Background. The paper contains a revised text of Lev Vygotsky's review of Andrei Bely's novel “Petersburg”. In addition to Vygotsky’s review the paper presents the author’s comment. The review is of particular importance for understanding the biography facts of Lev Vygotsky, the greatest psychologist of the twentieth century.
The Objective is to provide the modern reader with a semantic understanding of both the text of the peer-reviewed novel and a special stage of personal, national and religious self-determination of Lev Vygotsky, the outstanding psychologist of the twentieth century.
Design. When working on the comment, traditional historical and philological methods of text analysis and reading techniques were used to identify the hidden and implicit citations contained in Vygotsky's review from a number of interpretation angles. One of them concerns the artistic features of the novel associated with the distinctive aesthetics of symbolism. Another perspective is connected with the religious and philosophical issues that determine the ideological position of Andrey Bely. The third one concerns a wide range of issues related to anti-Semitism issues.
Results. We sought to give the reader an opportunity to feel the urgency of the political situation and ideology in the Russian intelligentsia of the period when the novel was created and the review was written. We tried to devote particular attention to the aspects of a psychological phenomena (e.g. consciousness, semantic understanding) and those methodological principles that Vygotsky would later use in his own psychological research.
Findings.The analysis of Vygotsky's review carried out in the paper will help clarify the authenticity of the cultural-historical approach of Vygotsky as psychologist. Keywords:symbolism, artistic features of the text, anti-Semiteism, Sionism, consciousness, self-determination.
Self-determination is deemed as search and continuous refinement of the meaning of the future life. The paper discusses various options for self-determination, i.e. professional, personal, social, and other ones.
Self-determination means making a certain choice. This may be career choice («career self-determination»), choice of a moral position («personal self-determination»), choice of one’s position in society associated with image and style of life, status in various social groups («social self-determination»), choice of options («Leisure selfdetermination »), or even choice of relationship type («family self-determination»), etc.
The generalized options and methods of orientation in various «space» of self-determination are highlighted. The psychological «spaces» are regarded as a metaphor that reflects and arranges a certain field of search for the meanings of self-determination. Each «space» is constructed according to a certain principle based on certain criteria. Psychological «space» may be determined as diverse, and in this set of self-determining personality one must be able to navigate. There are main groups of psychological «space» including the typology of options for planning life and career, the typology of work activity, the typology of professions. It is important for self-determination to define the future professional activity. Various methods are presented that allow a person to get a career orientation in complex «space» of career and life choices. Particular attention is paid to self-determination of children in adolescence. Various modern approaches in career guidance and P.Ya. Galperin’s career «orientation» principles are drawn to a concordance.
The article discusses the theoretical and methodological framework of the Program development of educational actions as a universal educational psychological and educational component of the project of the federal state standard of general education for senior level - the doctrine of psychological age (Vygotsky, El'konin) and the concept of developmental education, created in the frame of activity approach (Leontiev, Galperin, El'konin, Davydov). The basic types of universal educational action are determined, their characteristics and criteria of formation for older adolescents are presented.