Background. The paper describes the results of the experimental study of working memory in early schoolchildren and adolescents. The capacity of working memory develops through preadolescence to adolescence, while the developmental changes of representations of serial order are not clear enough so far.
Objective. The accuracy of delayed reproduction of movements (the open polygonal chains, trajectories) reveals. The sample included 32 early schoolchildren (mean age 10.4±0.75 years old) and 25 adolescents (mean age 14.6±0.3 years old). The subjects reproduced trajectories of different length (from 4 to 6 elements) using the graphical tablet. Another factor in the experiment carried out was a mode of stimulus presentation: the trajectories in were presented either as a static line-drawing (static mode) or a small moving pointer (dynamic mode).
Design. The errors of reproduction in two age groups and in different conditions were analyzed. We distinguished three types of errors: (1) severe distortions which are caused by inability to keep the sequence in working memory; (2) insertions or omissions of elements of the trajectory which are related to the problems of encoding the visual spatial information in the motor representation; (3) distortions of proportions of the trajectories, which are related with visual-motor coordination during motor reproduction of the sequences.
Research results showed that in adolescence the accuracy of delayed reproduction is better than in early ages. The most obvious difference in accuracy between the groups of early schoolchildren and adolescents were observed in dynamic mode. The analysis of different types of errors revealed that adolescents less often make insertions and omissions of elements. It may be caused by development of executive functions in adolescents.
Conclusion. The study showed that the capacity of working memory increases in adolescents. In addition, the precision of the representation of serial information are higher in adolescents in the more complicated dynamic mode.
The paper is devoted to the psychological analysis of coping with a difficult life situation, which is perceived as hopeless. The results of the empirical research carried out on a sample of 736 adult subjects are presented. Based on a qualitative analysis of the primary descriptions of difficult life situations, the most essential features of the perceived hopelessness are revealed. The latter include the lack of control and unclear situation, negative emotions, and the lack of updated avoidance efforts to change the situation. Operationalization of these features made it possible to construct certain models. Two types of modeling are used in the research: structural and simulation ones. It is shown that the proposed model is correspondent to the empirical data. Path analysis proves the relationship between the components of hopelessness. Perceived hopelessness is represented as a set of interrelated and consistent assessments of emotional experiences, ways to respond. The method of system dynamics analyzes the flow of hopelessness experiences, which is characterized by cycles, reproducibility, the deterioration of the situation. The final model describes the causes of perceived hopelessness and factors to find the way out of the situation.