Background. Neuropsychological diagnosis and rehabilitation are among the fundamental practical tasks facing a clinical psychologist in accordance with applicable legal documents. The modern rehabilitation system is a partnership between patients with brain injuries, their families and various specialists involved in the rehabilitation process. Sick patients and their family continue living in the society of other people, and they have to solve issues of social interaction in a new status and with new limited opportunities. Cognitive and emotional, psychological and behavioural problems are interconnected, and neuropsychological rehabilitation should be appeal to all these problems.
The Objectives of the paper are: analysing and generalization of diagnostic and rehabilitation experience accumulated in neuropsychological rehabilitation; identifying of quality criteria for neuropsychological diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients with impaired cognitive functions in brain injuries, which should be followed by a practicing clinical psychologist in the process of rehabilitation work.
Results. Based on the analysis of applied research and practical guidelines, the recommended diagnostic tools for identifying thinking disorders are presented, the main directions and methods of rehabilitation work with thinking disorders that have been shown to be effective, including the organization of the dynamics of thought processes, the organization of the operational side of thinking, the organization of the regulatory side of thinking.
Conclusion. The findings can sustain practical work of a clinical psychologist with patients with disturbed thinking and brain damage. The findings outline the main directions of diagnostic and rehabilitation work for the practicing psychologist.
Background. Currently in psychological rehabilitation the necessity of developing innovative methods for testing cognitive dysfunctions with via the modern sophisticated technology is becoming increasingly important. One of the urgent requests is associated with developing the methods of diagnostics and correction of spatial representations disorders, which are manifested by decreasing accuracy of spatial representations of the environment in particular.
Objective. To study this issue the method for evaluating the accuracy of spatial information using which the ability to memorize the three-dimensional complex scenes was developed. It was assumed that the accuracy of reproduction would differ significantly depending on the coordinate (egocentric or allocentric) system of mental reconstruction processing.
Design. The library of virtual objects and six unique virtual scenes were created. Each scene of seven objects was shown to the participants within the interval for 25 seconds. Thirty six subjects (aged from 18 to 26) participated in the experiment. They were told to memorize the objects and their locations, and then to reproduce the memorized scene using the given viewpoint of the scene. Three viewpoints were chosen: the "front" (to reproduce the scene from the egocentric position); the "left" and the" above" (to reproduce the memorized scene from on the left and above imaginary allocentric positions, respectively). To perform the task the participants chose objects from the library of virtual objects using the flystick 2 and placed them in virtual space in accordance with the memorized scene. The object locations in virtual space were recorded. Moreover, the accuracy of egocentric and allocentric representations in terms of measurements, topology and depth parameters were calculated.
Conclusion. The results show that the egocentric representations (the "front" viewpoint) were more accurate for all parameters in comparison with the allocentric representations (the "left" and the "above" viewpoints), and the “above” representations were more accurate compared with the “left” ones. The topological accuracy was much better than the measurements and depth accuracy. Regardless of the viewpoints, the topological space parameters are stored in memory much more accurately than the depth parameters, which, in turn, are reproduced more accurately than metric parameters. It was also shown that the accuracy of spatial representations differs for different allocentric viewpoints: the "above" view is reproduced much more accurately than the "left" view.
The method developed made it possible to reveal the features of encoding spatial information in ER and AP blocks in terms of measurements, topology and depth parameters. It can be used in clinical rehabilitation to test impairments in the perception of space, and also violations of short-term memory. The results obtained allow refining the existing models of encoding spatial information.
Background. The paper presents the review of the research devoted to functional asymmetry of auditory perception in dichotic listening. The practical application problem of dichotic listening for researching other cognitive functions (attention, executive functions) is considered. The influence of different variables on the results of dichotic listening is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to memory, as it can ‘distort’ the indices of functional asymmetry of auditory perception.
The Objective is to study the influence of memory on the results of dichotic listening.
Progress Report. 4 variants of word dichotic listening test were used, in which variables determining the degree of memory influence on the result (the instruction and the number of dichotic pairs in series) is ranged. Laterality index (LI), accuracy scores: total (AS), right-ear (RAS), left-ear (LAS); efficiency score (ES) were calculated. The research involved 80 healthy people aged 18 to 63 years divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 people, and 7 patients with blood stroke aged 25 to 75 years.
Research Results. It was shown that the wording of the instructions (participants were instructed to report all the words they had heard or the words they had heard most clearly) does not have any influence on the results of dichotic listening, the number of dichotic pairs in series (1 or 4) has an influence (comparing by LI U=227 , р<0,05; by AS U=0, р<0,05; by RAS U=2, p<0,05; by LAS U=0, р<0,05; by ES U=174,5, р<0,05). When the variant with 1 dichotic pair in series was presented, high accuracy scores and high efficiency score were noted; laterality index was approaching zero. This variant cannot be used to assess the functional asymmetry of auditory perception in healthy people and in participants who suffered a stroke.
Conclusion. In order to control the influence of memory on the results of dichotic listening can be used modified variant with 1 dichotic pair in series. But it is necessary to increase the complexity of the task that is offered to the participants. The authors consider that the presentation of fused words is possible. The stimuli presented to different auditory channels simultaneously should merge into a single perception unit.
The paper analyzes the work of Russian and foreign scholars devoted to the role of cross analyzer cooperation in developing and implementing mathematical abilities. Crossmodal interaction is considered as an additional category of neuropsychological analysis that allows to extend the existing ideas about the psychological structure and brain providing the mathematical ability. There are data that confirm the relevance of studying the interaction of the senses. Many of the research on this issue are carried out using the synesthesia which is considered a rare phenomenon. However, both Russian and foreign works suggest that the interaction of analyzers is not characteristic only to those whose brain is synesthetic. The joint work of the senses is characteristic of every person since his/her childhood, and is an obligatory condition for cognitive processes.
Cross analyzer synthesis is assumed to play an important role in producing spatial representations and the ability to intuitively perceive the notion of quantity (evolutionary foundations of mathematical ability). On the brain level, these processes are provided primarily by functioning of parietal and tertiary cortical areas located at the junction of cortical analyzer areas and also temporal areas that border on the parahippocampal brain area.
When dealing with school mathematics the structure of mathematical abilities is changing due to verbal and symbolic representations of numerical coding. Dealing with symbols opens up new opportunities, but it also narrows the spectrum of modalities involved in doing mathematical sums. Thus, the ability to re-encode information from one modality to another after school mathematics is perceived has an impact on the efficacy of mathematical activity. Doing mathematical sums is accompanied by crossmodal interaction that occurs on the unconscious level.
Some problem conditions may be efficiently processed in one modality, others may be solved in other modality.
Apparently, the ability to various crossmodal re-encoding patterns varies considerably from person to person. The effectiveness of crossmodal interactions may determine the severity of certain components of mathematical abilities and influence successful solutions of the corresponding types of mathematical problems.
The paper studies the connection of the lateral features in the manual, auditory, visual fields, and their interaction with the mathematical abilities in adolescence. The research involved 92 healthy people including 17 males and 75 females aged 15 to 25 years (18,7 ± 2,2), who do not major in mathematics. To measure the components of mathematical ability the standardized math test MAAGS-2015 to reveal arithmetic, algebraic, geometric abilities was used. Diagnosis of hemispherical asymmetry was performed using self-reports of manual asymmetry, M.Annette standardized questionnaire modification, samples of «Interlocking fingers,» «Napoleon’s Pose», «Applause», «Aiming», Rosenbach’s test and dichotic listening. When comparing the features with lateral components of mathematical ability to incorporate asymmetries possible interaction of different analyzers was considered.
The research results reveal that different lateral characteristics are significant predictors for the different components of mathematical abilities; some lateral symptoms are not related to mathematical ability. The greatest predictive power belongs to sensory asymmetries and their interaction. In general, the highest mathematical abilities are observed in patients with right and bilateral signs, left-sided symptoms often reveal negative predictors. The interaction asymmetries between different analyzers manifested in unequal due to the mathematical abilities indicators lateralization in the same field in different versions of lateralization in the other. Cross-lateralization in most cases is a negative predictor of mathematical abilities. The models based on the interaction between the lateral features allow to explain more than a quarter of the variability of the components of mathematical abilities. The predictive ability of these models is significantly higher than that of models with individual predictors.
The paper deals with a complex of issues relating to the current state and use of the category of “syndrome”, which until recently has been inclusive within the field of professional medical use and clinical psychology. However, since late 20th century, this category has been more and more often used when describing the specific manifestations of human psyche in the particular circumstances of life and activity with the absence of disease symptoms and presented a huge list of so-called “psychological syndromes” of the norm. In this connection, there arise a number of issues concerning the relations of new approaches to understanding the category of “syndrome” with past performances, and also research methodology, which determines task setting, the unit of analysis of human psyche and psychological syndrome-making determinants. The authors assume the answer to these questions lie in the methodology by L.S.Vygotsky and further syndrome analysis method by A.R. Luria. The paper provides a brief history of the notion of “syndrome” and its transition from medical study to psychology with the developed meaning based on the structure of higher mental functions in the neuropsychological paradigm. The basic structural components of the syndrome in system-dynamic relationship are discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of “factor” as a common syndrome-making state which integrates symptoms into hierarchically organized circuit. Various aspects of the categorization are discussed, i.e. whether it belongs to the norm or pathology.
In the context of the syndrome approach development prospects, new issues of polycausativity syndrome appear in relation to the classical paradigm, with compensatory symptoms, the need for statistical data verification, the role of individual supervision and others to be further included into the paradigm. The main current approaches of studying different syndromes using the potential of the Russian methodology of syndrome analysis, the basic principles of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality are considered.