Background. Impaired ability to regulate the emotional state is significant both in the onset of alcohol addiciton and in its course. Despite the fact that it is generally accepted to consider alcoholism from the point of view of the biopsychosocial paradigm, cross-cultural studies of the individual psychological properties of patients with alcoholism are extremely few.
The Objective of the research was to analyze strategies and methods of emotional regulation within alcoholism in the residents of St. Petersburg (Group 1) and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Group 2). Research hypotheses: there are regional and national differences in the emotional regulation strategies; emotional regulation strategies may occur due to socio-cultural factors.
Design. The research involved patients who were treated with drug at St. Petersburg Bekhterev Research Psycho-Neurological Institute (St. Petersburg Bekhterev NIPNI) and Yakutsk Republican Drug Dispensary. The sample included persons aged 18 to 70 years old diagnosed with alcohol addiction syndrome (F10.2) in accordance with ICD-10 and fluent in Russian. In total, 60 people took part in the study, 30 of them were residents of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region (Group 1), 30 people are residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Group 2).
Results. Significant regional differences were found in the use of the cognitive strategy of emotion regulation “positive reavaluation” (p = 0.01) in the residents of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region and residents of Yakutia. The basic strategy of emotional regulation is “suppression of expression” (p = 0.02), and also such difficulties of emotional regulation as “aversion of emotional reactions” (p = 0.002), “difficulties in showing impulsive reactions” (p = 0.007), “limited array of strategies emotional regulation ”(p = 0.003) are characteristic of residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). They reflect the cultural-based features of the northern peoples that are expressed in emotional restraint, propensity to suppress emotions and feelings.
Conclusion. The study of emotional regulation in alcohol pathology in reference to national and regional affiliation of individuals is of fundamental importance for solving problems in the field of ethnic psychology and psychiatry. In order to effectively provide medical, psychological and psychotherapeutic care to patients with alcohol addiction and other forms of addictive disorders it is necessary to take into account national and regional characteristics that can be an internal resource for the success of the assistance provided.
The period of the Middle Ages became a new progressive stage of development of psychological thought. Daily supervision and generalization in the course of communication, activities gained further development in the form of philosophical judgment and a formulation of the most general laws and offers. In the Middle Ages, under the influence of the developed objective historical reality, in Azerbaijan the number of the poets and prose writers writing in the native language though before this work were created by them, generally in the Arab and farsidsky languages has increased. The ancient period comes to the end at this stage and the medieval period of the Azerbaijani literature when in parallel the psychology passed the stage of consecutive studying and the analysis of human knowledge which is saved up in the course of communication of people with each other begins. In article it is told about culture, customs, literary and cultural heritage of the Azerbaijani people. The main attention is paid to studying of prescientific and scientific psychological science of Azerbaijan during various periods when it developed as one of the field of philosophy. Also merits of such prominent representatives of public and scientific thought as Bahmanyar, Siradzheddin Urmavi, Nizami Gyandzhevi, Nasireddin Tusi, etc. are emphasized. Researches show that history of science and culture of Azerbaijan, models of folklore and references are rich with psychological thoughts and ideas. Azerbaijan has ancient traditions in the history of forming of the first psychological views. After declaration of independence as Azerbaijan in modern literature the main place is taken by universal ideas, subjects of return of the occupied native lands, love for the country, justice, etc. In spite of the fact that now the Azerbaijani literature is based on reflection and a celebration of ideas of an azerbaydzhanizm, modernist and post-modernist aspirations are also shown in a varying degree. In article the origin and history of development of psychological thought of the period of the Middle Ages reveals that gives the chance to consider psychology comprehensively, in a complex, and also to learn what has formed the basis of modern psychological thought.
The aim of the article is to introduce the concept of personality and character which is based on the activity theory approach by A.N.Leontiev. The introductory part of the work gives a short history of characterology whose analysis reveals apparent uncertainty in understanding the subject matters of character psychology and personality psychology. They are directly (character) or indirectly (personality) confined to a person’s psychic individuality. However, the specific content of this individuality appears to be so broad and various that characterology starts losing its clear contours while personality does not find any generally accepted definition. In the framework of the developed concept, personality is regarded as a structure of life meanings while character is seen as an instrumental level which accepts life meanings for performance and implements them in human actions. Nonidentity of the two studied formations is shown: they are different in terms of content, function in human psychics, units of structure, general construction and genesis. Some examples are given based on the data of ethnic psychology. They show how a sense formation which is the same for different nations is realized through unequal characterological techniques. On the other hand, a few sense formations can be expressed by a single action or stereotype. In conclusion problems of correlation between personality and character and the source of their generation are discussed.
The article presents the original research on ethnic psychology and comparative mythology that reveals common psychological features (universal cognitive forms like Jungian archetypes) in representatives of different nations.
The subjective view on own people’s history is the concept defined in this article and differentiated by the author from the close notions of “world view”, “model of the world”, “ethnic outlook” etc. Causal concept of psychological time of the person is stated, based on which a human’s subjective picture of life and experience of time by ethnic group are explored. Methods applicable to study of subjective picture of the history of the people are presented. Studies conducted on the problem of subjective history of Russian and Tatar peoples are described.