Objective. In this article, we use the concept of personality strengths in “Values in Action” (VIA) model. In particular, the role of personality strength as a “mediator” of the negative impact of professional burnout on the psychological well-being of the individual, represented by the concepts of life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy is considered. Within the framework of positive psychology, it has been repeatedly mentioned that 24 personality traits often act as a “buffer” that prevents the negative impact of external and internal factors, including stress, on a person.
Methods. To test this “buffer” function, we developed a “path model”. With the help of this model, we were able to assess the significance of each type of personality strengths as a “buffer” between professional burnout and psychological well-being. The model demonstrated high rates of consistency and validity.
Results. The results of the study confirm the presence of a “buffer” function in certain personality traits, so we identified 14 qualities out of 24 that exhibit a “buffer” function.
Conclusion. We identified 14 qualities out of 24 that exhibit a “buffer” function that prevents the negative impact of external and internal factors, including stress, on a person. Also, 4 personality strengths (curiosity, zest, optimism, and gratitude) turned out to be the most significant for maintaining the psychological well-being of the individual, which allows us to talk about the allocation of the “quartet of psychological resilience”.
Background. The relevance of studying students’ aggressive behavior towards teachers lies in the fact that despite the ongoing discussion in society, modern research shows that this problem is not given enough attention.
The Objective. is to consider the students’ aggressive behavior towards teachers: to assess the prevalence of this problem, to analyze the background of students’ aggressive behavior towards teachers, and to assess the consequences of such behavior.
Design. The paper presents an analysis of foreign and Russian research on the problem of aggression towards teachers. In addition, attempts are made to find the causes of students’ aggressive behavior towards the teacher through the analysis of psychological theories. The article also offers recommendations for reducing and preventing aggression towards teacher on the part of students.
Research results. The indicators that demonstrate prevalence of aggression towards teachers raise the concern that this problem has negative long-term consequences for the lives of students, teachers and educational institutions. The use of psychological theories, models and concepts in explaining the reasons of aggression in the teacher’s direction on the part of students, allows not only to determine the reasons for aggressive behavior, but also to consider this problem at different levels of the educational process. The influence of school climate on the victimization of teachers was considered and recommendations were made for the implementation of preventive measures.
Conclusion. On the basis of the analysis conducted, the study presents possible directions for further study of this problem. In particular, it is necessary to study the prevalence of aggressive behavior towards teachers in Russian schools and to develop a set of preventive measures aimed at the elimination of aggression towards teachers.
Background. The paper presents results of a study about perception of school bulling among Russian students. Being a type of aggressive behavior, bullying needs to be interrupted by psychologists, teachers and parents, preventive intervention is also required. However, there are few studies about dynamics of bulling perception in males and females a few years after graduation. It is during this period that not only participation, but also the intensity of the experience of school bullying as a significant event of the past, can affect the further choice of a career, success in life, and psychological and emotional state.
Objective. The study is aimed at solving several problems. The prevalence of different types of bullying (social aggression, verbal bullying, physical bullying, cyberbullying) in high school was analyzed, and bullying was assessed in terms of the distribution of roles. We also studied the influence of socio-demographic factors of bullying and conducted a comparative analysis of two age groups (high school students and primary school students) and a retrospective analysis of students' perception of school bullying.
Design. The sample included 700 junior students from a number of Russian cities (males – 12%; females – 88%). During the research, the following methods were used: online questionnaire, methods for evaluating bullying (Adolescent Peer Relation Instrument, Social Bullying Involvement Scales, Cyberbullying and Online Aggression Survey).
Findings show, that every second school student took part in school bulling, and there are positive correlations between bulling roles (aggressor, victim, witness). There are gender and socio-economic differences between respondents who were involved in bulling or avoided participation in bullying. With age, there is a tendency to decrease the number of respondents who participated in physical bullying, however, there is still a high percentage of participation in other types of bullying.
Conclusion. High level of adolescent bulling underscores the necessity of preventive intervention at school of including teenagers in bulling underscores the necessary of preventive intervention at schools.
Background. The change of the traditional model of family relations that has occurred in recent decades in modern society, the change in marriage and family attitudes and values, gender roles and stereotypes lead to difficulties in the process of socio-psychological adaptation of young people who get married. Simultaneously, the effectiveness of adaptation depends on various aspects, e.g. personal maturity of spouses that determines not only the effectiveness of adaptation to family life, but also the stability of family relations. This identifies the need to study the relationship of personal maturity of young spouses and their socio-psychological adaptation to family life.
The Objective purpose is to study the dependence of personal maturity and socio-psychological adaptation of the spouses in young couples.
Design. The study involved 150 young couples. The age of spouses is 20-30 y.o. Taking residence together is up to five years. The study used the following methods: test questionnaire of Yu.Z. Gilbuha, questionnaire of D.L. Burtyansky and V.V. Crishtal.
Results. The results showed the existence of a connection between such indicators of personal maturity as the achievement motivation, life attitude, the ability for psychological intimacy with another person and socio-psychological adaptation. Also, the dependence has been established between the general indicator of personal maturity and socio-psychological adaptation. The hypothesis about the relationship between indicators of personal maturity and socio-psychological adaptation of spouses in young married couples has been partially confirmed.
Conclusion. The development of the orientation of spouses to self-realization in family life, high emotional stability, empathy can increase the level of spouse adaptation to family life.
Background. The issue of antisocial behaviour and adolescent aggressiveness are usually studied from the perspective of family psychological well-being. Social and economic inequality of contemporary families are important factors of cultural and historical context of the of modern adolescents’ developmental situation.
Objective. The paper provides an attempt of articulating the theoretical basis of adolescents’ aggression, i.e. family SES analysis. The paper is also dedicated to the research of differences in adolescents’ aggression indicators within gender- and family SES- groups spectrum.
Design. The research was conducted as an online survey in the public schools of Russian Federation. The present sample consisted of 883 respondents (59% were females, 41% were males). The average age was 16 years. Adolescents’ aggression was assessed by the short version of Buss-Durkey Inventory. Statistical analysis methods included Kruskall-Wallis test, T-test, Mann-Whitney test and factor analysis (maximum likelihood).
Results. The study revealed that differences in aggression indicators are mainly reflected in the subjective aspects of aggression (resentment and guilt), and also a general indicator of aggression depending on the socio-economic status of the family. Different levels of preparedness for physical aggression are shown by respondents from families in which only the father or only the mother works. Both females and males are prone to various manifestations of aggressiveness. Differences in indicators of aggression in the context of cultural capital and the socio-economic status of the family are reflected mainly in the subjective aspects of aggression.
Conclusion. Statistically speaking, the differences obtained are quite significant, but from an absolute point of view they are extremely small. The indicators of socio-economic well-being of a family are related to adolescent aggression indirectly, with psychological characteristics being the key point. Specific features of the relationship between parents and the child, features of educational practices preferred by parents, features of family organization, etc. Economic well-being appear only a condition that facilitates or, conversely, complicates the implementation of educational practices adopted in the family. The major role belongs to the activity of both parents and children. A further research is required to verify the latter.
Background. The issue of preventing antisocial behavior in the juvenile is relevant nowadays as delinquent, unlawful behaviour in children and adolescents is a powerful risk factor of asocial development of the personality on the whole, and also the factor that negatively affects their entire future.
The Objective is to analyze the causes and consequences of the asocial development in children and adolescents, to consider theoretical studies devoted to the prevention of antisocial behaviour and juvenile delinquency, neglected and homeless children and adolescents, and their rehabilitation and resocialization.
Design. The paper studies the issue of adolescent aggression in modern Russian society. The paper recites a wide range of foreign and Russian research, analyses regulatory and legal documents and regional practices, and also employs the data of the author’s survey of Russian adolescents conducted in 2017.
Research results. Family reshaping in terms of psychology and relationship between family members have a direct effect on deviant or antisocial behaviour in adolescents. A significant negative correlation between the school climate and the aggressiveness of schoolchildren was revealed. High positive intercorrelations within the indicators of the school climate were found to be high: school safety and teacher-student relations. Children who are not involved in bullying, assess the climate and school safety significantly higher than the children who are bullied. This pattern is typical for all participants in the persecution, regardless of their role, i.e. the victim, the aggressor or the observer.
Conclusion. Based on the data reviewed, the recommendations given can be taken into account when establishing the state policy on preventing antisocial behaviour and the aggression in the juvenile. The significance of the joint school and family measures that can be an effective tool for preventing teenage aggression is drawn special attention to.
The paper considers social perceptual representations of mother in children. The social perceptive image of mother is associated with a certain attitude, and, consequently, determines the willingness to act in a certain way, the willingness to implement a certain strategy of relationships. The paper presents the results of a large-scale empirical study comprising 7000 high school students.
The sample can be considered quite representative with all necessary parameters, including respondents from big cities and small towns and villages of Russia, complete and incomplete families, families with 1-2 children and large ones. The results of the study in the general sample show that the social perceptual portrait of the mother compises only positive qualities, and does not contain any negative descriptor.
In addition, a high level of concordance (coherence, unanimity) in the perception and assessment of the mother’s respondents was revealed. A comparative analysis is carried out of the mother’s image in the minds of young men and women, in the minds of respondents from complete and incomplete families, from urban and rural families, from families with one or two children and from large families, from large families with many children and many children with many children. As a general trend, the social perceptual portrait of the mother in all groups remains positive. However, certain differences are also found in some changes in most significant qualities. Summing uo, differences are also found in the level of concordance of the respondents’ choice in specific groups that differ in gender or social features.
The paper presents the results of the psychological research on interaction of mothers with preschool children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire of Parent- Child Emotional Interaction by E.I. Zakharova and a Scale of Child Rejection Degree by A.I. Barkan are used in the empirical study. The basic idea of the scientific research is optimization of emotional interacting of mothers with preschool children who have intellectual disabilities by means of psychological training which is aimed at developing emotional-sensual, empathy-behavioural and cognitive-reflective components of parenthood. The data mentioned above describe the emotional side of mother’s interaction with the child as a disjunction, i.e. most of the mothers manifest low sensitivity to the condition and needs of the child, lack of understanding the causes of child behaviour, inability to empathize to the child when he/she is in a predicament. In order to improve mothers’ understanding of their own children, characteristics and regularities of child development, to enhance the ability to understand the experiences, states and interests of the child, to change attitudes of parents to the child and themselves a training program has been implemented. The results of the control phase of the experiment conducted show the positive effect of group work on peculiarities of parent-child emotional interaction. The number of mothers who are able to understand the reasons for the child’s moods, sympathize with child, set him/her calm attitude increased. Mothers’ impression that they are controlling the development of their child has appeared. Mothers were more likely to seek physical contact with a child. A larger number of mothers began to provide emotional support to their children and to take into account the mood and interests of the child in leisure activities planning.
Keywords: children with intellectual disabilities;
acceptance-rejection of the child;
focus on the child status in building cooperation;
desire for physical contact;
Available Online: 30.12.2016
The paper draws attention to the large number of divorces in contemporary Russia. It is emphasized that much of them fall on the first years of marriage. However, most of the surveys conducted in recent years have shown that the family is one of the leading positions in the structure of adolescent value. On the basis of this juxtaposition, it is concluded that young people need to be specially trained for family life. Contemporary family and the school cannot cope with this task. We have carried out a large-scale empirical study in eight regions of different federal districts of Russia, the results of which are shown in the paper. Total sample amounted of more than 7,000 people. The sample included respondents from large and small cities in Russia, as well as from the villages of nuclear and one-parent families, families with 1-2 children and also large families.
The research has shown that in the structure of life values the family still occupies the first position. It was also found that the vast majority of respondents emphasize the need to be specially trained for building a family. However, only one third of respondents believe that this can be done by conducting special courses on the family and family life in schools. For the majority of the respondents, their parent family is not a guide or a pattern. The greatest impact on the youth in the process of growing up is produced by mother. Fathers, occupying the second position, prove to be outsiders with a large gap. It was revealed that a generalized portrait of the mother and the father are completely positive, i.e. they do not contain any negative characteristics. The top ten most popular qualities to describe father and mother are the following: kind, reliable, caring, responsible, family-making, smart. Other qualities of the top ten highest priorities differ.
The paper analyzes the problems of deviant and delinquent behaviour from the standpoint of relations theory. The process of socialization is considered as a process of development and purposeful formation of the personality relations system. Deformations in the individual system of social relations can be caused by a number of factors, which include those associated with social institutions such as family and school. The paper emphasizes the determination of anti-social behaviour of juveniles is prioritized by the family of psychosocial strain. An important mechanism of family influence on the development of social deviancy and antisocial behaviour is the emotional neglect of a child, «non-value» attitude. The so-called apathetic or ignoring type of upbringing is most strongly associated with subsequent delinquency. The lack of parental supervision is considered to be more important in delinquency than the adverse socio-economic status. The most important mechanism of negative family influence on the personality development is family socialization on the deviant type. Antisocial values, norms and patterns of behaviour might be acquired through learning and imitation mechanism, if the values and norms are dominant in the family. Adolescent’s representations of the reprimand of the family, parents, involved in adolescent’s behaviour, encourage negative attitudes, reduces the likelihood of further manifestations . If a child has built a negative relationship with one or both parents, if the development of positive self-esteem and I-concept are not supported in the parental estimates, the probability of illegal behaviour increases significantly.
The central place in the system of child and adolescent relations belongs to the mother. Th research shows that the decrease in positive attitudes towards the mother, increasing the negative descriptors in depicting the mother correlates with overall negativism toward all social relations of the individual.
The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passive behaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization.
Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings): what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father). It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation.
A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.
The article defines the role of a family in socialization of the child and outlines the features and possible causes of deviant socialization in the family. Special attention is drawn to the ”families at risk”, social orphanhood and ways to overcome it. The author presents with family preservation concept, which provides for the implementation of the program ”A stable family” and argues for the need of active cooperation with various social structures like departments of education, health, internal affairs, etc.