Introduction. Without hope, there is no motivation, no desire to live, suffering becomes stronger, and there are less chances for recovery. Hope plays a major role in treating a patient both mentally and physically.
The Objective of the study is to find answers to the most important questions concerning the gist of the notion of "hope": What is hope? What can we do to help hope live?
Procedure. The author believes that hope is more than just a feeling; he regards it as an existential act. Our activity is in the fact that we remain active, we take a firm position that will not shatter when one is unhappy, miserable, suffering fron a disease, or being institutiolisedia, etc. The ontological approach shows that hope means something that has not happened yet cannot be to exclude, i.e. hope is not self-deception and not a defense mechanism, it gives a chance to whatever events to happen. The following issues are revealed: the connection of hope with the attitude to the values of life, hope as a meaningful concept and deals with transcendence, the opposite of hope resignation (rejecting value, giving the things the free rein, losing ties with the events happening) causes desperation and despair. The so-called “false hope” is also highlighted, its positive and negative sides are shown and tips how to treat it correctly are given.
Conclusion. Hope means treating something as valuable. Hope is realistic as the forthcoming future can never be predetermined entirely. Hope is paradoxical: it makes you do something where nothing can be done. Therefore, hope has great potential for resilience. False hope is regarded as a defense reaction of the human psyche, but since it performs a certain function in this way, you should not simply take it away from a person. Where there is hope, there is meaning, hopelessness means loss of meaning.
Background. Victor Frankl developed two methods based on the fundamental (spiritual) ability to self-distraction and self-transcendence, i.e. paradoxical intention and dereflection. Further development and extension of the concepts Person and Existence in the framework of existential analysis by Alfried Längle allowed to expand the scientific basis for the creation of new therapeutic interventions and their methodological description. It seems very relevant to present in the paper the analysis of the logotherapeutic and existential analytical psychotherapeutic methods that exist at the present moment.
The Objective of this paper is to give an overview of the logotherapy methods (LT) and existential analysis (EA), and to try and explain why they work. Also the author tries to clarify the logic of existential -analytical methods in correlation with EA anthropology and methodology.
Design. The review of the LT and EA methods is presented here as they are currently used in psychotherapeutic practice and are taught as part of the training program on psychotherapy and counseling of the International Society for Logotherapy and Existential Analysis (GLE-International). The explanation of how the methods of logotherapy and existential analysis operate are done by correlating the EA methods in the first part of the paper with its anthropological concept, and in the second part - with the level (or extension) of the disturbance influenced by the method used and the psychotherapeutic work accordingly.
Results. Three different levels or layers of LT and EA methods distinguished from each other by the principles of psychotherapeutic work are characterized. The first two levels are the area of action of short-term therapy including counseling on the one hand, and process-oriented therapeutic procedures, on the other hand. The third level developing the process of developing a personal dialogue is aimed at the Person concept. Being the nucleus of EA, Personal Existential Analysis (PEA) is considered to be an intra- or interpersonal dialogical process through which a person claims himself/herself through a decisive occupation of a position, being faced with a certain situation. The therapeutic method of PEA (introductory part, 3 steps including all stages) is described.
Conclusion. The methods described provide the therapist with an array of various interventions aimed at activating the patient. Interventions are designed to help the patient find themselves in an existential relationship, gain their own voice, give their strength, help them find a description and give expression to new, better ways of being.
The paper describes the existential analytical model within which the content of suffering is denoted and structured. The model shows that we suffer from when we suffer. Suffering is diverse in its «how» and «why.» The author highlights the features of various forms of suffering in accordance with their classification in the existential-analytical anthropology and reveals the essence of suffering. Within the framework of existential analysis there is an assumption that experience is perceived as fulfilling with suffering when the fundamental structures of existence are threatened or damaged, and the features of the contents of these structures are considered. Significant attention is paid to the ratio of human suffering and the loss of human sense of life, what is behind the feeling of senselessness of suffering. Suffering and pain fully or partly represent a threat to our very life and throw into question human lust for life. To avoid this, it is necessary to appeal to the vast opportunities of a person, and drawing strength from its sources to meet adequately the destructive factors and the abyss of existence.
The paper considers the issue of activity which enables stepwise treatment of suffering. The model of stepwise coping with suffering is proposed. It helps to overcome the stagnation in the condition of suffering and returns to the world and life. Practical steps are suggested. These steps are applicable for all forms of suffering. They lay the basis for gaining inner peace. So we can target our efforts over the suffering and prevent the occurrence of mental illness (e.g., depression, hysteria, addiction, PTSD, etc.).
The paper presents a view on the issue of studying the driving forces of personality from the perspective of existential analysis. The student of V. Frankl A. Lange developed the concept of the will to meaning (Frankl’s monomotivational theory), highlighting four aspects existential relationship of personality, four fundamental motivations. Existential philosophers and followed by psychologists, while psychotherapists define these motivation as the main themes of human life, and their implementation is a condition for living true, deep life - existence. Langle allocates four aspects of existence: relationship with the realities of existence, i.e. the world, relations with dynamic, vital side of existence, i.e. life, relationship with ourselves and relations with the future. These aspects are defined as 1, 2, 3 and 4 existential fundamental motivations (FM). The article in the first part contains a description of the content of the four fundamental motivations A. Lange, and in the second - the results of own researches of the author that is dedicated to the approbation on the Russian sample test that measures the subjective experience of the integral quality of life as the sum of its constituent these four aspects.
Questionnaire «Test existential motivations» (TEM) (A. Lange, P. Eckhard) is developed in the framework of existential analysis as psycho-diagnostic instrument to provide psychological and consultative assistance, but it also can be used for research purposes for the study of subjective attitude to existential important aspects of being. According to the developers, «TEM» is addressed to space of human feelings and able to assess the completeness of his living each of the four fundamental motivations. The first FM embodies the intention to be in this world and (is committed) seeks to the acceptance of reality. Second FM is looking for opportunities to build relationships and living values.
Third FM is aimed at implementation of respectful treatment of ourselves and others, meeting and living ourselves as having value. Fourth FM is searching for the meaning of the situation, ways to make ourselves with all our capabilities in the world. The study of the fundamental motivations allows not only to closer to life-world of the person, to enter the space of his experience, but also meets the targets of psychotherapeutic practice.
The paper gives a brief introduction to existential analysis (EA). It briefly describes how to develop this phenomenological approach and its main provisions. The emotion is deemed as a specific perception of a meaningful life. Emotionality plays a significant role in the existential analysis of anthropology and practice. The former one is the cornerstone of existence, and takes its place among the other three measurements in the existential theory of the EA.
The paper presents a phenomenological description of the four-step process of the emotion emergence. It shows how during this process vitality is stimulated, so emotions are important to humans. This is an existential analytic theory of emotions, which explains the importance of the EA practice of affection feeling (fühlen) and intuitive feeling (sense, i.e. spüren). The first is related to human life and the need for the detection values, the second one is related to the authenticity and ethics. In this pater, we consider the difference between the affect and the emotion. In the last three paragraphss theyform of emotional dysfunction is fiscribed, some of the studies in this area and the main elements of emotional and affective therapy.