This research studies the effect of long-term cognitive load on developimg fatigue on a range of subjective, behavioural (reaction time) and electrophysiological (individual alpha rhythm), fatigue index parameters in carriers of various polymorphisms of DRD2 genes. Mental fatigue was modeled as a result of continuous cognitive tasks aimed at using attention and working memory for 2.5 hours.
The sample included 51 subjects (male right-handers, the average age - 20 ± 4 years) whose genetic analysis was conducted and polymorphism options of DRD2 gene Taq1A (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were identified.
The research results show that such load significantly affects almost the entire complex of indicators. Significant differences were found between the polymorphisms carriers A1A1 and A1A2 and A2A2 of DRD2 gene polymorphism in the reaction of choice, and also in fatigue index, which reflects the ratio of slow brain rhythms to fast. The results show the positive role of dopamine in developing fatigue.
Group of A2A2 («A1») polymorphism carriers was assumed to show lower fatigue, characterized in SVMR and PB significantly slower reaction time, and before and after long-term cognitive load, compared with carriers of polymorphisms A1A1 and A1A2 (« A1 + «).
Notably, the dynamics of error increase within all polymorphisms is the same, and genotype number of errors does not vary before or after fatigue. The dynamics of reaction time after the exhaustion of all SNPs is approximately the same. This means that polymorphisms are different not only in dynamics of fatigue but physical predisposition to sensory information processing.
This paper attempts to analyze dissociation from the perspective of phenomenology as experience of persons engaged in activities related to high stress (physical and/ or psychological).
Dissociation is usually correlated with the so-called reaction fading in life-threatening situations, which along with the reactions of “fight or flight” reveal both in humans and the representatives of the animal world (“fight, flight or freeze”). However, unlike animals humans are often able to act purposefully in dissociative states, or randomly enter them. Specific features and diversity of manifestations of dissociation in humans are determined by the linguistic nature of human consciousness, which is logical to appeal to the philosophers of the phenomenological direction within which consciousness is the subject matter of their research.
Based on the concept of Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze various manifestations of dissociation are detected: from the grave symptoms of PTSD (the so-called invasion of symptoms) to controlled arbitrarily selected dissociative strategies for athletes. Dissociative experiences by experts of extreme careers are considered: law enforcement officers who participated in missions in «hot spots», and EMERCOM psychologists. Dissociation mechanism in terms of phenomenology is defined.
The development and application of adequate diagnostic tools, psychological work with the athletes to regulate the focus of attention during the competition is supposed to contribute to the achievement of a high sports results.