This paper attempts to analyze dissociation from the perspective of phenomenology as experience of persons engaged in activities related to high stress (physical and/ or psychological).
Dissociation is usually correlated with the so-called reaction fading in life-threatening situations, which along with the reactions of “fight or flight” reveal both in humans and the representatives of the animal world (“fight, flight or freeze”). However, unlike animals humans are often able to act purposefully in dissociative states, or randomly enter them. Specific features and diversity of manifestations of dissociation in humans are determined by the linguistic nature of human consciousness, which is logical to appeal to the philosophers of the phenomenological direction within which consciousness is the subject matter of their research.
Based on the concept of Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze various manifestations of dissociation are detected: from the grave symptoms of PTSD (the so-called invasion of symptoms) to controlled arbitrarily selected dissociative strategies for athletes. Dissociative experiences by experts of extreme careers are considered: law enforcement officers who participated in missions in «hot spots», and EMERCOM psychologists. Dissociation mechanism in terms of phenomenology is defined.
The development and application of adequate diagnostic tools, psychological work with the athletes to regulate the focus of attention during the competition is supposed to contribute to the achievement of a high sports results.
The paper analyses the condition and the basic directions of military psychologists in the American armed forces. It gives an account of specific features, problems, basic fields of activity, general structure of military psychologists’ vocational training. Issues of military psychological community functioning as component of the American psychological association are discussed.
The paper shows that the direction and content of the military psychologists is determined by the peculiarities of the domestic and foreign policy of the American leadership, problems solved by the US armed forces at a particular stage of its historical development, the specific features of the psychological problems that are observes in the Army, the Air Force and the Navy at the today level of the psychological science and practice. The main problems that are the targets of the military psychologists (post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, drug addiction, war crimes, and relations in military units) are revealed.
The subject field of the American military psychology, and its main objectives are analyzed. The consistency in determining the main points of the practical application of military psychology is given special attention to.
The main areas of activity of military psychologists are analyzed. The specific tasks solved by military psychologists of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps are shown. The direction and methods of clinical psychologists, experts in information operations support of military troops, psychologists in teaching (psychological training of troops) and educational areas are shown. Staff positions and organisations where psychologists works in the interests of the military administration are reviewed. The paper provides an overview of the measures taken by the military leadership of the United States that claim to improve the system of psychological work in the armed forces at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries. The main structure of professional training for the psychologists who are working on solving defense problems are analyzed. A comparative analysis of remuneration system for military psychologists is given.
The issues of military-psychological community functioning as an integral part of the American Psychological Association are discussed. A review of periodicals, literature and events held by the section of military psychology of American Psychological Association ( APA) are provided.