Background. Family of schizophrenic patient plays a key role in their psychosocial adaptation. On the other hand, according to numerous data, adverse family relations are associated with high relapse risk. Family member’s illness is a severe stress factor for the whole family. However, families differ from each other to the degrees of emerging dysfunctions. Yet mechanisms which underlay interactional disturbances in those families remain unexplored.
Objective. The study represents complex research of the role of symptoms severity, interactional characteristics of a family, which are represented in family flexibility and cohesion parameters (FACES-3), and emotional and communicative competence (EmIn Lousin D.V.) as well as life satisfaction of main caregiver in psychosocial adaptation of a patient with schizophrenia.
Design. The paper presents the research of 122 test subjects, paired in dyads – schizophrenic patient (paranoid form) and their major caregiver. Patients gender distribution: 33 female and 28 males, average age 32.5±9.44 (M±SD), hospitalizations rate – 5.44 ±5.27, average illness duration – 9.93±6.85. Caregiver’s genders: 12 males and 49 females. Average major caregiver’s age – 53±11.91.
Results. Derived from structural equations, a model was invented showing that symptoms severity plays negative role in psychosocial adaptation of a patient with schizophrenia (p<0.001), whilst more balanced family characteristics have a supportive effect (p<0.001). Communicative competence of major caregiver increases balance of family characteristics (p<0.001).
Conclusion. The results indicate that the possibilities of social adaptation in patients with schizophrenia are determined by both objective factors (the severity of psychopathological symptoms) and the character of family dysfunctions that are closely associated with the emotional and communicative competence of main caregivers. In this way development of communicational skills in major caregivers may be the part of complex psychosocial interventions into schizophrenic patient’s families. Further research in this area may be aimed both at assessing the effectiveness of interventions, and at improving the tools to be used through experimental methods of assessing the family disruptions and emotional and communicative competence, as well as expanding the number of measured parameters (e.g. cognitive deficit of patients) for a more comprehensive understanding of the problem.
Background. Impaired ability to regulate the emotional state is significant both in the onset of alcohol addiciton and in its course. Despite the fact that it is generally accepted to consider alcoholism from the point of view of the biopsychosocial paradigm, cross-cultural studies of the individual psychological properties of patients with alcoholism are extremely few.
The Objective of the research was to analyze strategies and methods of emotional regulation within alcoholism in the residents of St. Petersburg (Group 1) and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Group 2). Research hypotheses: there are regional and national differences in the emotional regulation strategies; emotional regulation strategies may occur due to socio-cultural factors.
Design. The research involved patients who were treated with drug at St. Petersburg Bekhterev Research Psycho-Neurological Institute (St. Petersburg Bekhterev NIPNI) and Yakutsk Republican Drug Dispensary. The sample included persons aged 18 to 70 years old diagnosed with alcohol addiction syndrome (F10.2) in accordance with ICD-10 and fluent in Russian. In total, 60 people took part in the study, 30 of them were residents of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region (Group 1), 30 people are residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Group 2).
Results. Significant regional differences were found in the use of the cognitive strategy of emotion regulation “positive reavaluation” (p = 0.01) in the residents of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region and residents of Yakutia. The basic strategy of emotional regulation is “suppression of expression” (p = 0.02), and also such difficulties of emotional regulation as “aversion of emotional reactions” (p = 0.002), “difficulties in showing impulsive reactions” (p = 0.007), “limited array of strategies emotional regulation ”(p = 0.003) are characteristic of residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). They reflect the cultural-based features of the northern peoples that are expressed in emotional restraint, propensity to suppress emotions and feelings.
Conclusion. The study of emotional regulation in alcohol pathology in reference to national and regional affiliation of individuals is of fundamental importance for solving problems in the field of ethnic psychology and psychiatry. In order to effectively provide medical, psychological and psychotherapeutic care to patients with alcohol addiction and other forms of addictive disorders it is necessary to take into account national and regional characteristics that can be an internal resource for the success of the assistance provided.