Background. Like evidence-based medicine, clinical psychology is interested in obtaining results that can be extrapolated to many areas of studying the human psyche. Meta-analysis is the method of obtaining results that can be used in other areas of psychological research. The study of meta-analysis in relation to clinical psychology is of particular importance.
The Objective of this research is to analyze the features of using meta-analysis in clinical psychology, to show its limitations and procedure. Design. At the initial stage of our theoretical research, the main directions and tasks of using meta-analysis in clinical psychology were analyzed. The next step was the description of the meta-analytical clinical and psychological research procedure. The solution of tasks identified in this work are the basis of meta-analytical research in clinical psychology.
Results. In clinical and psychological research, meta-analysis was found to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of behavioural, cognitive, and cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-pharmacological interventions in schizophrenia, anxiety and depressive disorders, chronic fatigue, personality pathology, and autistic spectrum disorders.
A separate part of the research embraces the assessment results of the influence of various factors on the psychopathology. The difficulties of using meta-analysis in clinical psychology were described.
Conclusion. Meta-analysis is a powerful tool for obtaining data in clinical psychology; thanks to him, it becomes possible to generalize the results of a multitude of clinical and psychological studies and to evaluate the effectiveness of various types of psychosocial interventions.
Background. The functionability of the social worker, their professional competencies and the quality of interpersonal contact with the client create the background for analyzing the helping relationships as a main factor of efficacy of psychological help.
The Objective of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon of «helping relationships» in social work. The phenomenon of “helping” lies in the basis of helping relationships. “Helping” means finding a joint solution of certain problem of the client and the development of their social competencies. Client requests are given in brief, they include the provision of certain services and support/guidance in difficult life situations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the pioneering works in the field of helping relationships, e.g. F.Biestek, H.Perlman, R.Weiss, etc. Helping relationships are viewed through the categories of communication, interaction, working alliance, form, connection. The key components of a helping relationship are reciprocity, feelings, knowledge, reality, interest, goals, impartiality, ability to offer something new and facilitation. Helping relationships are always associated with changes in both the social worker and their client. Helping relationship in the practice of social work developed for a specific purpose and terminate when the goal is achieved. Helping relationship differ from other types of interpersonal relationships. Care for the client system, expectations, empathy and clear communication, authenticity of experiences and acceptance, authority are important factors in the development of helping relationship. The main stages of helping relationship in the practice of social work are considered: the initial stage, research and evaluation, problem solving and completion.
Research Results. Despite a significant role that helping relationship plays in social work, there are still the issues that require further study, e.g. distinction of helping relationship and therapeutic relationship, expert competence, capablity of building mutual assistance and describing the quality of mutual assistance.
Conclusion. Helping relationship is a long-term relation within the framework of professionally assigned roles and statuses related to the support and assistance to a person in their development and social adjustment, incentivizing individual changes and preserving or restoring their psychological and social well-being. Building and developing mutual assistance is possible only within the relatuins based on empathic understanding, respect, positive feedback, authenticity, congruence, immediacy and warm feelings towards the client.
The paper presents the results of a study of social support for young males and females, and also its relationship with tolerance of uncertainty. A series of psychodiagnostic tools were used to study gender determinants of social support, tolerance of uncertainty and interpersonal intolerance in young people with different levels of emotional and instrumental support. Young males and females aged 18–22 years with a high level of tolerance of uncertainty are susceptible to various forms of social support. The ability to accept uncertainty, to function in the system of unclear interpersonal communication and to act in the face of changing circumstances determine the level of satisfaction with social support in the participants. The research (N=165) confirmed the assumption that first and foremost social support as a communicative phenomenon has differences in the perception of emotional forms in young males and females. Secondly, the specific features of person functioning in the social supporting act system are interrelated, including the level of tolerance of uncertainty. Thirdly, social support can reduce human state of uncertainty and eventually neutralize the negative impact of stressful events. The human ability to «see and discover» the social support, be sensitive and attentive to the supporting acts of social environment has a close relationship with the ability to accept uncertainty and maintain stability in a state of discomfort if any.
The overview and theoretical study of social support for children and adolescents is presented. The issues of social development of children and adolescents in terms of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and Kahn’s and Antonucci’s Convoy Model of Social Relations are discussed. The sources, forms and types of social support for the early, pre-school, primary school and adolescents are analyzed. The paper specifies the following issues: the parent-child relationships and characteristics of social support in early childhood can affect the development of the structure and quality of human social relations network throughout his/her life. Social networks and the organization of social support for adolescents are detailed. The patterns of social support of adolescents may affect their psychosocial well-being. The social support systems used by modern adolescents are described. The controversial issues of seeking social support as the leading coping strategy are raised. Various ways of seeking social support for adolescence are analyzed. The importance of parents, teachers and peers in providing social support for children and adolescents is shown. The author’s view of social support as one of the resources of the child’s autonomy, which can be developed only in certain respects, i.e. respect for personal boundaries and accepting differences in individual values and needs, the independence aspiration supported by respect and interest, unpunished by shame or the threat of rejection.
The paper is an analytical overview of the results of foreign scientific researches of parental factors’ psychotherapy of children and adolescents. The fundamental differences between child / adolescent psychotherapy and adult psychotherapy are shown: characteristics of the client, sources of information and the influence of the social environment. We identified five groups of psychotherapy efficiency of children and adolescents: procedural factors, “children/adolescent” factors, parental factors, family factors and psychotherapist factors.
Parental factors that have a positive impact on the process of psychotherapy of children and adolescents are as follows: 1) parental self-efficacy which is associated with father’s and mother’s beliefs about their own parental competence; 2) parental involvement in the process of psychotherapy which provides cooperation with the child psychotherapist/psychologist; 3) parental adherence to psychotherapy which allows to adjust and modify their educational tactics and strategy; 4) adequate parental expectations which correlate with the duration of child/adolescent psychotherapy. It is shown that adverse prognostic factors for the process of children and adolescents psychotherapy are as follows: 1) psychopathological status of parents which restrict the positive changes of the child/adolescent; 2) high levels of parental stress that does not change the particular nature of parent-child relationship; 3) inadequate level of hostility and criticism of parents in relation to the child who is not able receive new social and emotional experience.
The paper emphasizes that the underestimating or neglecting psychotherapy efficacy of children and adolescents is associated with the particular features of their parents, so it can result in early psychotherapy ceasing and reducing the achieved positive results.