Nowadays athletes in order to achieve high results and achievements should donate their own interests and private life because of spending much more time for countless flights, acclimatization, everyday workout and competition. So they are short of time to fully replenish their psychological and physiological resources, resulting in accumulation of negative human functional states. Without application of any external psychological interventions there is a high probability of occurrence and development of occupational deteriorations in athletes. The main objective of this theoretical research was to identify and analyze the specificity of occupational deteriorations which can develop in sport as a career. In the presented research paper we described the major occupational deteriorations such as burnout (Maslach et al, 2008), workaholism (Schaufeli et al., 2008), perfectionism (Xolmogorova, 2010), type A behaviour (Ryska et al., 1999) and procrastination (Milgram et al., 2000).
Accumulation of negative human functional states can entail one or even more occupational deteriorations that will play important role in career termination from sport. Workaholism, burnout, perfectionism, type A Behaviour and procrastination has their own specific manifestations, which can also appear in postretirement from sport activity. The most popular approaches to occupational deteriorations, operationalization and specific features of their appearance and particular manifestations are emphasized, and also various consequences in athlete’s life are described. Thus, occupational deteriorations are one of the most topical and pressed forward issues, which need further development in the framework of conceptualization and inventory development in modern psychology.
The research describes the possibility of applying eye tracking in football. A total of 23 male professional football players from Russia participated in research (Mean age = 21,56; SD=1,5 y.o.). Experiment was conducted in natural settings on football field. All athletes had an appropriate warm-up before testing. All participants had normal vision. Participants’ eye movement data during dribbling task were recorded via mobile eye tracker – “Eye Tracking Glasses» (SensoMotoric Instuments).
We identify the most effective components of visual strategies during different stages of dribbling task: in pre-start routine, during dribbling, after kicking the ball into the goal. Focus of visual attention in pre-start routine: effective gaze patterns connected to the short preview of direction of future movements, gaze fixation to the particular zone of the goal. Effective gaze behavior in dribbling linked with anticipation in gaze focus (a combination of anticipatory and regressive saccades).
fixation duration during dribbling positively correlates to the shooting accuracy and efficacy of dribbling technique. These findings indicates that applying eye tracking technologies in sport practice could enhance performance of football players such as dribbling technique and shooting accuracy. Especially, via eye tracking tools scientists can investigate important issues like development of technique, sport attention, reaction time and anticipation.
Actual problems of modern psychology are fundamental studies of the phenomenon of anticipation, the search for new methodological approaches to the study of its mechanisms and processes of development are considered. There is a particular interest in the anticipation issue in sport, where the probabilistic forecast of the situation is crucial for winning. The paper presents the results of testing methods for anticipation skills in wrestling. The main objective of the study was to find psycho-physiological and behavioral indicators to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the degree of anticipation. The skills formation procedure was based on the reinforcement of the correct choice of behaviour in simulated situations of decision-making using multiple choices technique. Stimuli were videos of simulated situations in wrestling. Simultaneous recording of oculomotor activity and registration of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was carried out.
wrestling. Simultaneous recording of oculomotor activity and registration of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was carried out. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method. After completing training the number of errors and the decision taking time span reduced. Expert assessment of the main qualifying factors showed a significant increase of the test group. On the psychophysiological level, there is a reduction of oculomotor activity in selecting the right answers, reducing the number of fixations, the number of fixations and saccades reverse on the text of questions and answers. Analysis of EEG parameters showed a gradual decrease in the index of brain activation when analysing simulated situations and dynamic movement of the peaks of activity in the frontal areas of the temporal and occipital areas during the series of trainings.
In April 2015 the 7th All-Russian Festival of Student Sport took place. It was established seven years ago by the decision of the Academician V.A. Sadovnichy, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University. This year the sports festival has embraced more than two hundreds of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation.
A variety of sporting events with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, performances by famous athletes, delivery standards and other sport events allowed to attract both participants and spectators of all ages, professional sports facilities and the degree of preparedness.
A distinctive feature of the Festival’2015 was the fact of timing the celebration of the 70th anniversary of Victory in the 1941-1945Great Patriotic War in Russia. As a result, the program of the festival in addition to traditional sports and competitive events also includes sports and patriotic elements, i.e. trips to places of military glory, lectures and discussion clubs devoted to the development of sport and athletes during the war. Another innovation this year was held in the framework of the festival of scientific-practical conference “Fundamental science – sport”. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference allowed to unite representatives of different areas of knowledge, e.g. psychologists, biologists, doctors, philosophers and educators. The wide coverage of the audience and the speakers allowed to hold the conference in the format of online video simultaneously with the Tomsk State University, St. Petersburg State University, Southern Federal University and Perm State Humanitarian Teacher-Training University. To emphasize the importance of both fundamental and practical research, the conference was divided into two parts: the plenary session which highlighted the important methodological issues of interaction between science and sport, and the youth section of the conference that included reports on the application papers.
Available Online: 30.08.2015
The paper is devoted to the psychological analysis of coping with a difficult life situation, which is perceived as hopeless. The results of the empirical research carried out on a sample of 736 adult subjects are presented. Based on a qualitative analysis of the primary descriptions of difficult life situations, the most essential features of the perceived hopelessness are revealed. The latter include the lack of control and unclear situation, negative emotions, and the lack of updated avoidance efforts to change the situation. Operationalization of these features made it possible to construct certain models. Two types of modeling are used in the research: structural and simulation ones. It is shown that the proposed model is correspondent to the empirical data. Path analysis proves the relationship between the components of hopelessness. Perceived hopelessness is represented as a set of interrelated and consistent assessments of emotional experiences, ways to respond. The method of system dynamics analyzes the flow of hopelessness experiences, which is characterized by cycles, reproducibility, the deterioration of the situation. The final model describes the causes of perceived hopelessness and factors to find the way out of the situation.
The paper continues a series of research devoted to the study of personal and professional development of actor students conducted since 2010. The paper presents the results of studying the peculiarities of emotional intelligence and its relationship with personal characteristics of the actor students, carried out on the basis of the Moscow Tabakov Theatre College. The results obtained using the method of diagnosing emotional intelligence MSCEIT and questionnaire by R. Cattell 16 PF are presented. In the research 66 people were interviewed. The characteristics of emotional intelligence of actor students, as well as the results of factor analysis of indicators MSCEIT test and the Cattell’s test are discussed. The hypothesis assumes the existence of meaningful relationships between indicators of emotional intelligence and personal characteristics, fixing volitional and emotional personality traits of the actor student. The analysis of the MSCEIT test results showed that two scales that comprise the domain of experienced emotional intelligence, highly intercorrelated, indicating a connection between the ability to identify emotions and the ability to use emotions to make decisions. It is shown that experienced emotional intelligence of actor students are not associated with personal characteristics. It is revealed that the scale components of the strategic domain of emotional intelligence is positively correlated with personal traits of Cattell’s test: we discovered the link between the scale of Cattell’s General intelligence test (B) and “understanding and analyzing emotions” indicator of the MSCEIT test; Cattell’s test I (sensitivity) is positively correlated with the “managing emotions” index of emotional intelligence.
The paper deals with a complex of issues relating to the current state and use of the category of “syndrome”, which until recently has been inclusive within the field of professional medical use and clinical psychology. However, since late 20th century, this category has been more and more often used when describing the specific manifestations of human psyche in the particular circumstances of life and activity with the absence of disease symptoms and presented a huge list of so-called “psychological syndromes” of the norm. In this connection, there arise a number of issues concerning the relations of new approaches to understanding the category of “syndrome” with past performances, and also research methodology, which determines task setting, the unit of analysis of human psyche and psychological syndrome-making determinants. The authors assume the answer to these questions lie in the methodology by L.S.Vygotsky and further syndrome analysis method by A.R. Luria. The paper provides a brief history of the notion of “syndrome” and its transition from medical study to psychology with the developed meaning based on the structure of higher mental functions in the neuropsychological paradigm. The basic structural components of the syndrome in system-dynamic relationship are discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of “factor” as a common syndrome-making state which integrates symptoms into hierarchically organized circuit. Various aspects of the categorization are discussed, i.e. whether it belongs to the norm or pathology.
In the context of the syndrome approach development prospects, new issues of polycausativity syndrome appear in relation to the classical paradigm, with compensatory symptoms, the need for statistical data verification, the role of individual supervision and others to be further included into the paradigm. The main current approaches of studying different syndromes using the potential of the Russian methodology of syndrome analysis, the basic principles of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality are considered.
The article describes the results of the investigation of the mechanisms of logical-grammatical constructions comprehension in students 7-8 y.o. with and without language acquisition disorders. Computer-administered tests were used to assess the ability to comprehend logical-grammatical constructions, as well as the tests of serial organization of speech and movement (traditional and computer-based) and the tests for assessment of the level of visual-spatial perception strategies. Neuropsychological syndrome analysis allowed to conclude that the difficulties of logical-grammatical constructions comprehension are linked to the deficit of visualspatial perception, which is the common point of view for Russian neuropsychology.
Also, the experimental evidences were found, that the understanding of logicalgrammatical construction is closely linked to the serial organization of speech and movements. The character of this connection differs from the character of the connection between the understanding of logical-grammatical constructions and the level of visual-spatial strategies perception, which highlights that these two groups of functions provide different contributions to the process of comprehension of grammatically complex sentences. These findings are interpreted using the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions by Vygotsky-Luria, the model of the three levels of language organization by A.R. Luria and the model of the three levels of syntax by T.V. Akhutina. It is considered that the operations of grammatical re-structuring of complex sentences ontogenetically relate closely to the functions of serial organization of movements and develop on the neighbouring anatomical substrate (posterior parts of frontal cortex). The other aspect of the process of logical-grammatical constructions comprehension, which includes finding of the «reference point», and generation of asymmetrized «quasi-spatial» structure of the sentence, where the thematical roles are assigned, is linked in the same way to the functions of visual-spatial perception and the anatomical substrate of these functions (temporal-parietal-occipital zone).
Available Online: 30.08.2015
The paper is devoted to psychological aspects and psychological perception of spatial and temporal dimensions of the historical process. Space and time do not exist separately, they are closely interconnected: everything that happens in history has certain spatial and temporal position.
From historical perspective spatial characteristics of a particular territory are twofold: territory’s psychical position remains unperturbed, while its political status and national affiliation are revised in the course of time. Territories vary in their value: the most valuable objects of physical environment such as sea-coasts, courses and estuaries of rivers, mineral deposits, industrial regions, etc. serve as objects of contention on the international arena, while areas that do not possess such characteristics can be of no interest to international actors.
Historical time does not necessarily coincide with chronological time. For example, according to Eric Hobsbawm, the so-called long Nineteenth Century lasted from 1789 to 1914, while the short Twentieth Century lasted only from 1914 to 1991. Psychological time should also be taken into account – perception of relation between past, present, and future developments, as well as perception of chronological intervals within which certain historical developments take place. Time sets chronological framework for the historical process, it can be both cyclical and linear at the same time.
Progress in transportation and communication leads to the situation where linear characteristics of space and time remain the same, while space compresses and time accelerates: movement of physical objects and information transfer take less and less time. Such process was ushered in during the Nineteenth Century (Transportation and Communication Revolutions) and it accelerated in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. Present wars can last only months and days, not years; negotiations are conducted directly by chief executives or under their close surveillance; time allotted for decision making during crises decreases dramatically.
The paper describes semantic structures of the teacher personality in the framework of the complete level theory of the personality by B. S. Bratus’ which has also more poetical naming, i.e. “the semantic vertical”. In this approach the personality of the teacher as a career professional is a special case of the personality organization in the psychological meaning where the main task is allocation of that concerns personality proper without identifying the teacher, the scholar or the doctor, but to the personality as to absolutely special psychological form.
In the semantic architecture of the teacher’s personality developed on the basis of psychological approach except the general sense of activity (e.g. “for the sake of what?”) the following semantic levels are identified:
The results of the empirical research with the group of teachers are described where the «Technique of studying semantic levels in the personality structure of the teacher» was used and the psychological portraits of teachers by the expert psychologists employed with educational institutions.
The typology of semantic structures of the teacher in the “developing – reproducing – destructive” model is presented.
Available Online: 30.08.2015
The paper describes an empirical study of the levels and types of educational career orientation of students of teacher-training major from the first to the fifth year of training, as well as the relationship of these parameters with academic performance.
The paper analyzes the main approaches to educational career orientation, prevailing in Russian teacher-training and psychology. Educational career training of future experts is regarded as a measure and a way of creative self-actualization in various types of educational activities and teacher-training dialogue aimed at developing and creating educational technology and disclosing individual faculties.
Experimental studies were the basis of Chechen State Pedagogical Institute and the North Ossetian State Pedagogical Institute. The results of empirical research show that there are significant differences in the level of Educational career orientation of students: the lowest levels are had by the students of first and second years, and the peak falls on the third or fourth year. Indicators characterizing the prevailing types of Educational career orientation are similar: maximum expression of their career orientation is also characterized by the students of the third and fourth years, which allows to characterize this period as the key one in developing significant professional qualities. It is proved that there is a correlation level of career orientation and the academic performance of students: the high level of career orientation correlates with high performance. This relationship is typical for students at all grade levels, but is most pronounced in the third and fifth years.
The paper presents the results of construct validity testing for a new version of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), which restandardization started in 1982 (J.N. Butcher, W.G. Dahlstrom, J.R. Graham, A. Tellegen, B. Kaemmer) and is still going on. The professional community’s interest in this new version of the Inventory is determined by its advantage over the previous one in restructuring the inventory and adding new items which offer additional opportunities for psychodiagnostics and personality assessment. The construct validity testing was carried out using three up-to-date techniques, namely the Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Life questionnaire (a short version of Ritsner’s instrument adapted by E.I. Rasskazova), Janoff-Bulman’s World Assumptions Scale (adapted by O. Kravtsova), and the Character Strengths Assessment questionnaire developed by E. Osin based on Peterson and Seligman’s Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. These psychodiagnostic techniques were selected in line with the current trends in psychology, such as its orientation to positive phenomena as well as its interpretation of subjectivity potential as the need for self-determined, self-organized, self-realized and self-controlled behavior and the ability to accomplish it. The procedure of construct validity testing involved the «norm» group respondents, with the total sample including 205 people (62% were females, 32% were males). It was focused on the MMPI-2 additional and expanded scales (FI, BF, FP, S и К) and six of its ten basic ones (D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si). The results obtained confirmed construct validity of the scales concerned, and this allows the MMPI-2 to be applied to examining one’s personal potential instead of a set of questionnaires, facilitating, in turn, the personality researchers’ objectives. The paper discusses the first stage of this construct validity testing, the further stage highlighting the factor structure of the scales mentioned.
The paper emphasizes the need in differentiated cultural historical analysis of children’s development in the contemporary social and cultural stratification of the Russian society. The latter requires an analysis of different cultural and historical environments that are specific for different social strata, subcultural formations which are specified step by step in a particular family where the child is reared.
The paper focuses on analyzing cultural historical and social situations with the development of contemporary children (5.5 to 7 years old) in high-resource families of mid-upper social stratum living in the metropolis areas. On the basis of the empirical data receives within a particular family structure the child’s character is discussed on a par with his qualities which are most desirable, emphasized by parents and associated with the priorities of the group, according to which parents chose the way of developing their child. The discussion focuses on the strategies of child development in one of the most prestigious preschool educational institutions: the credo of the institution is analyzed, the main teaching strategies using the «fairy tales» are highlighted, the nature of the typical relationship between teachers and children in the institution is emphasized. Narrative allows to single out features of child perception and “recycling” this educational technology.
The results obtained make it possible to identify major areas of risk in the emotional and personal development of children in this group supported by the ill-conceived teaching strategies, and they provide an opportunity to understand the obtained data in the wider cultural and historical perspective.