The paper presents the ideas of P.Ya. Galperin on the nature of moral behaviour and the basic patterns of internal responsibility in childhood and adolescence. Distinctive features of objective and subjective responsibility, internal and external responsibility are highlighted. It is argued that internal responsibility expresses the person’s attitude to society and social groups and might be developed only if involved in certain relations and implemented in socially useful activities, i.e. if it is significant for other people. The psychological roles of cooperation for of responsibility are compared in J. Piaget’s works and P.Ya. Galperin’s scientific theory. The research results of internal responsibility in primary school students and adolescents conducted by P.Ya. Galperin and T.V. Morozkina are discussed. The decisive role of value orientation and motivation in solving «affective type» problems and in moral behaviour is shown. According philosophy issues, responsibility is considered as a perceived necessity, which assumes a free moral choice. Three criteria of moral responsibility are introduced: the causal relationship between the subject’s behaviour and its consequence, subject’s ability to predict the possible consequences of his/her behaviour, the possibility of free choice. The psychological content of responsibility is the subject’s commitment and further response regulated by a certain system of norms and regulations on the basis of moral choice and self-regulation. The distinction between the action device and motive as the accepted moral basis for behaviour has been introduced. Accordingly, responsible behaviour is considered as willful behaviour. The genesis of strong-will behaviour is associated with social relations and moral values and is developed in the course of cooperation. Conditions of orientation in moral choice as a prerequisite for actualizing the individual’s internal responsibility are discussed.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of student practical work on the theory of systematic gradual development of human intellectual activity, i.e. the fundamental psychological theory of P. Galperin. Practical work based on the gradual development of human intellectual activity is impossible without appropriate methodological base and understanding of P. Galperin’s theory, and the concept of orientational activity. The paper presents the results of student report meta-study (reports of planning, implementation and evaluation training projects based on the gradual development of human intellectual activity). The paper analyzes the themes and goals of training programs, discusses the main challenges and achievements in building a complete orienting basis and in defining the steps of gradual development of human intellectual activity, gives examples of specific difficulties faced by students in implementing the training programs. The paper demonstrates how the three model schema of gradual development of human intellectual activity is realized in students’ projects: from the psychological through the psychological-pedagogical to methodical, or technological, i.e. «real educational situation» models. Based on the meta-analysis of students’ reports the possibilities to explore the concept of orientation activity in training programs is shown.
Keywords: Galperin P.Y.;
P.Ya. Galperin’s psychological conception;
method of gradual development of human intellectual activity;
orientational basis of action;
Available Online: 10/10/2017
The paper presents P.Ya. Galperin’s ideas of the psychological content of interiorization. P.Ya. Galperin considered the psyche as subject’s orienting activity and defined its functional role in the subject’s human activity. The internal orienting activity retains structural similarity with practical activities. The internal plan of activity is deemed as a «reserve field» that is necessary for testing actions in certain situations and disclosing the conditions for implementing them. The mental image arises as a component of activity, represents the features of objects being necessary for orientation and construction of actions. P.Ya. Galperin distinguishes features of two types of situations: where the psyche is not the primary matter and where the psyche is the primary matter. The principal ideas of the gradual development of mental actions theory and the method of directed development of mental processes as a re-creation of the logic of mental phenomena that reveal the psychological content of interiorization are discussed. The author justifies the concept of «subject logic of developed actions» that objectively dictates the logic of organizing not only cognitive, but also mental processes.
Available Online: 10/10/2017
The paper is dedicated to the 115th birthday of P.Ya.Galperin, the classic of national psychology (1902-2017). The purpose of the paper is to showP.Ya.Galperin’s contribution to fundamental and practiceoriented science, and alsoto revealthe link between these two approaches sides in his scientific heritage. The gist of his innovative psychological theory is disclosed. The key methodological principlesare highlighted: understanding of the scope and method of psychological science; psychophysical issue, i.e. the nature of psyche and the mental world; a psychophysiological problem, the issue of the relationship between psychology and physiology; the issue of human instincts in connection with historical social nature of consciousness; the notion of linguistic consciousness and the relation of language and thought; the principle of unity of history and theory in scientific knowledge. Terminological work carried out by P. Ya.Galperin is analyzed. The introduction of new concepts enriches and makes the conceptual apparatus of psychological sciencemore precise. The necessity to reveal each methodological provision to solve practical problemsis mentioned. The unity of theoretical and practical aspects in psychological theory developed by P. Ya. Galperin, its authentic nature and relation to the culturalhistorical psychology of L.S.Vygotsky, activity concepts of S.L. Rubinstein and A.N. Leontiev are shown. There are several directions in which the method of gradual development of mental functions and concepts organizes the process of teaching and learning, the mechanisms of perceptionand simultaneous mental processes, the phenomena of Jean Piaget are explained. To sum up, the inexhaustible possibilities of the practical use of the theory of P.Ya. Galperin in all areas of individual experience.
Keywords: history of psychology;
subject of psychology;
the organic and the social;
psychological theory of activity;
Available Online: 10/10/2017