Since the time of Galileo (1564—1642), Western civilization has increasingly fallen under the spell of science. Despite this fact, anthropological and psychological research has shown that magical beliefs are present in both children and adults in modern Western industrial cultures. How can a belief in magic coexist with a belief in science in the mind of a rational, educated adult? A possible explanation is that magical beliefs survive in the rational mind by going into the subconscious. Experiments examining this hypothesis will be reviewed; theoretical and practical implications of the existence of subconscious magical beliefs in modern rational adults will be analyzed.
The nature and meaning of tolerance as a philosophical concept are analysed. Various concepts and theories relating to tolerance, its boundaries, guidelines and its internal content that exist in society from the time of St. Augustine to the present day are highlighted.