The paper discusses a significant and actual issue of developing autonomy of the individual. Special attention is paid to adolescent age having high potential for developing autonomy in view of certain changes in the psychological and social sphere of the adolescents. The value of interpersonal interaction in the course of developing adolescent autonomy is shown.
The approaches to the concept of interaction are analyzed, four main directions of explaining the essence of interaction are allocated: symbolical interactionism (J. Mid), social exchange (J. Homans, G. Blumer), sociodramatic touch (E. Goffman) transaction analysis (E. Berne). Types of interaction, efficiency of interaction development are considered.
The analysis of interpersonal interaction issues shows its communication with the categories of «relation», «communication» and «joint activity» (B.G. Ananyev, G.M. Andreyeva, S.V. Dukhnovsky, Ya.L. Kolominsky V.N. Kunitsyna, V.N. Myasishchev, B.D. Parygin, etc.). The concept of interpersonal interaction system of the autonomy causing development of adolescence in the paradigm of psychologist-teacher interaction, and also child-parent interaction is described. The advantage of psychological assistance and pedagogical support within the system of interpersonal interaction for further development of adolescent autonomy is proved.
The value of cooperation as one of the types of interpersonal interaction in the course of adolescent autonomy development is shown. Mechanisms of interpersonal interaction, nature of contact in interpersonal interaction, components of a social situation are described.
The paper analyses phenomenon of the exchange of emotions in human communication. It is emphasized that the exchange of emotions is one of the basic components of all kinds of human communication. It is proved that the exchange of emotions occurs at three levels: conscious level – by means of words, at extramental level – by means of nonverbal communication (looks, gestures, etc.), and at unconscious level – by means of the olfactory channel. We come out with the assumption of existence of emotionally olfactory language as the mechanism of an exchange of emotions at unconscious level. Transfer is deemed as unconscious as firstly the person does not understand the emotions transferred by means of smells, but they influence mood of the person. Secondly, the smells that contain the information on emotions are very weak, they are not perceived as aromas. Thirdly, such transfer does not occur on the level of consciousness. It is supposed that each of the basic emotions is connected with a specific base odour; when the person feels this emotion his/her physiological reactions are launched, these reactions are compatible with corresponding base odour. In turn, the base aroma which is separated from the human organism causes the same basic emotion in other people. Specific interrelations «emotion - a smell» are offered. We assert that the similar mechanism can cause such phenomena as a mass panic, etc. Complex feelings also can be made of a combination of basic emotions, and are then transferred by means of combinations of the basic smells to the interlocutor. Such phenomenon of human psyche as empathy can be based on this transfer.