Background. The paper focuses upon L.F. Obukhova's ideas about creativity in children, the search for objective mechanisms for the development of child thinking in solving creative problems. The paper is prepared in connection with the conference “Scientific Readings in Memory of L.F. Obukhova (1938-2016), Professor of Moscow State Lomonosov University” on the occasion of her 80th birthday.
The Objective of the analytical and theoretical research is rethinking the basic ideas of L.F. Obukhova in the study of key aspects of child creativity and systematic study of thinking based on ‘open-end’ type problems that allow multiple solutions.
Design. The psychological characteristics of creativity in children and its relationship with other mental processes are consistently considered. The mental processes are perception, emotions, intelligence, imagination; age peaks and declines in the development of creativity of preschoolers. The paper presents a critical analysis of measuring creativity, the impact of learning on the development of children on the basis of popular programs and trainings of creative thinking. The paper highlights the prospects of Obukhova's scientific approach to the vital issues in understanding mental development of the child, the ‘intersection of ideas’ of representatives of cultural-historical and natural-scientific paradigms.
Results. The heuristic possibilities of the analysis of the general and divergences of representatives of two main scientific paradigms in modern psychology are shown. According to L.F. Obukhova, the Torrence's Picture Construction Test shows the convergent strategies of solution, which contradicts Guilford's understanding of the phenomena of creativity. The cultural-historical paradigm highlights the artificial approach to the process of thinking though the prism of multiple factors.
Findings. The analysis showed that underestimating the role of adults in the teaching creativity brings about a partial solution to the problem articulated by E.P. Torrence: «Can we Teach Children To Think Creatively?» Building a comprehensive view of the mechanisms that induce creative processes brings closer to a deeper understanding of the issues of development and learning.
Keywords: natural-scientific approach;
Gilford’s divergence concept;
development of creativity;
cultural historical concept;
Galperin`s method of mental actions development;
Available Online: 01/30/2019
Background. In recent decades, the living conditions and development of children have changed significantly. The group of children that is open to the new and is sensitive enough is the group of children of early and preschool age since they have been formed and developed in completely different conditions than previous generations. The new childhood is taking shape and exists in the material, information, communicative, etc. environment that adults shape.
The Objective is to consider some general trends of the information environment of modern childhood and to fix a number of its contradictions and paradoxes.
Design.The paper attempts to determine the characteristics of modern preschool childhood through analyzing child information environment. Based on the analysis of the market for modern toys, books and films, the author states some paradoxes of the current socio-cultural situation. One of them consists in the fact that a significant part of the extensive information products for children is not designed for the age characteristics of the target audience. Another paradox lies in the fact that the increased demand for the child mental development is combined with an excessively careful attitude to their physical security and independence. Particular attention is paid to computer technology in early and preschool childhood.
Results.The identified features of modern children in connection with the characteristics of the child subculture are discussed. Among them there are the underdevelopment of large and small motor skills, impaired speech development, lack of imagination, communication difficulties, lack of independence and self-organization. Having a high level of awareness, mental development and technical literacy, children still remain passive, dependent on adults and external circumstances.
Findings.The author concludes that the attitudes of adults to early development, which is understood as “learning,” inhibits the development of the child’s personality and brings about lack of motivation. Attempting to accelerate intellectual development inepts and sometimes blocks the development of the child’s personality. With all the ambiguity of the concept of "personality", the key defining its characteristics are self-reliance, independence, and responsibility. It is these characteristics that are most affected in modern children.
Background. The high importance of the media as an institution of socializing the new generation in the modern information society is highlighted. Along with positive opportunities created by the media and the Internet for training and education, it is necessary to point to the growing risks associated with the ambiguity of the impact of the media on the mental and psychological health and also child and adolescent development.
The Objective of the paper is to consider the risks of socialization associated with the openness and accessibility of the information space. There are psychological features of child and adolescent perception of information products containing aggression and violence, information products of sexual content, products that cause fear and anxiety, and also methods used in the media to justify morally antisocial, deviant, aggressive behaviour and violence.
The Results of the analysis allowed to identify the conditions that determine the degree of vulnerability of the child to violence in media and the desire to mimic aggressive behavior and also forms of cognitive restructuring the moral content of aggressive and deviant behaviour.
The negative consequences of perceiving violence expressed in behaviour, emotional state and cognitive image of the world of children are determined. The effects of adolescent perception of information of sexual content are revealed. Age features of experiencing fears in children aged 3-18 years are shown.
Conclusion. Perceiving violence in the information space by children and adolescents creates risks of mimicking aggressive behaviour, fears and increased anxiety, desensitization to phenomena of violence and aggression and distortion of the worldview, when violence is perceived as a compulsory and natural regulation of relations between people in society. Factors influencing the nature of the perception of violence include age factor, individual psychological and personality features, motives and preferences, genre of information products and the context within which violence is depicted.