The paper is devoted to the dynamics of pithy features of student attitude to the political leaders over the past 10 years in Moscow, Russia. The research data in 2004 and 2014 are based on the method of semantic differential. The research involved the high school students of 10-11 grades, Moscow, Russia (80 individuals in 2004 and 110 individuals in 2014). The students got a list of political leaders, each of them they need to evaluate by a number of semantic features (scales). In both research the same set of 33 words describing various personality traits was used. In 2004 the list of political leaders was composed of the Soviet state’s leaders and the most popular political leaders of that time. In 2014 research, the list of politicians was partially preserved and supplemented because of the changed political situation in Russia. Also the 2014 list was extended with several foreign politicians’ names. The hypothesis of the study suggests that the generation of 2014, compared with the high school students of 2004 presupposes a more simple perception structure of the political leaders.
According to the results of the comparative analysis of the factors the following conclusions were made: 1) simplification of psychosemantic structure which was indicated by the decreased number of factors from 5 in 2004 to 4 in 2004, 2) in 2014 students there is no negative moral evaluation of intolerant manifestations of personality, 3) increased importance of moral characteristics in evaluating the activity and self-presentation of a political leader, 4) the value of power and intelligent characteristic increased.
The paper discusses various approaches to the definition of «success» and types of success. It also presents the results of the pilot study of success representations in modern adolescents: semantic universals are identified, the notion of «success» is defined, the most important characteristics of success in adolescents are highlighted. Using authorized techniques the “definition of success” highlights the notion of “success” to be the most consistent characteristic of “the achievement of goals”. One of the most significant characteristics is “self-realization”. Adolescents also define success as the experience of “joy and satisfaction from the work done” and as “a sense of welldeserved happiness”. It is of particular interest that such category as “popular in the society” is the least important in determining the success of a given sample. The most interesting part of the research is to analyze particular cases of success in famous personalities who are significant for adolescents, i.e. representatives of show business, modern business (e.g. Bill Gates), or members of the family and friends. The sphere of politics is less popular, and the sphere of science, art and sports are so rare for adolescent sources of success patterns.
The research is able to communicate ideas about the success of adolescents with the experience of meaningfulness of their lives. Those adolescents who evaluate their past, present and future life as meaningful and loose enough do not feel the strength to manage their own lives, regard themselves as not very successful people and the very success is seen as volatile and rare. The image of success in adolescents who consider their life meaningful are positive and bright: they do not consider it such a rare and changing phenomenon, probably because more than once they have experienced success in various areas of their lives.
As a result, a correlation representation of adolescents about the success with the experience of the meaningfulness of their lives is established.
The paper is devoted to empirical research of representations of Chinese students about the «typical Russian person» and the «typical Chinese person». The participants are Chinese students who take a four year term of studies in the Far Eastern Federal University.
To study the representations of Chinese students used the method of semantic differential, i.e. unipolar 64-bar graph semantic differential developed A.G. Shmelev to assess personal traits. The results were subjected to factor analysis procedures and calculation of semantic universals method by E.Yu. Artemieva and V.P. Serkin. Factor structures were compared with the content and structure of universals. Factor structure of representations of Chinese students about the «typical Russian person» and the «typical Chinese person» were interpreted, defined, and their common and specific features were identified. In this paper, a comparative analysis of structural and content characteristics of semantic universals, i.e. a «typical Russian person» and a «typical Chinese person», are identified.
The research reveals that the factor structure of the estimated features of a «typical Chinese person» and a «typical Russian person» are similar. The group of common factors is reconstructed: evaluation, tact, diplomacy; ease-of hypocrisy (pandering); attractiveness (beauty); activity; perseverance; volitional characteristics; intellectual performance. Summing up, Chinese students mainly used the same criteria for evaluating themselves and Russian people among whom they live and study.The overall view of Chinese students about Russians is positive. This proves their success of their adaptation in Russia. Despite the obvious difficulties Chinese students chose the Far Eastern Federal University for getting higher education and were quite successful to get with Russians, and generally adapt to the Russian culture. They have a positive attitude to Russian, which is a good prerequisite for further personal and working relationships, and also positive attitude to Russia.The results can be applied in the development of adaptation programs of foreign students in the Russian cultural environment and used in further research of semantic representations of expats in Russia.