ISSN 2079-6617
eISSN 2309-9828
Национальный психологический журнал



fundamental motivations



Längle A. (2016). Why do we suffer? Understanding, treatment and processing of suffering in terms of existential analysis. National Psychological Journal. 4, 23-33.

The paper describes the existential analytical model within which the content of suffering is denoted and structured. The model shows that we suffer from when we suffer. Suffering is diverse in its «how» and «why.» The author highlights the features of various forms of suffering in accordance with their classification in the existential-analytical anthropology and reveals the essence of suffering. Within the framework of existential analysis there is an assumption that experience is perceived as fulfilling with suffering when the fundamental structures of existence are threatened or damaged, and the features of the contents of these structures are considered. Significant attention is paid to the ratio of human suffering and the loss of human sense of life, what is behind the feeling of senselessness of suffering. Suffering and pain fully or partly represent a threat to our very life and throw into question human lust for life. To avoid this, it is necessary to appeal to the vast opportunities of a person, and drawing strength from its sources to meet adequately the destructive factors and the abyss of existence. 

The paper considers the issue of activity which enables stepwise treatment of suffering. The model of stepwise coping with suffering is proposed. It helps to overcome the stagnation in the condition of suffering and returns to the world and life. Practical steps are suggested. These steps are applicable for all forms of suffering. They lay the basis for gaining inner peace. So we can target our efforts over the suffering and prevent the occurrence of mental illness (e.g., depression, hysteria, addiction, PTSD, etc.).

Received: 08/20/2016

Accepted: 10/14/2016

Pages: 23-33

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0403

Keywords: existential analysis; fundamental motivations; logotherapy; suffering; pain;

By: ;

Available Online: 12/30/2016

Koryakina Julia M. (2015). Conditions for fulfilled life: description and measurement of existential motivations. National Psychological Journal. 4, 49-65.

The paper presents a view on the issue of studying the driving forces of personality from the perspective of existential analysis. The student of V. Frankl A. Lange developed the concept of the will to meaning (Frankl’s monomotivational theory), highlighting four aspects existential relationship of personality, four fundamental motivations. Existential philosophers and followed by psychologists, while psychotherapists define these motivation as the main themes of human life, and their implementation is a condition for living true, deep life - existence. Langle allocates four aspects of existence: relationship with the realities of existence, i.e. the world, relations with dynamic, vital side of existence, i.e. life, relationship with ourselves and relations with the future. These aspects are defined as 1, 2, 3 and 4 existential fundamental motivations (FM). The article in the first part contains a description of the content of the four fundamental motivations A. Lange, and in the second - the results of own researches of the author that is dedicated to the approbation on the Russian sample test that measures the subjective experience of the integral quality of life as the sum of its constituent these four aspects.

Questionnaire «Test existential motivations» (TEM) (A. Lange, P. Eckhard) is developed in the framework of existential analysis as psycho-diagnostic instrument to provide psychological and consultative assistance, but it also can be used for research purposes for the study of subjective attitude to existential important aspects of being. According to the developers, «TEM» is addressed to space of human feelings and able to assess the completeness of his living each of the four fundamental motivations. The first FM embodies the intention to be in this world and (is committed) seeks to the acceptance of reality. Second FM is looking for opportunities to build relationships and living values.

Third FM is aimed at implementation of respectful treatment of ourselves and others, meeting and living ourselves as having value. Fourth FM is searching for the meaning of the situation, ways to make ourselves with all our capabilities in the world. The study of the fundamental motivations allows not only to closer to life-world of the person, to enter the space of his experience, but also meets the targets of psychotherapeutic practice.

Received: 02/02/2015

Accepted: 04/17/2015

Pages: 49-65

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2015.0405

Keywords: existential analysis; existence; fundamental motivations; fulfillment; «Test existential motivations»;

By: ;

Available Online: 12/31/2015