Background. In modern psychological research, auto-aggression and self-harming behavior occupies the leading position. Many researchers point out direct correlations of childhood-related violence with later auto-aggressive behaviour and other forms of abuse.
The Objective of this research is an empirical study of the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent eating disorders, suicidal thoughts and dissatisfaction with the body image in adulthood.
Design. The following methods have been used: the method of recording eating disorders (short form) (Morgan JF et al., 1999), The Body Satisfaction Scale, The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: Short form (2003), The Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory (1998). The sample consisted of 113 people. Average age = 19.9 years (standard deviation = 5.2): 104 females (average age = 19.8 years, standard deviation = 5.1) and 9 males (average age = 18.6; standard deviation = 4.1).
Results. The auto-aggressors who rienced sexual abuse in childhood tend to report on other negative aspects of their experience statistically much more often (p<0.05) than auto-aggressors without sexual abuse: emotional abuse of a child by adults, emotional neglect of a child by significant adults, physical (non-sexual) violence by adults, physical neglect (abandonment of a child). The results showed that autoagressors with childhood sexual abuse more often report about eating disorders than autoagressors without sexual abuse.
Conclusions. The study focuses on the influence of childhood sexual abuse on the occurrence of self-harming behavior in adulthood, and also considers the sexual abuse as a risk factor for other negative behavioural manifestations associated with auto-aggression.The results can be used for prevention, correction and psychotherapeutic work both with children and adolescents, and also with adults.
Social anxiety has a negative impact on individual’s daily life and disturbs his or hers social adaptation. Socially anxious people are often lonely, have difficulties in meeting new people and communicating with others. Social anxiety can also be a serious obstacle to professional growth and career development, can interfere with obtaining new skills and knowledge. Severe social anxiety is often associated with a variety of disorders, including depression, alcohol and drug addiction, eating disorders. However, social anxiety has a high prevalence among population. In this regard, it is becoming increasingly important to diagnose social anxiety. Therefore, the aim of our study was the validation of two questionnaires measuring social anxiety “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale“. The validation was conducted on 179 people (65 men and 114 women), aged from 18 to 35 years. “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ measures the degree of anxiety and a tendency to avoidance occurring in various social situations: situations of social interaction and performance situations. «Fear of negative evaluation (brief version)» measures the central construct underlying social anxiety - the fear of negative evaluation. As a result of factor analysis of the data it is demonstrated, that “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ has three-factor structure. Single-factor structure of the «Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale» is confirmed. It is shown that all the subscale “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (brief version)“ has good internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and external validity.
Social anxiety has a significant negative impact on the individual’s everyday life through handicapping process of social adaptation. In this regard, psychologists observe an increasing amount of research focused on coping-strategies in social phobia. Humorous reactions on stressful events are considered an important and effective coping strategy. The objective of this research is to study the impact of the humour as a coping strategy on different manifestations of social anxiety, as well as the associated feelings of guilt and shame in healthy people and patients with schizophrenia. The study involved 34 patients with schizophrenia and 102 healthy people, aged 18 to 35, males and females. As a research method we used questionnaires such as Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia are less likely to use humour as a coping strategy than healthy people. The results of one-way ANOVA method demonstrated that humour as a coping strategy is effective in some, but not all, aspects of social anxiety. The results of two-way ANOVA method showed that humour as a coping strategy could be effective to cope with shame and guilt, but at low level of social anxiety. At high level of social anxiety humour could not only be ineffective to cope with shame and guilt, but also have a negative influence on these emotions. In healthy males with low level of social anxiety humour helps to cope with withdrawal actions in shame. In males with schizophrenia and low levels of social anxiety humour reduces repair actions in guilt. These results indicate heterogenic influence of humour over social anxiety, shame and guilt, and can be used for diagnostic purposes and for psychocorrection.
The basic types of violence — direct, structural, cultural and all their forms are distinguished. The author shows causes of terrorism as a form of aggressive behavior, describes social background of terrorist behavior and analyzes personality traits peculiar to terrorists.
Hostility is considered as a psychological factor in the development of physical and mental diseases. The author specifies the term “hostility“, differentiating it from such concepts as aggression, aggressiveness, anger and cynicism. The results of studies showing the role of hostility in development of physical and mental disorders, as well as in occurrence of antisocial and criminal behavior in humans, are discussed.
The problems of interconnection between mass media and the negative effects of terrorism are analyzed, as well as the media’s role in the process of their monitoring and reduction. It is shown that to counter terrorism effectively it is not enough to have knowledge only about the differentiation of terrorism and its purposes. It is needed to consider this type of crime in terms of its psychological and social consequences for individuals and society.
The problems of interconnection between mass media and the negative effects of terrorism are analyzed, as well as the media's role in the process of their monitoring and reduction. It is shown that to counter terrorism effectively it is not enough to have knowledge only about the differentiation of terrorism and its purposes. It is needed to consider this type of crime in terms of its psychological and social consequences for individuals and society.
It is shown how ethnic tolerance is understood and what methods can be used to diagnose it. The results of a longitudinal study whose aim is to identify ethnic tolerance in the Russian citizens to Lithuanians are analysed.