ISSN 2079-6617 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9828 (Online)
Ru | En
Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Main RSS Search

MainAuthors

Menshikova, Galina Ya.

Ph.D in Psychology. Head of the Laboratory of Perception.
Moscow, Russia

Articles

Menshikova G.Ya., Savelyeva O.A., Kovyazina M.S. (2018) Assessing successful reproduction of egocentric and allocentric spatial representations using virtual reality National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 11(2), 113–122

Background. Currently in psychological rehabilitation the necessity of developing innovative methods for testing cognitive dysfunctions with via the modern sophisticated technology is becoming increasingly important. One of the urgent requests is associated with developing the methods of diagnostics and correction of spatial representations disorders, which are manifested by decreasing accuracy of spatial representations of the environment in particular.

Objective. To study this issue the method for evaluating the accuracy of spatial information using which the ability to memorize the three-dimensional complex scenes was developed. It was assumed that the accuracy of reproduction would differ significantly depending on the coordinate (egocentric or allocentric) system of mental reconstruction processing.

Design. The library of virtual objects and six unique virtual scenes were created. Each scene of seven objects was shown to the participants within the interval for 25 seconds. Thirty six subjects (aged from 18 to 26) participated in the experiment. They were told to memorize the objects and their locations, and then to reproduce the memorized scene using the given viewpoint of the scene. Three viewpoints were chosen: the "front" (to reproduce the scene from the egocentric position); the "left" and the" above" (to reproduce the memorized scene from on the left and above imaginary allocentric positions, respectively). To perform the task the participants chose objects from the library of virtual objects using the flystick 2 and placed them in virtual space in accordance with the memorized scene. The object locations in virtual space were recorded. Moreover, the accuracy of egocentric and allocentric representations in terms of measurements, topology and depth parameters were calculated.

Conclusion. The results show that the egocentric representations (the "front" viewpoint) were more accurate for all parameters in comparison with the allocentric representations (the "left" and the "above" viewpoints), and the “above” representations were more accurate compared with the “left” ones. The topological accuracy was much better than the measurements and depth accuracy. Regardless of the viewpoints, the topological space parameters are stored in memory much more accurately than the depth parameters, which, in turn, are reproduced more accurately than metric parameters. It was also shown that the accuracy of spatial representations differs for different allocentric viewpoints: the "above" view is reproduced much more accurately than the "left" view.

The method developed made it possible to reveal the features of encoding spatial information in ER and AP blocks in terms of measurements, topology and depth parameters. It can be used in clinical rehabilitation to test impairments in the perception of space, and also violations of short-term memory. The results obtained allow refining the existing models of encoding spatial information.

Received: 10/26/2017

Accepted: 11/19/2017

Pages: 113-122

DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0212

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: short-term memory; accuracy of spatial representation cording; egocentric and allocentric systems; technology of virtual reality; CAVE;

Available Online: 01.08.2018

Menshikova G.Ya., Kovalev A.I., Luniakova E.G. (2017). Studying the influence of race on the gaze cueing effect using eye tracking method. National Psychological Journal. 2, 46-58.

The gaze direction of another person is an important social cue, allowing us to orient quickly in social interactions. The effect of short-term redirection of visual attention to the same object that other people are looking at is known as the gaze cueing effect. There is evidence that the strength of this effect depends on many social factors, such as the trust in a partner, her/his gender, social attitudes, etc. In our study we investigated the influence of race of face stimuli on the strength of the gaze cueing effect. Using the modified Posner Cueing Task an attentional shift was assessed in a scene where avatar faces of different race were used as distractors. Participants were instructed to fix the black dot in the centre of the screen until it changes colour, and then as soon as possible to make a rightward or leftward saccade, depending on colour of a fixed point. A male distractor face was shown in the centre of the screen simultaneously with a fixed point. The gaze direction of the distractor face changed from straight ahead to rightward or leftward at the moment when colour of a fixed point changed. It could be either congruent or incongruent with the saccade direction. We used face distractors of three race categories: Caucasian (own race faces), Asian and African (other race faces). Twenty five Caucasian participants took part in our study. The results showed that the race of face distractors influence the strength of the gaze cueing effect, that manifested in the change of latency and velocity of the ongoing saccades.

Received: 05/26/2017

Accepted: 05/31/2017

Pages: 46-58

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0206

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: social attention; face perception; own-race effect; gaze-cueing effect; eye movements; saccadic latency;

Available Online: 28.06.2017

Menshikova Galina Ya., Kovalev Artem I. (2015). Vection in virtual environments: psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms. National Psychological Journal. 4, 91-104.

The self-motion illusion (‘vection’) refers to a subjective phenomenon where a stationary observer experiences a compelling sense of illusory self-motion when she/ he is exposed to large moving patterns of optic flow. As a part of vestibular dysfunction the self-motion illusion is accompanied by the complex of negative symptoms: vertigo, nausea, vomiting and headache. In recent years the phenomenon of vection has attracted the attention of researchers due to the development of virtual reality systems. In such systems stationary subjects are exposed to the large moving optic flow which leads to the appearance of vection. Despite the wide range of approaches and methods of its assessing there is no generally accepted view about the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms of its appearance. This review considers various approaches to the study of the vection illusion, methods of its evaluation and various factors affecting its severity. Special attention is paid to the mechanisms of the brain activity underlying the vection perception, which was registered using the neuroimaging technique. This work contains also the analysis of the main factors influencing the vection perception such as technical features of virtual reality systems, individual characteristics of observers, cognitive rules of sensory information processing. A detailed description of psychological and psychophysiological methods allowing evaluating the vection strength is given. At the present understanding the process of the vection perception is an actual problem of theoretical and practical psychology. The experimental results may allow psychologists to solve the binding problem concerning the processes of sensory integration. As to practical application the results would help to develop new methods of counteracting the self-motion sickness for astronautics, pilots and sportsmen.

Received: 09/27/2015

Accepted: 10/10/2015

Pages: 91-104

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0409

By: ; ;

Keywords: vection; self-motion illusion; virtual reality; simulator sickness;

Available Online: 31.12.2015

Menshikova, Galina Ya., Zinchenko, Yury P., Kovalev, Artem I., Shaygerova, Ludmila.A. (2015). New information technologies in social studies: postnonclassical paradigm. National Psychological Journal. 3, 25–34

The paper discusses topical issues of virtual reality technologies in social research, particularly when studying the processes of ethnic cultural identity, development of ethnic and racial attitudes using «virtual avatars» for managing ethnic conflicts, development of communication skills in representatives of different cultures using virtual collaboration and video conferencing. One of the key issues of the paper to discuss the necessity of post-non-classical paradigm as a conceptual framework for social research. Contemporary social studies require developing new methods, technologies and techniques at all levels of the research: from task setting to the development of new methods and result analysis. One of the most promising methods rapidly developed in recent years is virtual reality technology. The paper presents the analysis of more than 40 experimental studies performed using CAVE and HMD virtual reality systems. Their application is considered hereunder for the studies of verbal and nonverbal cues in communication, social skills training, treatment of social anxiety disorders and the development of new methods of cognitive behavioural therapy. Studies on interpersonal communication with virtual partners (i.e. «avatars») are considered. Factors affecting the communication quality of avatars, its visual and behavioural realism, problems of seeing virtual human as real partners for social interaction are discussed. Special attention is paid to the studies of racial and ethnic attitudes performed using virtual reality systems. The possibilities of practical applications of the VR technologies for shaping positive attitudes and development of communication skills in a sociocultural context are emphasized.

Received: 10/27/2015

Accepted: 11/07/2015

Pages: 25-34

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0303

By: ; ; ; ;

Keywords: social studies; postnonclassical paradigm; technology of virtual reality; ethnic and interracial attitudes; verbal and nonverbal communication; avatar;

Available Online: 15.11.2015

Zinchenko Yu. P., Menshikova G. Ya., Bayakovskii Yu. M., Chernorizov A. M., Voiskunsky A. E.(2010).Virtual reality technology in the context of world and national psychology: methodological aspects, achievements and prospects.National Psychological Journal,1(3), 54-62

In the article specific experimental studies, performed with the use of virtual reality systems are described, Promising directions of modification of research paradigms in cognitive, organizational, social and clinical psychology are introduced. The possibility of using new technology to address educational psychology, psychotherapy and psychological rehabilitation is analyzed.

Pages: 54-62

By: ; ; ; ; ;

Keywords: psychotechnologies; technology of virtual reality; experimental psychology; psychotherapy; psychology of safety; psychophysiology; psychological rehabilitation; communication; perception;

Zinchenko Yu. P., Menshikova G. Ya., Bayakovsky Yu. M., Chernorizov A. M., Voiskunsky A. E. (2010). Virtual reality technology in the context of world and national psychology: methodological aspects, achievements and prospects.National Psychological Journal,2(4), 64-71

In the article specific experimental studies, performed with the use of virtual reality systems are described, Promising directions of modification of research paradigms in cognitive, organizational, social and clinical psychology are introduced. The possibility of using new technology to address educational psychology, psychotherapy and psychological rehabilitation is analyzed.

Pages: 64-71

By: ; ; ; ; ;

Keywords: psychotechnologies; technology of virtual reality; experimental psychology; psychotherapy; psychology of safety; psychophysiology; psychological rehabilitation; organizational psychology; innovative education; perception; communication;

Menshikova G.Y. (2012). Studying the perception of surface lightness using technology of virtual reality. National Psychological Journal,2(8),110-115

The article is devoted to the problem of lightness perception. The strength of 3D simultaneous lightness contrast illusions was measured with the method of constant stimuli for thirty seven observers. The virtual reality technique was used to present stereo pairs of different 3D configurations of the illusion. The albedo-hypothesis and the coplanar ratio hypothesis were tested to explain the results. The changes of the illusion strength were consisted with the albedo hypothesis.

Pages: 110-115

By: ;

Keywords: perception; visual illusions; lightness; perceived illumination; albedo hypothesis; coplanar ratio hypothesis; technology of virtual reality;


About Editorial Board Volumes Authors For Authors Indexing Contacts
CC BY-NC

National Psychological Journal, 2006 - 2020