Background. Framing effect is rarely studied in relation to individual differences. In cognitive psychology, it reflects distortions in decision-making depending on the context (phrasing) of statements about alternatives, and framing is found within medical professional samples.
Objective. The objective of the study are asfollows: 1. to identify the differences in the students of medical and non-medical universities and susceptibility to framing, 2. establish in both groups similarities of individual decision-making styles (coping with uncertainty if any) in self-assessments (intelligence, risk taking and personality) and in willingness to take risks and tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, 3. to identify the specific relationship between susceptibility to the framing effect (FE) in medical students with their personal properties.
Design. The paper describes the study of framing on medicine (n = 78) and psychology students (n = 122). It is demonstrated that in Kahneman and Tversky’s “Asian disease problem”, the psychology students show reframing effect while medical students don’t show difference in answers. Participants who choose different answers in negative phrasing of the issue differ in self-esteemed risk taking and intolerance for uncertainty; but there is no difference in positive version of the problem. Differences in personality profiles of the future members of medical and non-medical students have been established, both in terms of the personality variables and their associations to the dynamic regulatory systems. Medical students are characterized with less procrastination and higher risk readiness. Self-esteemed risk is correlated with risk readiness in both samples (and negatively connected to rationality within the psychology student sample). Unexpectedly, risk preparedness is also correlated with intolerance for uncertainty in both groups. Medical students are characterized by specific correlation between risk readiness and personal self-esteem (good/bad person scale). Self-esteemed risk proposed is shown to be not only connected to corresponding questionnaire scale of personal risk preparedness but also to correlate to the choice in the framing effect issues.
Results. These and other connections report about specifics of personal characteristics structure within the group of medical students.
Available Online: 01/01/2018
The paper presents the results of a study of social support for young males and females, and also its relationship with tolerance of uncertainty. A series of psychodiagnostic tools were used to study gender determinants of social support, tolerance of uncertainty and interpersonal intolerance in young people with different levels of emotional and instrumental support. Young males and females aged 18–22 years with a high level of tolerance of uncertainty are susceptible to various forms of social support. The ability to accept uncertainty, to function in the system of unclear interpersonal communication and to act in the face of changing circumstances determine the level of satisfaction with social support in the participants. The research (N=165) confirmed the assumption that first and foremost social support as a communicative phenomenon has differences in the perception of emotional forms in young males and females. Secondly, the specific features of person functioning in the social supporting act system are interrelated, including the level of tolerance of uncertainty. Thirdly, social support can reduce human state of uncertainty and eventually neutralize the negative impact of stressful events. The human ability to «see and discover» the social support, be sensitive and attentive to the supporting acts of social environment has a close relationship with the ability to accept uncertainty and maintain stability in a state of discomfort if any.
The role of education as a social institution in society is shown. The tasks of national education system at the present stage of rapid change in social consciousness are analyzed. The ways of modernization of national education with the aim of turning it into a resource to reduce social risks and social conflicts motivated by xenophobia, migrant-phobia, social aggression and intolerance are discussed. The necessity of introducing a system of education programs to ensure the development of tolerance, religious tolerance, civic patriotism and social identity among younger generation is shown.
The idea of multicultural education, which allows the transition from the culture of violence and xenophobia to the culture of tolerance is considered. Features, basic principles and objectives of social and cultural technologies for tolerance adoption as conduct codes in society are shown.