The paper is dedicated to the 115th birthday of P.Ya.Galperin, the classic of national psychology (1902-2017). The purpose of the paper is to showP.Ya.Galperin’s contribution to fundamental and practiceoriented science, and alsoto revealthe link between these two approaches sides in his scientific heritage. The gist of his innovative psychological theory is disclosed. The key methodological principlesare highlighted: understanding of the scope and method of psychological science; psychophysical issue, i.e. the nature of psyche and the mental world; a psychophysiological problem, the issue of the relationship between psychology and physiology; the issue of human instincts in connection with historical social nature of consciousness; the notion of linguistic consciousness and the relation of language and thought; the principle of unity of history and theory in scientific knowledge. Terminological work carried out by P. Ya.Galperin is analyzed. The introduction of new concepts enriches and makes the conceptual apparatus of psychological sciencemore precise. The necessity to reveal each methodological provision to solve practical problemsis mentioned. The unity of theoretical and practical aspects in psychological theory developed by P. Ya. Galperin, its authentic nature and relation to the culturalhistorical psychology of L.S.Vygotsky, activity concepts of S.L. Rubinstein and A.N. Leontiev are shown. There are several directions in which the method of gradual development of mental functions and concepts organizes the process of teaching and learning, the mechanisms of perceptionand simultaneous mental processes, the phenomena of Jean Piaget are explained. To sum up, the inexhaustible possibilities of the practical use of the theory of P.Ya. Galperin in all areas of individual experience.
Keywords: history of psychology;
subject of psychology;
the organic and the social;
psychological theory of activity;
Available Online: 10/10/2017
The author emphasizes the increasing role of psychology in the life of modern society, entering into the social life in a variety of forms. Psychology is a truly «effective» science of studying a person. The most significant achievements of modern psychology are considered: the development of practical educational psychology, the creation of system activity approach to cognition, the occurrence of psychology in the world of cognitive science, psychology of emergencies, etc. Psychology has become a reality and its various areas are treated as «the architect» of mental and economic life throughout the world, including Russia, psychology turns into a efficient reconstructing science that can be observed not only in the construction program standards of modern education, but also in the programs of tolerance development in the society as a support of diversity standards.
Considerable attention is paid to the activities of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, as a center of psychological science with all its increasing diversity and development. On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology, A.G. Asmolov, whose life was closely connected with the educational and research center, examines successes and accomplishments of the Department, contribution to the world of psychology.
A.G. Asmolov lists the names of the most outstanding graduates of the Department who have achieved impressive results in various branches of psychology and are now in different parts of the Russian Federation and of the world working in the sphere of psychology. The Department is said to be a «trendsetter» in psychology. Such interesting areas as psychology of uncertainty, psychology of complexity, psychology of diversity, etc. are being developed. The ideas that emerge at the Department of psychology are becoming the ideas known in the whole world.
The paper analyses such polysemantic terms as “subject”, “individual”, “personality”, and which form sincretic notions, e.g. “subjectivity of personality”, “multisubjectivity of personality”, etc.
The author claims that he was unable to find in the works of other authors meaningful connections between the concepts of «subject» and «personality». The concept of «subject» is used in such a wide meaning that its content potential is close to zero. It highlights the complexity of understanding the subject, and provides evidence of the difficulties that the author finds in the works of the leading philosophers and psychologists who are concerned with the issue of personality. As a result, the author concludes that the analysis of the different forms of reflexivity and, their base practices are the theory of psychology of the subject.
The second term of the triad – the individual or the individuality, is both the subject and the subject matter and objective of an infinite number of studies. At the same time the concepts of «subject» and «personality» are not congruent to the concept of «individual», although many attempts to define or describe the personalityare repelled by the notion of individual. The phenomenon of personality expresses a rather late result of human development.
The interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. is refurbished. The author believes the main issue of psychological research is personality. On the ontological plane,there are two notions of personality: down — to the subject — to a function or a collection of functions; and up — to the personality — to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
The period of the Middle Ages became a new progressive stage of development of psychological thought. Daily supervision and generalization in the course of communication, activities gained further development in the form of philosophical judgment and a formulation of the most general laws and offers. In the Middle Ages, under the influence of the developed objective historical reality, in Azerbaijan the number of the poets and prose writers writing in the native language though before this work were created by them, generally in the Arab and farsidsky languages has increased. The ancient period comes to the end at this stage and the medieval period of the Azerbaijani literature when in parallel the psychology passed the stage of consecutive studying and the analysis of human knowledge which is saved up in the course of communication of people with each other begins. In article it is told about culture, customs, literary and cultural heritage of the Azerbaijani people. The main attention is paid to studying of prescientific and scientific psychological science of Azerbaijan during various periods when it developed as one of the field of philosophy. Also merits of such prominent representatives of public and scientific thought as Bahmanyar, Siradzheddin Urmavi, Nizami Gyandzhevi, Nasireddin Tusi, etc. are emphasized. Researches show that history of science and culture of Azerbaijan, models of folklore and references are rich with psychological thoughts and ideas. Azerbaijan has ancient traditions in the history of forming of the first psychological views. After declaration of independence as Azerbaijan in modern literature the main place is taken by universal ideas, subjects of return of the occupied native lands, love for the country, justice, etc. In spite of the fact that now the Azerbaijani literature is based on reflection and a celebration of ideas of an azerbaydzhanizm, modernist and post-modernist aspirations are also shown in a varying degree. In article the origin and history of development of psychological thought of the period of the Middle Ages reveals that gives the chance to consider psychology comprehensively, in a complex, and also to learn what has formed the basis of modern psychological thought.
Contemporary situation with mental health is reviewed, and developments in psychiatry, psychotherapy and clinical psychology are monitored. Russian experience is discussed in the context of the world tendencies. In the situation of the unprecedented increase in psychopathology, insufficient attention has been paid to the crisis phenomena in psychiatry and psychology as well as the development of mental health institutions, which are still in need of specialists, and facilitation of health care programs for population.
The author writes about the increase in the number of patients who need psychiatric or psychological care, lack of experts in the mental health system, low psychological culture of the population, lack of early diagnosis of predisposition to psychopathology.
Multiple hypotheses on the causes of mental disorders are outlined in the paper. Among them, the theory of nervous exhaustion, the hypothesis that mental disorders are associated with impaired brain electrical activity, the theory of the special role of the frontal lobes in the emergence of psychopathology, the hypothesis of an imbalance of hormones, as an etiological factor of mental illness and others, are given account. The paper raises issues of mental disorders classification. The author also discusses the issue of chemical treatment and its isolated and uncontrolled use within mental disorders.
However, the review is incomplete and tends to be an invitation for mental health specialists to further discuss the issues mentioned in the paper.
The problems of information security in the area of new technologies are considered. Central to the range of issues under consideration are psychological problems. It is stated that a number of children and adolescents can not use transfer to the virtual environment rules of moral behavior they are familiar with; this is the reason of large influx of newcomers violators of rules of behavior to the networking community. The necessity of developing a special training course designed to help such children and adolescents, as well as the widespread education of the younger generation in the sphere of the basics of cyberethics. The usefulness of this training course is illustrated by the results of a study conducted in the cyber environment: preferred direction of hacker community are demonstrated.
In article the critical analysis of a condition of working out of a problem terrorism in psychology is given. The new approach to understanding of essence of terrorism, ways of its preventive maintenance and suppression is proved.
In this paper we give the main trends and prospects of development of neuroscience, dealing with the problems of cerebral dysfunction, thinking, memory, perception and information processing. The issues of research of plastic capacity of adult brain, the problems of individual consciousness, decoding of the mechanisms of thinking, new possibilities for cross-cultural researches are considered. .The exciting interdisciplinary researches in the field of stress, distress and various mental and psychosomatic disorders caused by them are emphasized The conclusion is made that psychology cannot develop without close interaction with neuroscience.