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The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
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Almazova, Olga V.

Алмазова О. В.

Ph.D in Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Moscow, Russia


Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebysheva N.N. (2019). Ideas about volunteering among modern youth. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], (13)4, 125-136. doi: 10.11621/npj.2020.0410

Background. Currently, there is an increase in the popularity of the volunteer movement among young people. The motivational basis of volunteer activity plays an important role in the analysis of the level of volunteer involvement, readiness for constant participation in helping behavior.

Objective of the research: studying the characteristics of motivation among young people to participate in volunteering as well as analyzing the ideas about digital volunteering.

Design. The study involved 47 full-time studentsof Moscow colleges 18 to 23 years old (M = 20.1, SD = 2.3). We used a questionnaire for analyzing volunteering motivation(VFI). The questionnaire aimed at studying the volunteer activity of respondents and understanding the content of volunteer activity in different areas wasused as well as a diagnostic tool.

The VFI questionnaire was usedfor the first time in a Russian sample. The translation was done independently by three experts. Aftercoordinatingtheirversions, a reverse translation was made into the original language, followed by a comparison of the original version with the resulting double translation.

Results. The results obtained made it possible to identify 3 groups of motivational preferences in the field of volunteering for young people. The group of “active volunteers” is characterized by a high significance of most of the possible motives for helping behavior. The largest group in terms of number was the group of “pragmatists” volunteers focused on “volunteering as a career opportunity” and “volunteering as a source of development”. A group with a low level of understanding of possible options for volunteer activity was also identified – a group of “passive volunteers”. The nature of the relationship between real behavior and awareness of motivation can be two-way – on the one hand, the presence of motivation can stimulate participation in volunteering, and on the other hand, the experience of participation can help reflect the personal meaning of the process for oneself. The living experience of helping behavior determines the emphasis on “the absence of live direct interaction” as a lack of digital volunteering, especially among active volunteers and pragmatic volunteers. A certain inconsistency in ideas about the merits and limitations of digital volunteering was revealed – from assessing the capabilities of the digital form as broader, to assessing the space of self-realization in the distant online form as much narrower than in the offline form.

Conclusions. The priority types of motivation are highlighted. Volunteering allows you to realize value attitudes, and is also viewed as a source of competence development. At the same time, the use of volunteer activity as a way to protect and compensate for psychological experiences is the least in demand. The concept of digital volunteering is rather vague – general characteristics of the distant form of helping behavior are indicated with a pronounced low level of awareness of volunteer structures in the Internet.

Received: 11/18/2020

Accepted: 12/06/2020

Pages: 125-136

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2020.0410

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.10.2020

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Voiskounsky A.E., Poskrebisheva N.N. (2018). Role of personality features of adolescents in processing information via social network communication.. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4, 3–15. doi: 10.11621/npj.2018.0401

Introduction Informational socializing of modern adolescents influences the form of communication as the main source of development and self-determination as the major developmental factor in adolescence. The investigation of links between personal features and moral values and Internet involvement allows defining the problem of correlations between personal and cognitive component of development and prevent cyberbulling and communication on-line risks.

The Objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between basic attitude and moral values of adolescents and the productivity of cognitive processing of social information on the Internet. The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that adolescents with a positive attitude to the mediated world and a high level of moral values reveal greater productivity of cognitive methods of processing social information obtained on the Internet. One of the goals of the research was to identify the relationship between basic beliefs and the Internet addiction in adolescents.

Methods and sampling. The study used the following methods: 1. Basic Belief Scale by R. Yanoff-Bulman (Kalmykova, Padun, 2002); 2. Methods of diagnosing moral values "Fair-Care" (S. Molchanov, A. Podolsky); 3) the author's method of cognitive assessment of social information on the Internet, based on the Crick and Dodge model (Crick, Dodge, 1994); 4. Method of diagnosing Internet-dependent behavior by S.H.Chen. The population aged 13 to 18 years accounted 175 adolescents (49% males and (51% females).

Results. Three groups of adolescents were different in the nature of basic assumptions and the level of development of moral values optimists, pessimists, and ego-centered pessimists, and Internet addicted. Comparative analysis of the cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet, as well as signs of Internet addiction was carried out.

Conclusions: The hypothesis that positive attitude to the mediated world and belief that they control life, a high level of moral values associated with more productive cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet has received confirmation. A group of adolescents identified as “pessimists” (perception of the world as hostile, negative image of themselves, lack of confidence in the world and success, low level of moral values) reveal signs of Internet addiction in behaviour.

Received: 11/24/2018

Accepted: 12/07/2018

Pages: 3-15

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0401

By: ; ; ; ;

Keywords: basic assumptions; moral values; cognitive methods of social information processing; adolescence; Internet dependence;

Available Online: 30.12.2018

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebisheva N.N. (2018). Cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet in adolescence. National Psychological Journal. 3, 57-68.

Background. Within the conditions of information socialization that is transforming communication and placing high demands on the ability of the individual to search, select, critically comprehend social information for decision-making and carrying out moral choices, a new social situation has developed. The research of the relationship between cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet and shaping the worldview and ideas about the moral regulation in adolescents makes it possible to study the patterns of personality development in the unity of the cognitive and value-moral spheres.

The Objective of the research is to identify cognitive methods of processing social information on the Internet as a factor of developing a picture of the world in adolescent users with varying degrees of involvement and the risk of Internet addiction and moral regulation of relationship between them.

Hypothesis. Cognitive methods of processing information on the Internet are connected with the level of Internet addiction - a high level of Internet addiction corresponds to the low efficiency of cognitive methods of processing information. These methods influence the emerging system of major beliefs and worldview characteristics, and level of sensitivity to situations of moral choice.

Design. The author’s method of assessing social information on the Internet based on Crick and Dodge model (1994), Chen method for diagnosing Internet-addictive behaviour, «The scale of basic beliefs of the person» of R. Yanoff-Bullman (Kalmykova , Padun, 2002), and the author’s method of assessing moral aspects were used. The study involved 84 adolescents from 13 to 18 years (46% males and 54% females).

Results. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles was conducted and gender differences were revealed. The relationship between Internet addiction and the effectiveness of cognitive processing methods of information on the Internet is verified. The significance of interpretation, behaviour assessment and the ability to construct social adaptive behaviour in communication to shape the major beliefs and moral attitude in adolescence are shown.

Conclusion. There are differences in the effectiveness of cognitive processing cycles of information. High efficiency of short-term, long-term, medium-term perspectives and behavioural responses and the ability to choose adequate social behavior corresponds to a relatively low productivity of interpretation. Internet addiction is interrelated with the low productivity of interpretation. Moral attitude is mediated by the age features of adolescent self-awareness and is related to the effectiveness of information interpretation, the evaluation of behavioural consequences and the choice of appropriate ways of social interaction.

Received: 08/03/2018

Accepted: 08/25/2018

Pages: 57-68

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0306

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: cognitive methods of social information processing; Internet addiction; world-perception; basic assumptions; moral attitude; adolescence;

Available Online: 30.09.2018

Molchanov S.V., Almazova O.V., Poskrebysheva N.N., Zapunidi A.A. (2017). Personal autonomy as factor of developing responsibility in adolescence. National Psychological Journal. 1, 84-90.

The paper describes the research results of relationship between personal autonomy and responsibility level in adolescence. The theoretical idea of unity of freedom and responsibility can be regarded as link between personal autonomy and level of responsibility in adolescence. The hypothesis of correlation between level of responsibility and autonomy in adolescence is realized. The sample includes 368 school students aged from 13 to 17, Moscow, Russia. The questionnaire to diagnose autonomy defines emotional, cognitive, intellectual and behavioural components of autonomy. The second questionnaire describes the responsibility level using the example of different moral dilemmas. The results of the empirical research describe the hypothesis on the relationship between personal autonomy and level of responsibility. Personal autonomy includes value, emotional, cognitive and behavioural components. Cluster groups with different levels of autonomy are defined: high autonomy, intellectual autonomy, low autonomy and disharmonic type of autonomy. Higher level of a number of autonomy components correlates with higher level of responsibility. Analysis of moral norm deviation shows that type and content of moral dilemma play an important role in responsibility acceptance. Gender differences in level of responsibility is defined in the following way: females show higher level of responsibility than males.

Received: 02/07/2017

Accepted: 02/24/2017

Pages: 84-90

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0110

By: ; ; ; ;

Keywords: responsibility; adolescence; personality autonomy; moral-value orientation; emotional autonomy; cognitive autonomy; value autonomy; behavioral autonomy;

Available Online: 30.03.2017

Pryazhnikov N.S., Almazova O.V., Churbanova S.M. (2017). Vocational guidance in social volunteering. National Psychological Journal. 1, 45-55.

The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of vocational guidance in the social volunteering system. The essence of volunteer work is closely related with assistance to desperate people in searching for the meaning of living, often coinciding with labour activity that are deemed in terms of “the main matter of life” and “the leading activity”. For adolescents, it is the choice of career, and for adults, it is the work proper (i.e. an essential condition for personal self-realization). The problem of “forced volunteering” for experts in vocational guidance also means that they often have to work voluntarily and unselfishly outside the official guidelines. To clarify the terms «volunteer» and «a person in desperate need of help» the study used the method of analyzing the documents, e.g. the Regulations on Social Volunteering, the generalization of psychological sources, the initial survey of university students as active supporters of the volunteer movement, On the essence of volunteering and the place of career guidance in selfless social work. Vocational guidance is not excluded from the general system of volunteerism, but has an insufficiently defined status and low popularity among participants in social volunteering. Also, the problem of «forced volunteering» of experts in career counseling, which often requires voluntary and unselfish performance of quality work outside the framework of official instructions, is also indicated. Simultaneously, positive aspects of such disinterested career initiatives are noted, in particular, less control by the official inspectors (or customers) and, accordingly, greater freedom of creativity than when someone else does the work.

Received: 02/03/2017

Accepted: 02/21/2017

Pages: 45-55

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2017.0106

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: social volunteering; professional orientation; «forced volunteering» of career advisers; personal meanings;

Available Online: 30.03.2017

Almazova O.V., Bukhalenkova D.A., Veraksa A.N. (2016). The voluntariness in the preschool age: a comparative analysis of various approaches and diagnostic tools. National Psychological Journal. 4, 14-22.

Most modern psychologists who deal with preschool age emphasize the development of executive functions as one of the most important factors in this age. The paper compares two most important and common approaches to disclosing and diagnosing voluntariness in the preschool age: the model of executive functions «unity with diversity» of A. Miyake and the skills theory of L.A. Venger. The model of the executive functions considers three main components of executive functions: working memory; flexibility of attention or switching; restraining control. The basis of cognitive abilities theory is the concept of cultural facilities (sensory standards, visual models, etc.) that are being developed throughout the preschool period. In accordance with these two diagnostic complexes were drawn up, aimed at diagnosing voluntariness in preschool years. The study involved 48 children aged 5-6 years, kindergarten students (24 girls and 24 boys) conducted in Moscow, Russia. The results showed that despite a variety of theoretical approaches to early childhood and voluntariness they reverberate the same reality. 

The most revealing methods (the results of which you can predict the eventual consequences) were elaborated: the method of «Inhibition» (subtest of neuropsychological diagnostic complex techniques NEPSY-II, Korkman et al, 2007) in the case of A. Miyake model, and methods of «Schematization» in the abilities theory of L.A. Venger (Venger, Kholmovskaya, 1978).

Received: 11/25/2016

Accepted: 12/03/2016

Pages: 14-22

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0402

By: ; ; ;

Keywords: preschool age; voluntariness; executive functions; intelligence; working memory;

Available Online: 30.12.2016

Almazova Olga V. (2013). Emotional ties between siblings and attachment to the mother in adulthood. National psychological journal. 3 (11), 54-60.

The paper analyzes the relationship between adult siblings, their specificity and diversity, examples of relation typologies of adult siblings by American and Indian psychologists are adduced. The modern view of the attachment to the mother in adults and the conditions required for establishing close, trusting interpersonal relationships are briefly described. A succinct overview of modern foreign research in these fields of research is given. The national sample (N = 277) identified and described four types of relations between adult siblings: emotionally-positive (heart, harmonious) ones account 39 per cent of the sample; ambivalent (heart, conflictcompetitive ones account 32 per cent; debarred (not close, not conflict-competing) ones account 18 per cent; conflict (not close, competing conflict-up to hostile) ones account 11 per cent.

Comparison of the three typologies of adult sibling relationships (Russian, US and Indian). The intercouple comparison shows the reciprocity of sibling relationships in adulthood. The results of the empirical research reveal complex relationship features attachment to the mother with the nature of the relationship between siblings in adulthood. Thus there are adults with a reliable type of attachment to the mother with debarred or even conflicting relationships with older siblings, while adult sibling relationships are determined not totally emotional of the early relationship with the mother, and also depend on the sibling’s personality traits and personal history of relations. The influence of the attachment type to the mother is shaped in childhood and can be applied to the relationship between adult siblings.

Received: 11/20/2013

Accepted: 11/29/2013

Pages: 54-60

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2013.0307

By: ;

Keywords: adult siblings; typology of sibling relationships; attachment to mother;

Available Online: 30.09.2013

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