Background. Providing emergency psychological assistance to the population affected by emergency situations (ES) today is an integral part of emergency response measures. The required psychological work with the victims and their relatives is carried out by psychologists of the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM), Russia. Children are a particular group of victims, so it is important to study how to help them in emergency situations.
The Objective of this paper is to summarize and analyze the experience of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, in organizing and providing emergency psychological assistance to children, parents and teachers of secondary schools.
Design. In the past few years, the experts of the EMERCOM psychological service, Russia, have gained experience in providing emergency psychological assistance to children after incidents in educational institutions. The paper describes the experience of psychologists in connection with the incident that occurred in January, 2018 in secondary school 127 in the city of Perm, Russia, where the teenagers attacked younger students and their class teacher. The authors describe the organization and areas of psychological in this situation. The contents and objectives of the psychological work at the emergency site, the process of expert advice in organizing mass events to inform parents and teachers, and examples describing the methods of providing emergency psychological assistance are described.
Results. The authors highlighted the recommended areas of special attention, and also articulated the features that the psychologist should take into account when providing psychological assistance to victims of emergency situations and incidents that occurred on the territory of educational institutions.
Conclusion. The category of those who need psychological assistance in the acute period is wider the category of those who are harmed and who witnessed the event. The public stir results in embracing those who did not participate in the event but was emotionally involved. It is safe to say that such situations affect more people, which induces the necessity of psychological support and implementation of an integrated approach in order to preserve the mental health of both children and adults, which requires involvement of experts of various profiles.
Available Online: 30.01.2019
Background. Thestudy explores the potential predictors of the collective action in the context of contemporary social and civil movements. Classical socio-psychological models of social movements focus on the concept of social identity, i.e. collective identity and have difficulty explaining a sudden upsurge of popular demonstrations in the world (from mass demonstrations in Russia till “Yellow vests” movement in France).
Objective. The research aims to identify a latent criterion of the identification with the protest movement which can be situated within the social space only at the moment of people assemblies.
Design. According to the literature review, the authors suggest that the collective experience of precariousness, representing the people’s vulnerability in existing social and political order can be a latent identification criterion of social and civil movements. In the research, we subjected the data of semi-structured interviews with the activists of Russian civil movements to the Jonathan A. Smith's method of interpretative phenomenological analysis.
Findings. As a result of the qualitative analysis of the interviews, the main features that manifest the collective experience of precariousness were identified. The collective experience is performed through the views of the civil movements activists in Russia in the 2010s: 1) Participation in demonstrations s identified with the particular state; 2) Experience of injustice as stepping out the comfort zone; 3) Intention to change social order; 4) Handling the fear of punishment; 5) Deception and lost illusions.
Conclusion. Precarity becomes a predictor of collective action only in the case if it becomes a collective experience of a community, a formal assigning to the precariat class is not enough for collective mobilization. The understanding of how the collective experience of precariousness is identified with new social movements uncovers perspectives for further research.
Background. The issue of Internet addiction is being actively discussed in foreign and Russian psychology in two recent decades. However, experts have not developed a common opinion on the concept of ‘Internet addiction’. Therefore different terms are used to refer to disharmonious relationships in the ‘man-Internet’ system: ‘problematic Internet use’, «’excessive Internet use’, ‘compulsive Internet use’, etc. Psychologists show more agreement in the description of symptoms of Internet addiction. Generalization of these features makes it possible to develop tools for psychological assessment of Internet addiction.
Objective is to identify the components of problematic Internet use in adolescence using the questionnaire developed by the authors of this paper, and to describe the relationship of the components of problematic Internet use with using various Internet services.
Design. Based on the analysis of the psychological literature, the symptoms of problematic Internet use were identified. The selected symptoms constituted the content of the questionnaire. Correlation and factor analysis revealed components of problematic Internet use. Relationships between problematic Internet use and using different Internet services were studied.
The sample of the study consisted of 150 people aged 16 to 23 years: 64 high school students and 86 university undergraduates. The data was collected throughout the period from October, 2017 to November, 2017.
Results. The study of symptoms and manifestations of problematic Internet use in high school students and university students allowed to develop a scale of problematic Internet use bringing together five components (super-value of Internet activity, frustration of vital needs, anticipation of accessing the Internet, reducing monitoring time and reducing the significance of events outside the network). The features of using Internet services depending on gender and age are described. Correlations of problematic Internet use with types of activity in a network are established. The most closely components of problematic Internet use are connected with use of communicative (social) services.
Conclusion. The study of problematic Internet use and its components allows us to offer a five-component model of problematic Internet use and describe the relationship of problematic Internet use with Internet services and applications using.
Background. The issue of antisocial behaviour and adolescent aggressiveness are usually studied from the perspective of family psychological well-being. Social and economic inequality of contemporary families are important factors of cultural and historical context of the of modern adolescents’ developmental situation.
Objective. The paper provides an attempt of articulating the theoretical basis of adolescents’ aggression, i.e. family SES analysis. The paper is also dedicated to the research of differences in adolescents’ aggression indicators within gender- and family SES- groups spectrum.
Design. The research was conducted as an online survey in the public schools of Russian Federation. The present sample consisted of 883 respondents (59% were females, 41% were males). The average age was 16 years. Adolescents’ aggression was assessed by the short version of Buss-Durkey Inventory. Statistical analysis methods included Kruskall-Wallis test, T-test, Mann-Whitney test and factor analysis (maximum likelihood).
Results. The study revealed that differences in aggression indicators are mainly reflected in the subjective aspects of aggression (resentment and guilt), and also a general indicator of aggression depending on the socio-economic status of the family. Different levels of preparedness for physical aggression are shown by respondents from families in which only the father or only the mother works. Both females and males are prone to various manifestations of aggressiveness. Differences in indicators of aggression in the context of cultural capital and the socio-economic status of the family are reflected mainly in the subjective aspects of aggression.
Conclusion. Statistically speaking, the differences obtained are quite significant, but from an absolute point of view they are extremely small. The indicators of socio-economic well-being of a family are related to adolescent aggression indirectly, with psychological characteristics being the key point. Specific features of the relationship between parents and the child, features of educational practices preferred by parents, features of family organization, etc. Economic well-being appear only a condition that facilitates or, conversely, complicates the implementation of educational practices adopted in the family. The major role belongs to the activity of both parents and children. A further research is required to verify the latter.
Introduction. Without hope, there is no motivation, no desire to live, suffering becomes stronger, and there are less chances for recovery. Hope plays a major role in treating a patient both mentally and physically.
The Objective of the study is to find answers to the most important questions concerning the gist of the notion of "hope": What is hope? What can we do to help hope live?
Procedure. The author believes that hope is more than just a feeling; he regards it as an existential act. Our activity is in the fact that we remain active, we take a firm position that will not shatter when one is unhappy, miserable, suffering fron a disease, or being institutiolisedia, etc. The ontological approach shows that hope means something that has not happened yet cannot be to exclude, i.e. hope is not self-deception and not a defense mechanism, it gives a chance to whatever events to happen. The following issues are revealed: the connection of hope with the attitude to the values of life, hope as a meaningful concept and deals with transcendence, the opposite of hope resignation (rejecting value, giving the things the free rein, losing ties with the events happening) causes desperation and despair. The so-called “false hope” is also highlighted, its positive and negative sides are shown and tips how to treat it correctly are given.
Conclusion. Hope means treating something as valuable. Hope is realistic as the forthcoming future can never be predetermined entirely. Hope is paradoxical: it makes you do something where nothing can be done. Therefore, hope has great potential for resilience. False hope is regarded as a defense reaction of the human psyche, but since it performs a certain function in this way, you should not simply take it away from a person. Where there is hope, there is meaning, hopelessness means loss of meaning.
Background. According to various sources, about half of the world's population speaks two or more languages on different levels. The steady growth of bilingual and multilingual populations through migration and learning of foreign languages, on the one hand, and the real threat of indigenous languages extinction, on the other hand, put the comprehensive study of bilingualism and multilingualism in a number of important social issues and interdisciplinary scientific problems.
Objective. The paper aims to analyze and summarize the results obtained in the research of the bilingualism impact on cognitive processes and individual characteristics in order to identify the possible advantages of bilingualism and the difficulties associated with them.
Results. The phenomenon of Russian national bilingualism and its specific features in some republics of the Russian Federation is considered. A variety of socio-cultural contexts in which bilingualism and multilingualism are studied justifying the need for an interdisciplinary approach to the research issues is presented. The theoretical and analytical review of the research of bilingualism influence on cognitive processes, personal characteristics and relationships with ethno-cultural identity is carried out. The areas in which bilingualism can provide benefits are considered, and the risks associated with the possession of several languages for the individual and for society are analyzed. The results of the bilingualism influence on cognitive processes and personal characteristics are contradictory and are determined by the attitudes of researchers and some factors and additional variables that are difficult to control due to various methodological problems. The necessity of interdisciplinary interaction in research the impact of multilingualism on various individual and social processes is shown.
Conclusion. Bilingualism and multilingualism are neither an advantage of the cognitive functioning and personal development of the subject, nor for society. There are additional conditions determined both by the individual situation of development and by the socio-cultural context. If taken into account they can help to reduce individual and social risks of bilingualism and multilingualism and stimulate its positive impact on the individual and society.
Introduction. Interest in the issues of spirituality, moral background is objectively determined by the transformations in all spheres of life and human activity in recent decades, including fundamental changes in the value-based system.
The Objective is to describe an experimental program of studying the level of spiritual and moral education in children of preschool age. Based on the analysis of the data and considering the spirituality and morality in children as a complicated integrative education, we identify intellectual, cognitive, value-based, motivational and behavioural components. The main hypothesis of the study is the assumption of the dependence of the spiritual and moral level on the determined systematic work of the spiritual and moral potential of the person, their culture and valued at each age stage. The basic levels of ontogenesis are emphasized.
Procedure. The first stage of the research included analysis of the works in the field of «spirituality» and «morality», which allowed us to determine the specific features of spiritual and moral education of the 5-year-old children and to design a program of experimental study. The second stage was based on the comprehensive program of experimental research, i.e. a system of test methods aimed at studying the selected components of the spiritual and moral education. The population consisted of 90 five-year-old children.
Findings. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the experimental data obtained at the third stage of our study showed that a high level of spiritual and moral education is recorded only in 21% of the respondents. The majority of respondents (57%) scored the average level of spiritual and moral education. 22% of the respondents score a low level of spiritual and moral education.
Conclusion. The study showed that less than one third of the respondents demonstrated a high level of spiritual and moral education. The majority of preschool children did not know about the spiritual and moral norms of social behaviour, and also they lacked regular rules of behaviour, which suggests that the majority of the research participants did not correspond to age-related opportunities and require targeted psychological and pedagogical assistance.
Background. Studying students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of the teaching and upbringing process is important in connection with the modernization of school education. Their attitude to these issues characterizes the social psychological context that determines the role of school in cultural and value-based education of adolescents.
The Objective of the research is to determine the differences between the students’ and teachers’ views on the goals and purposes of school education in relation to the three areas of analysis: between students and teachers, between members of schools types (general education, in-depth study of particular subjects, gymnasium and lyceum), between generations of teachers and students as of 1991 and 2017.
Design. The paper presents the results of survey questionnaire conducted by the Centre for Sociology of Education, IEM RAE, Moscow, Russia, in 2017. The sample included 11 803 students of 7-11 grades and 4 999 school teachers. The data are further compared with the results of the survey 1 conducted in 1991 (sample included 162 students and 681 teachers). Questions concerning goal orientations of school education are considered at two levels: pragmatic ("What should school give to students?") and value-based ("Who should schools prepare their students for?").
Research Results. At the pragmatic level, students attach greater importance to the issues of professional identity, whereas teachers regard the traditional functions of education. At the value-based level for students, the individualistic attitudes are more typical, whereas teachers place a greater value on socially regular patterns. Members of the gymnasia and lyceums more often note the importance of the cultural development as well as communication and interaction between students. Unlike gymnasia and lyceums, general education schools put a greater emphasis on normal behaviour and participation in public life. The admission requirements have increased for socializing functions and training, and also the individualistic attitudes in modern education compared with 1991 have been in the focus of attention. Simultaneously, the importance of creative activity is decreasing and education is aimed at supporting social institution. Factor analysis has revealed three meaningful juxtapositions in relation to which the goals of school education are structured: "norm – self-actualisation", "convention – principle", "romantic approach – pragmatic approach".
Conclusion. This research reveals particular goals and purposes for modern school education in students’ and teachers’ minds that allows them to improve the educational process.
Background. Sports activities set high demands on the personal qualities and abilities of athletes, which increases their emotional tension, and negatively affects their self-esteem, self-confidence and motivation. Studying manifestations of the personal emotional sphere of athletes allows choosing effective methods of psychological work to adjust their competitive states up to an optimal level.
The Objective of the research is to learn the specific features of the personal emotional sphere as a regulator of the functional state in young athletes.
Design. The paper analyzes the manifestations of personal emotional sphere of females aged 11-13 years involved in rhythmic gymnastics (N = 20). The results of the relationship and the ratio of the athletes’ personal parameters are presented.
Research Results. A direct significant relationship (p = 0.01) of the anxiety level in athletes with neuroticism, irritability, suspiciousness and sensitivity is revealed. A positive significant relationship (p = 0.01) of guilt and aggressiveness expressed mainly indirectly is established. The obtained features of the relationship of the studied characteristics of young athletes are generally consistent with the results of similar studies performed by other specialists.
Conclusion. The results can be viewed as manifestations of the adaptation mechanisms of young gymnasts in the tense conditions of sports activities, as well as fear of disapproval from a significant circle of people. The revealed emotional-personal characteristics of young sportswomen are probably due to psycho-physiological changes associated with adolescence and the specifics of sports activities. The results of the study generally raise additional questions and allow us to outline areas for further research on the problem under discussion. It is important to study the influence of the emotional state in athletes on the ability to fully recover from intensive physical burnout and follow sleep and rest schedule.
Introduction. The relevance of the subject is primarily due to the high frequency of anxiety disorders in the population. According to various schools of psychology and psychotherapy, the motivation of the patient, their deep-seated attitudes and values play a significant role in the emergence and development of anxiety disorders. But nowadays there is a lack of empirical studies that consider achievement motivation and perfectionism in connection with anxiety disorders.
Objective. On the one hand, the study is focused on the relationship between the direction and the achievement motivation in motivational conflicts, and on the other hand, the authors illicit the general level and structural characteristics of perfectionism in people with anxiety disorders.
Procedure. The study involved 21 patients with anxiety disorders undergoing inpatient treatment at the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia, and 20 healthy subjects. In order to measure achievement motivation, the authors used TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) modified by H. Heckhausen (Heckhausen, 1963, 1967; Magomed-Eminov, 1987). In order to identify the degree of manifestation and features of the structure of perfectionism, the Kholmogorova-Garanyan perfectionism questionnaire (Garanyan, Yudeeva, 2008, 2009) and the Hewitt and Flett Multidimensional scale of perfectionism were used (Hewitt, Flett, 1998; Gracheva, 2006). An intergroup comparison was performed in terms of the severity of the characteristics assessed, and also a correlation study of the perfectionism and motivation indicators was conducted in each group.
Results. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with anxiety disorders show a higher level of general perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, as well as reduced achievement motivation. They revealed a greater discrepancy between the motives for achieving success and avoiding failure, which suggests that their activity is directed to the motive of avoidance than to the motive of achievement. The overall level of perfectionism in both groups negatively correlates with the severity of the achievement motive, however, in healthy people, perfectionism is associated with the hope of success, and in patients with anxiety disorders it is associated with the fear of failure.
Conclusion. The results can be used in psychotherapeutic practice treating patients with anxiety disorders. The study gives way for further research on patients with anxiety disorders, depressed patients, etc.
Available Online: 30.01.2019
Background. Individuals who aim at changing their health behaviour do not always handle the issue immediately. This discrepancy is usually referred to as the intention behaviour gap. Implicit processes are one of the factors which mediate between intention and behaviour. Compared to cognitive and affective implicit processes, motivational implicit processes are given a very little account in the modern science. Currently it is not quite clear how implicit and explicit values are focused on within the health-related decision-making process.
Objective. The present study shows how implicit and explicit values and their congruency are focused on health-related decision-making process in dilemmas. The dilemmas were described as situations within which the subjects report on making a choice: either to avoid losses related to health, or to avoid losses related to other values. Choosing health, the participant avoids losses related to it, whereas they acquire losses related to other values, and vice versa.
Design. The participants participated in the Schwartz’s Value Survey (measuring explicit values), Implicit Association Tests (measuring implicit values) and solve three types of dilemmas (health vs benevolence, health vs self-direction, health vs achievement).
Research Results. The research shows that implicit and explicit values are not related to each other and are differently related to decision-making process in dilemmas. Namely, implicit values of achievement, benevolence and self-direction are related to decision-making in dilemmas with low potential losses. Many of these values turn to be significant to the participants, and some of the dilemmas are not solved in favour of health-related issues. Explicit values are related to decision-making process in dilemmas with high potential losses. Many of these values turn to be significant to the participants, and some of the dilemmas are not solved in favour of health-related issues. Finally, it was found that high correlation between explicit and implicit values is positively related to decision making in favor of health.
Conclusion. The research shows that explicit and implicit values are differently associated with health-related decision-making in the participants.
Introduction. The massacres in schools and colleges committed by their students are initially associated with the United States, but in recent decades the phenomenon has spread to other countries including Russia. Such tragedies affecting children and adolescents are of particular interest to politicians, general public and professionals.
The Objective of this research is to summarize the foreign literature accounts of the phenomenon of mass school murders, the structure of this phenomenon, the stages of its development and factors that cause it.
Procedure. Research methodology included search and generalization of conclusions from scientific and applied publications on the issue. The search was carried out using bibliographic systems and scientific networks Web of Knowledge, Scopus, ResearchGate, Google Scholar, Academia.edu, Mendeley. He author selected 55 scientific publications on specific cases and meta-analysis of data aimed at addressing socio-psychological factors of school shootings and prevention.
Findings. The main methodological approaches to the analysis of school shootings are described, the theories offering a systematic understanding of this phenomenon are presented, the stages of both social and personal predictors of school shootings are defined.
Conclusion. The analysis of the literature allows interpreting massacres in schools as an independent phenomenon, to reconstruct the events, to determine the main mechanisms and development stages, to offer effective ways to detect and prevent threats.
Background. The main problem the world faces today is the crisis of personal identity. It began with the events of the year 1968 that is considered to be the starting point for the postmodernist worldview and resulted in significant social cultural consequences.
The Objective of the paper is to discuss these consequences, to analyse how the ideas of pluralism, tolerance and the maximum actualisation of personal freedom that lie in the basis of the postmodern society cause radicalism, fanaticism and hypocrisy.
Design. The author examines socially disintegrating and disadaptation-related tectonic societal processes associated with the breakdown of customary values and attitudes, state forms, emergence of radical communities and migration issues, whose consequences are frighteningly unpredictable. It shows that the phenomenon of “escape from freedom” described by E. Fromm was embodied in the rudimentary forms of hyperidentity arising in the technological and information society.
Conclusion. Postmodernism today is becoming a mirror of the permanent crisis, either economic, political, intercultural, inter-ethnic, interconfessional, intergenerational ones. The result of the hopes of the year 1968 was a maladapted post-normal society that lost its ability to invent meanings and constructive models of self-identity further replaced by rigid and rudimentary forms of identity.
Background. In the context of mass communication research a special value is placed on the discussion of the connection between using various means of mass communication and their particular features. One of the important personal characteristics is the sociometric status of a person in a group.
The Objective of the empirical research presented in the paper is to reveal whether there is a connection between leisure media consumption and the sociometric status of a person in small groups. If the assumption about the unified nature of communication processes in interpersonal and mass communication is deemed as the initial theoretical premise, it is reasonably assumed that sociometric characteristics of a person should correlate with the parameters of his address to the means of mass communication.
Design. The study involved 110 people aged 25 to 28 years old, employed with 10 departments of two companies. According to the results of a special questionnaire used together with a sociometric questionnaire, media consumption parameters are determined: preference of media channels (print media, radio, television, the Internet)), intensity of access to these media channels, functional orientations (e.g. information, entertainment, cultural and educational). Based on the data obtained, special indices are calculated: sociometric status index; four indices of media channels preferences (print media, radio, television, the Internet); four intensity indices of media consumption (reading print media, radio listening, television watching, using the Internet); three indexes of functional orientation (index of information function, index of entertainment function, index of cultural and educational function).
Research Results. Popular respondents choose the print media much more often than others, while the unpopular ones choose television; more popular respondents use do print media and radio much more intensively, while unpopular respondents used television; with respect to the Internet, no significant differences were found; popular respondents are much more focused on cultural, educational and informational functions, and unpopular ones are focused on entertainment. For the sociometric status index, the following findings are true: strong direct relationship with the radio consumption index (R = 0.713) and with the print media consumption index (R = 0.693); mean value of television consumption index (R = -0.541); mean value of the Internet consumption index (R = 0.471).
Conclusion. The obtained results correlate quite well with the results of the research conducted in the 1980s, although they were obtained in other socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions, as well as in a different social group. This proves the existence of a connection between sociometric status and media preferences, not only in high school students, but also in young adults. Hence it is logical to assume that such kind of connections should be observed in other social groups. At the theoretical level, there is an issue of developing an explanatory socio-psychological model that would organically link the interpersonal communication and mass communication patterns.
preference for media channels;
functional orientations for media consumption;
popular members of the group;
unpopular members of the group;
Available Online: 30.12.2018
Introduction. In the context of the intensification of intercultural interaction as a key component of the global development of modern society, the understanding of personal characteristics that ensure success in intercultural communication is particular importance. Looking for the solution to this issue, American Professor Christopher Early and Professor Soon Ang, Singapore University of Technology, proposed the concept of cultural intelligence, defined as the ability to function and interact effectively across cultures. This concept has been recognized in foreign studies, but so far poorly covered in the Russian psychological science.
Objective: Analyzing the concept of cultural intelligence and selecting the main trends of the empirical research.
Procedure. The paper analyzes the theoretical background of the concept of cultural intelligence, provides an overview of empirical studies of cultural intelligence and other phenomena of intercultural interaction, examines the main methodological tools for studying cultural intelligence.
Findings. The key areas of empirical research on cultural intelligence over the past 15 years are highlighted, the main methods for measuring cultural intelligence are presented, and further research perspectives are proposed.
Conclusion. The concept of cultural intelligence that appears across modern theories of intelligence by H. Gardner and R. Sternberg is extremely relevant to the modern world of global processes in the context of “culture and intelligence” issues. Cultural intelligence is very effective in a specific context, e.g. intercultural relations, the importance of which increases across cultures. Cultural intelligence is studied on a par with other types of intelligence, and also personality traits (Big Five personality traits). This concept has received particular popularity in the research field of organizational and management psychology. Nevertheless, there are a number of significant phenomena of intercultural communication, including ethnic identity, which offers new research points in relationship with cultural intelligence.
Background. Psychological characteristics of gamers (video games players) is an extremely relevant field of research today, because prevalence of gaming is wide and growing, covering all current generations (Avetisova, 2011; Bogacheva, Voiskunsky, 2014; Snodgrass et al., 2017).
Objective. The study reveals the explicit real-life motives in online gamers and the reasons why they choose certain leisure compared to other passtimes.
Design. The sample includes 10,916 Russian-speaking gamers from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other CIS countries. The main explicit motives in the real-life gamers are considered: motives of cognition and motives of achievements. The discriminant analysis method identified and described three groups of players: with motives of cognition and motives of achievements of a rational type, motives of cognition and motives of achievements of an indefinite type. A comparison was made between male gamers and male non-gamers according to the degree of explicit motives. High mean on the Likert scale are observed in non-gamers within motives associated with communication and interaction with other people (Wilcoxon test, p≤0.01) and in motives aimed at perception of beauty, significance and grandeur (Wilcoxon test, p≤0,001). The gamers have a higher assessment of situations related to the clarity of the tasks, and perform significantly less interest in situations within which they can influence something (Wilcoxon test, p≤0.01).
Research Results. A scale for assessing real-life motives is designed to estimate the empirically identified motives in gamers on multiple choice scales and then on a five-point Likert scale. There are three groups of gamers with different types of motivation have been identified and described, a comparison of the severity of these motives in male gamers and male non-gamers has been made.
Conclusion. Cognitive motives and motives of achievement for male gamers and male non-gamers were expressed in equally high figures, which may be due to the universality and significance of the values of knowledge and achievements in modern society. Perhaps computer games are the most available leisure to gamers that satisfy their needs for cognition and achievement. A further task is set to test these assumptions using other methods (for example, in-depth interviews).
Introduction Informational socializing of modern adolescents influences the form of communication as the main source of development and self-determination as the major developmental factor in adolescence. The investigation of links between personal features and moral values and Internet involvement allows defining the problem of correlations between personal and cognitive component of development and prevent cyberbulling and communication on-line risks.
The Objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between basic attitude and moral values of adolescents and the productivity of cognitive processing of social information on the Internet. The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that adolescents with a positive attitude to the mediated world and a high level of moral values reveal greater productivity of cognitive methods of processing social information obtained on the Internet. One of the goals of the research was to identify the relationship between basic beliefs and the Internet addiction in adolescents.
Methods and sampling. The study used the following methods: 1. Basic Belief Scale by R. Yanoff-Bulman (Kalmykova, Padun, 2002); 2. Methods of diagnosing moral values "Fair-Care" (S. Molchanov, A. Podolsky); 3) the author's method of cognitive assessment of social information on the Internet, based on the Crick and Dodge model (Crick, Dodge, 1994); 4. Method of diagnosing Internet-dependent behavior by S.H.Chen. The population aged 13 to 18 years accounted 175 adolescents (49% males and (51% females).
Results. Three groups of adolescents were different in the nature of basic assumptions and the level of development of moral values optimists, pessimists, and ego-centered pessimists, and Internet addicted. Comparative analysis of the cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet, as well as signs of Internet addiction was carried out.
Conclusions: The hypothesis that positive attitude to the mediated world and belief that they control life, a high level of moral values associated with more productive cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet has received confirmation. A group of adolescents identified as “pessimists” (perception of the world as hostile, negative image of themselves, lack of confidence in the world and success, low level of moral values) reveal signs of Internet addiction in behaviour.
Available Online: 30.12.2018
Background. The paper deals with understanding success in terms of generation value gap, transitivity and high social uncertainty as a component of self-determination of an individual acquires particular relevance, determining the vector of a person’s personal development.
The Objective of this research is to study the ideas of modern adolescents about success linked with self-esteem and assessment of their own success in significant spheres of life, i.e. education career and interpersonal relations. The study is based on the assumption that the notions of success as self-development will be associated with a higher level of self-esteem and assessment of success in adolescents.
Design. The study involved 500 adolescents (291 girls and 209 young men), students of the 10th and 11th grades of schools and gymnasiums (average age 16 years), Moscow, Russia. To study the ideas of adolescents about success, Adolescent Representations of Success (ARS) questionnaire was developed. To study the self-esteem of adolescents, the method of Dembo-Rubinstein was used in the modification A.M. Prihozhan, as well as a purposefully designed questionnaire to study indirect evaluation of success.
Results Three models of success that characterize the attitude of adolescents to the success are identified: success as social recognition, success as fulfillment of external social requirements, and success as self-development and self-actualization. The differences in the self-esteem of adolescents with different ideas about success are revealed.
Conclusion. The research confirmed the hypothesis and showed that varying perception of success in adolescents is closely related to self-esteem and evaluation of their own success. Understanding success as self-development and self-actualization is associated with a higher level of self-esteem and assessment of own success which promotes psychological well-being in general. Adolescents who share a model of success as fulfillment of external social requirements associate success with achieving goals with overcoming obstacles and satisfaction with results and place value on luck. For adolescents who are focused on the model of success as social recognition it is typical to place value on their personal authority among the peers, thus having high assessment rates of their success as a whole.
Background. The necessity of youth policy development is caused by negative social tendencies not only in Russia but all over the world. Control of social behavior may be one of the guidelines in its development and determining problem areas.
Objective. The objective of the paper is to study social representations about «the contemporary hero» in students of the psychology and teacher-training specialty. The main issue of the research is the difference of social representations about «the contemporary hero» in students of different specialties and different values.
Design. The methods include the author's questionnaire for revealing social representations that consists of incomplete sentences, open and associated questions, and also the technique for identifying Schwartz’s values. The sample consists of 96 students representing 4 careers (physical training, psychology, defectology, elementary education).
Research Results. The results of the study show that within the given groups insignificant statistical distinctions on values are revealed. However, character and discrepancy of values are different within the 4 groups under consideration. In the groups with inconsistent structure of values social representations are also inconsistent: the students have no example for identity, they cannot identify names of particular persons to the hero image, definition of the hero and the specified persons do not coincide. In contrast, within the group of harmonious structure of values specified persons, exemplary models for imitation coincide with that definition of “the contemporary hero”. The most harmonious structure of values and less inconsistent social representations about «the contemporary hero» are revealed in Physical Training students, whose most inconsistent values and social representations are revealed in the group of Psychology students.
Conclusion. Stereotypical interiorized social representations about “«the contemporary hero” are dominant in the student, which does not allow them to transfer that image to the future subordinates. The major part of the students do not see examples for imitation and for identification among celebrities. Researches on a more vast sample will allow to specify the data to develop recommendations for updating the youth policy in this field.