assessed based on the results of a neuropsychological examination. It is shown that the technique to the greatest extent measures structural and spatial functions and visual memory in children under 13 years, it has low discriminant validity with respect to other neuropsychological characteristics. The substantive validity of qualitative assessments and quantitative indicators is in many respects the same, while quantitative indicators are about 1.5 times more strongly associated with the results of neuropsychological diagnostics.
Conclusion. Analysis of the predictive ability of logistic regression models indicates the possibility of applying the technique for screening diagnostics at school. The method allows separating children without neurocognitive deficiency from those who need to undergo a full neuropsychological examination.
Background. Providing emergency psychological assistance to the population affected by emergency situations (ES) today is an integral part of emergency response measures. The required psychological work with the victims and their relatives is carried out by psychologists of the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM), Russia. Children are a particular group of victims, so it is important to study how to help them in emergency situations.
The Objective of this paper is to summarize and analyze the experience of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, in organizing and providing emergency psychological assistance to children, parents and teachers of secondary schools.
Design. In the past few years, the experts of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, have gained experience in providing emergency psychological assistance to children after incidents in educational institutions. The paper describes the experience of psychologists in connection with the incident that occurred in January, 2018 in secondary school 127 in the city of Perm, Russia, where the teenagers attacked younger students and their class teacher. The authors describe the organization and areas of psychological in this situation. The contents and objectives of the psychological work at the emergency site, the process of expert advice in organizing mass events to inform parents and teachers, and examples describing the methods of providing emergency psychological assistance are described.
Results. The authors highlighted the recommended areas of special attention, and also articulated the features that the psychologist should take into account when providing psychological assistance to victims of emergency situations and incidents that occurred on the territory of educational institutions.
Conclusion. The category of those who need psychological assistance in the acute period is wider the category of those who are harmed and who witnessed the event. The public stir results in embracing those who did not participate in the event but was emotionally involved. It is safe to say that such situations affect more people, which induces the necessity of psychological support and implementation of an integrated approach in order to preserve the mental health of both children and adults, which requires involvement of experts of various profiles.
Available Online: 01/30/2019
The paper describes research on the role and place of computer games in the lives of children and adolescents, and also perceiving how young gamers estimate the impact of various aspects of computer games and experience games in general on themselves.
The study involved gamers between the age of 11 and 19 years. The study is conducted using surveys and interviews. The issues are related to those aspects of games that are perceived as most important, attractive, and cause the greatest emotional response, and also determine the selection of games; how users appreciate game characters including users’ attitudes to the games and the place of the computer game in their lives.
The study revealed that children and adolescents generally have a positive attitude towards computer games and find them a useful and enjoyable part of life, they do not feel shame and remorse for wasting time playing computer games, and are going to continue to play on into adulthood. Playing computer games they learn to communicate and make decisions.
The most important aspect of evaluating game characters is their visual representation.
The character appearance in the game is one of the main factors of their attractiveness. Adolescents do not appreciate only important aesthetic component of the visual images, but also their meaning: reflection of personality or actions of characters in visual images.
Preferences in selecting games are largely determined by the player actions in the game rather than the game plot. For adolescents computer game is an opportunity to try themselves in different situations and get the experience of interacting with other people, who may get inaccessible in real life. A computer game for children is a model of a successful living, so it can be used as a means of personal self-development. Computer games make a full-fledged sphere of life in adolescents through which they gradually realize the importance of school and studies, sports, and hobbies. Playing computer games adolescents relax, socialize and gain social and cognitive skills
The overview and theoretical study of social support for children and adolescents is presented. The issues of social development of children and adolescents in terms of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and Kahn’s and Antonucci’s Convoy Model of Social Relations are discussed. The sources, forms and types of social support for the early, pre-school, primary school and adolescents are analyzed. The paper specifies the following issues: the parent-child relationships and characteristics of social support in early childhood can affect the development of the structure and quality of human social relations network throughout his/her life. Social networks and the organization of social support for adolescents are detailed. The patterns of social support of adolescents may affect their psychosocial well-being. The social support systems used by modern adolescents are described. The controversial issues of seeking social support as the leading coping strategy are raised. Various ways of seeking social support for adolescence are analyzed. The importance of parents, teachers and peers in providing social support for children and adolescents is shown. The author’s view of social support as one of the resources of the child’s autonomy, which can be developed only in certain respects, i.e. respect for personal boundaries and accepting differences in individual values and needs, the independence aspiration supported by respect and interest, unpunished by shame or the threat of rejection.