The paper analyzes the problems of deviant and delinquent behaviour from the standpoint of relations theory. The process of socialization is considered as a process of development and purposeful formation of the personality relations system. Deformations in the individual system of social relations can be caused by a number of factors, which include those associated with social institutions such as family and school. The paper emphasizes the determination of anti-social behaviour of juveniles is prioritized by the family of psychosocial strain. An important mechanism of family influence on the development of social deviancy and antisocial behaviour is the emotional neglect of a child, «non-value» attitude. The so-called apathetic or ignoring type of upbringing is most strongly associated with subsequent delinquency. The lack of parental supervision is considered to be more important in delinquency than the adverse socio-economic status. The most important mechanism of negative family influence on the personality development is family socialization on the deviant type. Antisocial values, norms and patterns of behaviour might be acquired through learning and imitation mechanism, if the values and norms are dominant in the family. Adolescent’s representations of the reprimand of the family, parents, involved in adolescent’s behaviour, encourage negative attitudes, reduces the likelihood of further manifestations . If a child has built a negative relationship with one or both parents, if the development of positive self-esteem and I-concept are not supported in the parental estimates, the probability of illegal behaviour increases significantly.
The central place in the system of child and adolescent relations belongs to the mother. Th research shows that the decrease in positive attitudes towards the mother, increasing the negative descriptors in depicting the mother correlates with overall negativism toward all social relations of the individual.
By: Rean, Artur A.;
Available Online: 12/31/2015
The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passive behaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization.
Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings): what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father). It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation.
A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.
The present article reports the results of cross-cultural research on the role of sociocultural factors that develop attitudes toward extremism in school students of Moscow, Russia, and Riga, Latvia. Equally, it analyzes various aspects of social activity of adolescents: their attitude to legislative sanctions against extremist activities, a tendency to express various ways of political protest, etc. Special attention is paid to the role of social and cultural factors that determine the specific features of adolescents’ attitude to extremism. We consider such factors as the degree of social distance from extremist organizations or membership of a national majority or minority, etc. The article reports on the relationship between adoption of extremist behaviour and attitudes of aggressive behaviour in various social situations, and in the situation of bullying in particular. In addition, the article presents the results of factor analysis to identify a set of features that determine not only those ones related to extremism, but also the position of the teenagers in the propensity for violence and aggressive behaviour as a way to solve their own conflicts. Also, based on the selected factors, the averaged profiles of teenagers in Moscow (Russia) and Riga (Latvia), who claimed their own relationship with extremist organizations, are shown. The main conclusions of the article can be briefly presented in the following points. In general, negative attitude towards extremism dominates in schoolchildren. It is expressed in personal non-acceptance of extremism. Social environment of teenager affects assessment of various kinds of extremist manifestations. The study revealed significant differences in attitudes toward extremism, depending on the membership of a national minority or titular nation.
Hostility is considered as a psychological factor in the development of physical and mental diseases. The author specifies the term “hostility“, differentiating it from such concepts as aggression, aggressiveness, anger and cynicism. The results of studies showing the role of hostility in development of physical and mental disorders, as well as in occurrence of antisocial and criminal behavior in humans, are discussed.
The article deals with the problem of incorporation, decoding of precedent phenomena in TV announcement offscreen commentary as well as the problem of Russian pressmen linguistic mind stereotyping; analyses linguistic-ethic problems connected with intervention into communicative space of addressee; undertakes an attempt to discover the main reasons of communicative failures.