Background. The relevance of the study is fueled by the emergence of new types of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, “rejuvenation” of children and adolescents who use drugs. The reference literature does not provide the information about those facts that narcotic substances contribute to maladjustment and trigger deviant behavior.
The Objective is to study the risk factors for deviant adaptation associated with drug abuse, the role of information on drugs and drug addicts in choosing a solution “for” or “against” using narcotic substances.
Design. A special questionnaire of 27 questions was developed. The questionnaire was aimed at finding out the level of knowledge about drugs, drug addiction and drug addicts before the first test. The frequency of drug use that could cause addiction was identified. The possibility of quitting using drugs, the presence of addicts in the social environment and their attitude to them on a temporary interval between the first use and the beginning of drug use were analysed. The sample included 34 active drug addicts at the age of 20-29 years, who are registered as drug addicts in Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria.
Research Results. The data analysis makes it possible to document the characteristics of drug addiction in those who have experience in drug use. The answers of active drug addicts and ordinary adolescents revealed their heterogeneity. The data obtained show the main factors that influence the heterogeneity are the age factor and the factor of ignorance.
Conclusion. The research results show the availability and relevance of information on drugs obtained from information sources, peers and adults, advertising the safety of small doses and “light” drugs. There are only superficial representations of drug addicts about drugs and their dangers prior to their consumption in adolescents. This allows to make a conclusion about the lack of systemic prevention of drug addiction in adolescents.
The paper analyses the condition and the basic directions of military psychologists in the American armed forces. It gives an account of specific features, problems, basic fields of activity, general structure of military psychologists’ vocational training. Issues of military psychological community functioning as component of the American psychological association are discussed.
The paper shows that the direction and content of the military psychologists is determined by the peculiarities of the domestic and foreign policy of the American leadership, problems solved by the US armed forces at a particular stage of its historical development, the specific features of the psychological problems that are observes in the Army, the Air Force and the Navy at the today level of the psychological science and practice. The main problems that are the targets of the military psychologists (post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, drug addiction, war crimes, and relations in military units) are revealed.
The subject field of the American military psychology, and its main objectives are analyzed. The consistency in determining the main points of the practical application of military psychology is given special attention to.
The main areas of activity of military psychologists are analyzed. The specific tasks solved by military psychologists of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps are shown. The direction and methods of clinical psychologists, experts in information operations support of military troops, psychologists in teaching (psychological training of troops) and educational areas are shown. Staff positions and organisations where psychologists works in the interests of the military administration are reviewed. The paper provides an overview of the measures taken by the military leadership of the United States that claim to improve the system of psychological work in the armed forces at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries. The main structure of professional training for the psychologists who are working on solving defense problems are analyzed. A comparative analysis of remuneration system for military psychologists is given.
The issues of military-psychological community functioning as an integral part of the American Psychological Association are discussed. A review of periodicals, literature and events held by the section of military psychology of American Psychological Association ( APA) are provided.