Background. The relevance of the study is determined by the limited and sometimes contradictory studies of the views of preschoolers about the elderly. Stereotypes, prejudices and discrimination against older people can manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the nature of the formation and the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known.
Objective. The aim of the study was to study the features of the image of an old person in a children’s sample, depending on the (in) ability to communicate with their grandparents. Research hypothesis: preschoolers with a lack of communication with the older generation will demonstrate a rather neutral image of an old person, and the presence of an emotional component will be expressed in the constructor of the image of children with a sufficient level of communication with their grandparents.
Design. The research involved 67 child-parent dyads: 67 preschoolers aged 5 to 6.8 years (56.7% girls and 43.3% boys); 67 parents (85.1% of mothers and 14.9% of fathers) aged 23 to 59. As research methods to study the representations (image) of an old person in the childrens sample, the projective method of the drawing test was used. “Directed associative experiment “ method and questioning were used in the parental sample. The questionnaire included questions aimed at studying the relationship of the grandparents with the child and the opinions of parents about the problem and (non) participation of grandparents in raising grandchildren.
Results. In the childrens sample, the image of an old person is rather stereotypically neutral, but at the same time has certain specific features. The importance of the quality of communication between a child and his grandparents was shown, which determines the emotional coloring of the perception of the forming image of old people and old age in general. For children who experienced “lack of communication” with their ancestors, the image of an old person is personalized with “strangers” or “nobody’s old men.” In the parental sample the presented associations demonstrate a view of the “negative and positive” image of an old person through the prism of (non) preservation of vital competence, functional well-being, and a dynamic health / illness system. A neutral image is represented by respondents as a variant of entering the new status of a retiree and grandparent. No mutual influence was found between parental and childish views.
Conclusions. A child of preschool age can demonstrate his own unique view of an old person, which is not at all identical to the views of his parents, those around him and social stereotypes. The experience of a constructive relationship between grandparents and grandchildren can serve as a reliable basis for constructing a positive image of an old person and old age in general by young children. The prospect of further research can be the study of the problem of psychological culture and the readiness of an elderly person to dialogue with a child; problems of organizing effective “combining old and small” programs, mutually enriching the dialogue of generations.
Background. 75 years passed after the Second World War finished. What do we remember about these years? What are the sources of our memories? What do we know about the life and activity of our teacher in psychology?
The Objective of the paper is to analyze the professional activity of the famous psychologists, future professors of the Moscow State University Psychology Department during the Second World War.
Design. The paper describes the professional activity of famous Russian psychologists (A.R. Luria, A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Halperin, A.V. Zaporozhets, B.V. Zeigarnik and others) aimed to rehabilitation of brain damaged Russian soldiers. The value of this work for the development of the psychological science and for the mentality of psychologists all over the world is underlined.
The work of the remarkable scientists in the rear evacuation recovery hospitals is described: in a hospital organized by A.R. Luria at the sanatorium in the village of Kisegach near the city of Chelyabinsk in the Southern Urals, as well as in the hospital in the village of Kourovka near Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), whose supervisor was A.N. Leontiev. It is shown how in Kisegach they solved the problems of cognitive impairment in wounded soldiers, and in Kourovka they were engaged in the restoration of motor functions. It is emphasized that, along with enormous practical activity, psychologists conducted significant theoretical work, in which the results of practice were generalized and analyzed.
The paper informs the reader about today’s psychologists around the world and how they appreciate the contribution of Russian psychologists who worked during the World War II and honour their memory. The V International Congress in memory of A.R. Luria, dedicated to the 115th anniversary of the birth and 40th anniversary of the death of Alexander Romanovich Luria.
Conclusion. The knots of memory do not only unite the generations but also become a fulcrum for all of us in understanding the personal sense and value of the Psychological Activity.
Based on the study of rehabilitation processes, Leontyev’s theory of activity and psychological practice proved that the analysis of mental functioning disorders is impossible without a systematic approach to the facts revealed.
Background. Psychology Department of Moscow Lomonosov State University together with Russian Psychological Association has celebrated the 80th birth anniversary of Lyudmila Obukhova. She was an outstanding world known expert in developmental psychology, mental development, family and child matters, etc.
The Objective is to analyze fruitful scientific and personal achievements of Lyudmila Obukhova of the 15 last years of her life that are uncovered by her colleagues at the Psychology Department of Moscow Lomonosov State University.
Design. The paper describe sour collaboration with Lyudmila Obukhova in 2002-2016: lecturing trips, participation in international congresses and conferences, e.g.the 2nd Congress of the International Association of Cultural Research (ISCAR) in San Diego, USA; the first International Vygotsky memorial Conference in Lisbon, Portugal; the XX International Congress of gerontology in Seoul, South, Korea; the first International Congress on child psychology in Braga, Portugal; The 6th International Conference on Nutrition and Physical Activity in Taipei, Taiwan’; The 7th International Conference on Cognitive Sciences in Svetlogorsk, ethnographic expedition in Kamchatka and more. An integration of various research issues and their international value should be underlined as well as Obukhova’s exceptional personality and communication talent.
Conclusion. Obukhova’s array of interests is identified, her personality is revealed, her unusual gift of communication is shown. International recognition of her research is revealed.