Background. The BPS-SR (Boredom Proneness Scale-Short Form) is a brief and most efficacious version of the famous Boredom Proneness Scale developed by R. Farmer and N. Sundberg (Struk, 2017).
Objective. This study is aimed to adapt the Russian BPS-SR version.
Design. Psychometric indicators of the Russian BPS-SR version have been assessed on the sample of males (N=151) serving sentences in prison.
Findings. The factor structure of the BPS-SR, estimated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, has demonstrated the scale homogeneity and thus confirmed the original BPS-SR authors’ hypothesis suggesting the advantage of the scale comprising only direct test items. The BPS-SR reliability (α-Cronbach=0.86) and validity indicators also have confirmed the psychometric adequacy of the Russian scale adaptation. The boredom proneness has proven to be positively associated with apathy, hopelessness, loneliness and male depressive syndrome, which allows considering it a possible factor in psychological maladjustment as an adult. The social and demographic characteristics evaluation performed using the one-way analysis of variance ANOVA has showed that age, marital status, having or not having children, offense type and sentence term do not significantly contribute to the boredom proneness, while the BPS-SR indicators depend directly on the respondents’ education. The respondents having obtained the higher and specialized secondary education have proven to be less prone to boredom than respondents having the basic secondary or full secondary education.
Conclusion. The conclusion infers that the adapted BPS-SR can actually be considered a psychometrically reasonable means to diagnose boredom proneness in Russianspeaking respondents.
Background. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of disabilities and death. CHD is known to be a multifactorial disease and in the process of complex research, it is important to take into account the role of psychological factors. The presence of gender specificities in the formation and course of cardiovascular diseases determines the need to study the psychological characteristics of men and women with CHD in order to plan and develop prevention and rehabilitation programs.
Objective. The present research is aimed at studying the psychological features in men and women with CHD before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at the stage of preoperative care: 1) the study of asthenic condition in patients with CHD (men and women) during inpatient treatment before CABG; 2) the study of the severity and structure of anxiety in patients with CHD (men and women) before CABG; 3) the study of psychopathological symptoms including depressive manifestations in patients (men and women) before CABG; 4) the study of personality peculiarities in patients with CHD before CABG.
Design. In the course of the present study 60 patients with CHD before CABG were surveyed with a gender distribution of 30 women and 30 men. The study was carried out on the basis of Almazov National Medical Research Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (St. Petersburg, Russia). The average age of patients was 60.9 ± 7.6. The study included the clinical interview and the following methods of psychological testing were used: Asthenic State Scale, Integrative Test of Anxiety (ITT), Symptom Check List-90-Revised, and The Big Five Personality Test.
Results. In women with CHD before CABG, the higher level of asthenia and anxiety (both state and trait) was found as compared with men. Also in women in comparison with male patients higher rates of such manifestations in the structure of their psychological features as “somatization”, “interpersonal sensitivity”, “depression”, “phobic anxiety” were noted. According to the results of the study of personality peculiarities, it was found that among men with CHD the indicator of emotional stability is higher than in women.
Conclusion. It is necessary to take into account the possible variants of a sensitive emotional response which may be more common in women at the stage of impatient treatment before CABG (including such manifestations as anxiety, low mood, emotional sensitivity, asthenia). In accordance with this, during psychocorrectional work, it is important to apply techniques aimed at working with those emotional-negative experiences that may worsen noticeably in connection with the upcoming surgical intervention.
Background. The study of early trajectories of emotional development may be crucial for detecting cases of depression and peculiarities of disease in children under the age of three, when early intervention may give the so-called «window of opportunity» for greater therapeutic effect.
Objective. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the issue of depression in children of infantile and early age and to identify risk factors for the development of depression in children of infantile and early childhood, particularly maternal depression.
Design. The reference literature on the subject of maternal and child depression is analysed. The study aimed at obtaining data on depressive symptoms in 233 mothers of infants with congenital heart disease during the period of surgical treatment was conducted.
Results. The paper provides evidence that maternal depression negatively affects child-parent interaction and is a factor of developing depression in the child. Analysis of the results shows that the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with CHD in the period of surgical treatment (clinical group) shows that in mothers of children with congenital heart disease 27.1 per cent reveal subclinical depression, and 17.7 per cent reveal severe depression (two days before heart surgery). Two weeks after surgery 30.04 per cent of mothers had the symptoms of subclinical depression and 18.22 per cent showed signs of severe depression, which was a negative factor in the psychological development of children of the age under consideration.
Conclusion. The phenomenon of depression in children of infantile and early age remains a topic of further discussion for the scientific community. However, it is clear that maternal depression, if it does not cause reciprocal depression in the child, usually makes a negative contribution to the child’s mental development that requires further iresearch.
In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment.
Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals.
This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age.
The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared.
These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests) not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts.
The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.
The influence of psychological factors on the occurrence, course and prognosis of cardiovascular disease is considered. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying their effects are analyzed, including direct (physiological) and indirect (behavioural) effects. The results of foreign and national research of psychological factors that cause cardiovascular diseases are shown.