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Annotated Index to Articles published in the current issue of the National Psychological Journal

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Foreword. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 3. doi: 10.11621/ npj.2022.0301

Pages: 3

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0301

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Veraksa, N.E. (2022). Dialectical structure of preschool play. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 4–12. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0302

Background. The article deals with the dialectical structure of play activity of preschool children. The dialectic structure is built with the help of structure-dialectic method which is based on the opposites, defined in the course of content analysis. The paper shows that the dialectical structure of play is leveled. The analysis of play activity allows us to speak about the ability of preschool children to represent the dialectical structure of play. The paper reveals substantial features of each level and gives the explanation of the transition from one level to another. 

Objective. The paper aims to justify the possibility to develop diagnostic system for preschool children’s play activity development on the basis of the proposed structure. It can be designed upon the dialectical structure of play and the preschool children’s play matrix. 

Results. A model of the dialectical structure of a preschooler’s role-playing game, enabling to take into account the important structural components of the game, is proposed. The phenomenon of the semantic field expressed in the merge (overlap) of the visible (perceptual) field and the representative (imaginary) field is considered. The difference between the semantic field and an imaginary situation is shown. In the first case the child is focused on the behavior of others, while in the second case he is focused on his own actions. The possibility to apply dialectical structure to the analysis of play activity in preschool children in order to build play practice is demonstrated. 

Conclusion. It seems advisable to develop diagnostic tools to assess the development of games for preschool children taking into account the dialectical structure of games.


Received: 05/18/2022

Accepted: 06/10/2022

Pages: 4-12

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0302

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Yudina, E.G. (2022). Pretend play as the territory of freedom. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 13–25. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0303

Background. The issue of children’s role-playing game belongs to the category of eternal in developmental psychology, since it strongly influences not only the theory of child development, but also the practice of preschool education, affects the interests of the family, and, most importantly, to a large extent determines the direction and quality of the child’s development in preschool age. However, we have seen numerous shifts in interest to this topic as societal priorities in child development have changed over the past century. In the 21st century, the discussion around the possibilities and conditions for the emergence of pretend play is of great interest on the part of both parents and the professional community. Play represents a specific resource for the development of a child in a world of uncertainty and an unpredictable future. 

Objectives. The study aims to analyze the current socio-cultural situation in Russian preschool education from the point of view of the role-playing game development in children, to identify the main reasons for the lack of play in kindergartens, and also to present possible parental and pedagogical educational strategies related to the place and possibilities of play in the development of preschool children. 

Sample. The study involved parents of children attending kindergartens from three regions of the Russian Federation. The sample was structured according to the factor of socio-economic situation in the region, as well as the factors “center-periphery”, “city-village”, “type of preschool institution”. The number of respondents varied from 1000 to 1200 each year. 

Method. A number of methods were used in the study. These included literature analysis on the research topic, expert evaluation, written survey (questionnaire, with the method of ranking the alternatives by respondents), statistical data analysis (with the method of variance analysis). 

Results. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, the following results were obtained. The rating of parental educational preferences shows that the conflict between learning activities and children’s play, which is discussed in the literature and is actually present in kindergartens, is not based on the real preferences of parents. The study revealed the phenomenon of imitation play, which is often presented as a real children’s game. An analysis of trends associated with the denial of the role of play in the development of modern children is presented. 

Conclusion. Ways to overcome the conflict between learning and play are discussed. The discrepancies between the real preferences of the family in the field of preschool education and their interpretation by preschool teachers are shown. The actual preferences of parents provide a picture that can be used to establish productive communication between preschool teachers and parents of children attending kindergarten. 

Practical application of the results. All the results obtained in the study can be applied in the practice of preschool education, at the level of preschool organizations. The areas of application of the results obtained include organization of a real, non-imitation, game of preschool children, building up productive communication with the parents of children attending a preschool organization.


Received: 06/15/2022

Accepted: 07/03/2022

Pages: 13-25

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0303

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Melik-Pashaev, A.A., Novlyanskaya, Z.N. (2022). Artist in a child. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 26–34. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0304

Background. The relevance of this article is primarily due to the fact that the potential of artistic development of children is greatly underestimated in pedagogical practice. The authors presume that a person is initially gifted with “inner activity of the soul” (V.V. Zenkovsky) — the creative potential in some general, non-specialized form — and the desire to actualize it in life. From this perspective, the child is considered as a creative being by nature, as a carrier of the creative potential, often manifested as artistic creativity. 

Objective. The authors strive to draw attention to various prerequisites of artistic development, which children of sensitive age are endowed with. At the same time, two aspects of artistic giftedness differ: individual and age-wide or generic. The article discusses the latter. 

Results. Psychological prerequisites associated with the recognized achievements of children from senior preschool to primary school age in various types of artistic creativity are considered. These prerequisites include the so-called children’s animism, understood as a willingness to treat everything in the world as living and related to oneself. Artistic creativity is also associated with interest and emotional responsiveness to a variety of sensory impressions, which are much less typical for older age. Specifics of children’s imagination — the ability to directly express feelings in a figurative form — is regarded as another psychological prerequisite for achievements in artistic creativity. 

The main focus of the work is on children’s play as an early form of creative potential manifestation, in which the child’s readiness for productive artistic creativity develops. From this point of view, the stages of the development of children’s play are consistently considered. At each of the stages a special kind of prerequisites for future artistic creativity is formed. These stages include a subject game, a plot-role-playing game, a dramatization game, and a “lonely” director’s game, psychologically the closest to the real work of an artist-author. For each stage, recommendations are given concerning the participation of an adult in the child’s game. Moreover, the most productive or, on the contrary, undesirable forms of adult participation are described from the perspective of the child’s artistic development. 

Conclusions. The materials of the article allow us to assert that a full gaming experience is an important condition for the successful artistic development of a child. The task of an adult participant in the game is to meet the child’s play initiative, contributing to its fullest expression in cultural forms.


Received: 05/03/2022

Accepted: 06/10/2022

Pages: 26-34

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0304

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Ryabkova, I.A., Sheina, E.G. E.O. Smirnova’s approach to the evaluation of toys (2022). Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 35–43. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0305

Background. This paper presents the concept of psychological and pedagogical expertise of games and toys, developed under the guidance of Elena Smirnova. Elaboration of the concept is due to the fact that a toy is an important tool of children’s play and, according to many studies, has an impact on its formation and development. At the same time, the modern toy market has changed significantly over the past decades and requires to be studied by specialists. 

There are several publications on the psychological and pedagogical evaluation of games and toys developed under E.O. Smirnova’s guidance. However, the Concept has been repeatedly changed and developed which was not reflected in publications (the last work dates back to 2017). This article is intended to fill this gap. 

Objective. This paper describes the Concept, methodology and procedure of psychological and pedagogical examination of games and toys developed under the guidance of E.O. Smirnova. 

Results. The Concept of expertise is based on the cultural-historical approach and activity theory. A toy is considered as a tool for children’s play in broad sense, especially created by adults. Toys are classified into 4 types of activity: play as such, productive activity, cognitive-explorative activity, and physical activity. Each kind of activity includes types united by specific features, goals and tools. Psychological and pedagogical evaluation of toys includes 4 evaluation parameters: ethical, aesthetical, operational-technical, and developmental potential of play action. The result of expertise is the attribution of the toy to a certain activity type and age group. 

Conclusions. The Concept of psychological and pedagogical evaluation of toys, created under the leadership of E.O. Smirnova, is based on key concepts and advances of cultural-historical psychology and activity theory. The Concept can serve as a basis for research in this area, expanding and clarifying the ideas of science about the impact of games, play and subject tools on the development of children.


Received: 05/11/2022

Accepted: 06/07/2022

Pages: 35-43

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0305

By: ; ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Shiyan, O.A. (2022). Funny and scary in children’s narratives: cognitive aspect. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 44–51. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0306

Background. The study of the funny and the scary in the children’s subculture, described in the article by E.O. Smirnova and A.L. Romanova, allows us to consider these phenomena as the reverse side and an integral part of mastering culture, to see the dialectics of development. 

Objective. The aim of the study is to analyse the cognitive mechanisms used to overcome fear on the basis of children’s narratives. 

Sample. The study involved 57 children aged 6 to 6.5 years from two kindergartens (Moscow). 

Methods. The empirical study was carried out with the author’s methodology “Non-scary story”: the children were asked to compose a story about a scary character, though the story itself ought to have been not scary. The study was conducted in preschool groups,contrasted by the parameter of education quality. The quality of education was assessed with the ECERS-3 (educational environment assessment scales) and the scales for assessing the conditions for the development of creative abilities, developed and tested in the Laboratory of Child Development at Moscow City University. 

Results. Among the ways to overcome the scary in children’s stories, two major ways can be noted. The first one is turning a scary character into a non-scary one, and the second one is creating ambivalent characters that combine opposites of the scary and the funny. In both cases, dialectical thinking is the cognitive mechanism which makes it possible for a child to operate with opposites and to reflect situations of contradiction and development. In the stories of children from the group with higher quality of education, ambivalent characters were found twice as often as in the other group (according to Student’s t-test, the differences are significant at the level of 0.05), which may indicate a connection between the quality of educational process and child development. 

Conclusion. Solving the problem of overcoming fear when writing a narrative, children can use dialectical thinking — in particular, the actions of transformation and mediation (in ambivalent images combining opposites in themselves). It can be assumed that such symbolic activity as story creation acts as scaffolding1 for implementation and development of dialectical structures in preschool age.


Received: 05/16/2022

Accepted: 06/04/2022

Pages: 44-51

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0306

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Galiguzova, L.N., Meshcheryakova, S.Yu. (2022). Contribution of E.O. Smirnova to the practice of education. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 52–59. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0307

Background. The relevance of the article is determined by the importance of summarizing and highlighting the many-sided contribution to the practice of education by E.O. Smirnova on the eve of her 75th birthday. 

Objective. The aim of the article is to describe the main directions and results of E.O. Smirnova’s effort to implement her scientific and practical developments achieved by sciences and colleagues in the Laboratory for the Mental Development of Preschoolers at PI RAE and in the Center for Games and Toys of Moscow State University of Psychology and Education in practice. 

Results. The theoretical foundations, structure, content and scope of a number of works important for the field of education, addressed to students of pedagogical universities, teachers, psychologists of preschool educational institutions, and parents, are described. The main works include the textbook “Child Psychology”, the programme for upbringing and development of young children “First Steps”, methodological manuals “Diagnosis of the mental development of a child from birth to 3 years”, “Interpersonal relations of preschoolers: diagnosis, problems, correction”, etc. Popular science publications for parents are presented, including “The Art of Communication with a Child. From one to six years old”, “Preschooler in the modern world”. The activity of E.O. Smirnova on training personnel for the education system is described. 

Conclusion. The results of E.O Smirnova’s activity on the introduction of scientific developments into practice contribute to the provision of high-quality education at the preschool level, which founds a successful educational strategy for the further education of children.


Received: 06/05/2022

Accepted: 06/15/2022

Pages: 52-59

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0307

By: ; ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Karabanova, O.A. (2022). Modern childhood and preschool education protecting the rights of child: to the 75th anniversary of E.O. Smirnova’s birth. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 60–68. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0308

Background. The relevance of the article is determined by the need to consider the socio-cultural situation of modern childhood and child subculture, as well as the need to find ways to resolve the crisis of childhood. In a convergent environ- ment of development and information socialization, the analysis of the role of game and toys, of watching animated films and playing computer games in the development of a preschooler allows us to outline a strategy to overcome the crisis by modernizing the system of preschool education. 

Objective. The aim of the work is to analyse the scientific heritage of Doctor in, Professor E.O. Smirnova, in whose works an original concept of play activity and toys was developed. The concept considers play at preschool age in the con- ditions of modern childhood on theoretical, methodological and practice-oriented levels. 

Results. It is maintained that play is a source for autonomy and initiative of the child, indicating the development of personality in childhood. The characteristics of the children’s subculture, reflecting the crisis of childhood, are highlight- ed. Special attention is paid to the trends in the transformation of toys and the role of cartoons and computer games in a convergent development environment. The causes of the crisis of childhood are considered. These causes are associated with violation of the intermediary mission of an adult when transmitting socio-cultural experience, with break in moti- vation and modes of action of a child, with alienation of meaning in activity, with blocking creative independent activity and initiative of a child, with reduction of development to the “knowledge-ability-skill” learning paradigm. The goals and objectives of psychological expertise are defined. Criteria for expert evaluation of toys and cartoons are developed. The requirements for computer games, reflecting the social demand for the content to provide developing, safe information environment, are formulated. 

Conclusion. The necessary condition for overcoming the crisis of childhood is the strategy of constructing a safe developing convergent environment for child’s mental development in preschool age. This strategy is based on the psy- chological examination of toys, cartoons, and computer games. The progress of personality development is determined by the support for the autonomy and initiative in typical activities of preschool age children: play, cognition, perception of animated films in cooperation with adults and peers.


Received: 05/17/2022

Accepted: 06/07/2022

Pages: 60-68

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0308

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Burlakova, I.A. (2022). E.O. Smirnova on moral education of children. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 69–76. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0309

Background. Nowadays the issues of child upbringing have acquired special importance, which makes it crucial to update psychological and pedagogical research on the problem of personality development, to analyze and rethink theory and practice of forming ethical behavior in preschoolers, to search for solutions to the most challenging issues of moral development of children. 

Objective. The article is devoted to E.O. Smirnova’s approach to the problem of upbringing in preschool, which was presented in her few works in the beginning of the 2000’s. 

Results. E.O. Smirnova’s views on the psychological foundations of moral education of preschoolers are based on the theoretical provisions of M.I. Lisina about the dual basis of interpersonal relationships between children — the object and the subject. Genuine moral behaviour is conditioned by the predominance of the subjective basis in the relationship to a peer, which is based on the perception of the other as a self-valuable person. The balance between the two bases or the predominance of the subjective basis in interpersonal relations serves as the foundation for ethical behavior, but not for moral one. According to the views of E.O. Smirnova, in this case, children tend to follow ethical norms and rules, though only in specific situations when their behavior can be positively evaluated by peers or adults. Such ethical behavior is aimed at self-affirmation of the child and increase in their self-esteem. Subject attitude towards a peer contributes to the transfer of ethical norms and rules into the real behaviour of the child. Following rules acquires the character of value: child cannot act otherwise. As L.S. Vygotsky wrote: “The one who does not notice that he is acting morally acts morally.” 

Conclusions. The theoretical approach to the problem of moral behavior in preschoolers served the basis for experimental work carried out under the guidance of E.O. Smirnova. The study proved that to ensure genuine moral behavior the sense of communion and fellowship with others should become central issue in the upbringing of children. This process involves removing fixation on themselves and their assessments, i.e., forming subjective attitude towards peers and adults. 

Practical application of the results. The obtained results were used in practical work — a correctional and developmental programme aimed at providing a “special vision of the other” through the experience of living within a community and involvement with each other in real interaction was developed. Elena Olegovna Smirnova’s idea about the formation of subjective relationships as the main psychological condition of moral education might expand the possibilities of this approach application and extend it beyond the interpersonal relationships of children and their interaction with other people. “The understanding of moral behavior is extremely expanding, because we acquire the right to talk not only about moral behavior in the narrow sense of the word, but also about the moral attitude to things, to oneself, to one’s body, etc.” (L.S. Vygotsky).


Received: 05/16/2022

Accepted: 06/07/2022

Pages: 69-76

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0309

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Abdulaeva, E.A. (2022). From responsiveness to self-organization: a comparative study of approaches to children in Waldorf and “Directive” preschool education. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 77–88. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0310

Background. The individual’s ability for self-development is the modern day priority in education. The main prerequisite for the development of this ability is self-organization which is considered to be one of the future’s most in-demand competences. It seems necessary to study the conditions for its development at the initial stage — at preschool age, in particular, in a kindergarten, where children spend a significant part of their lives. 

Objectives. The study aims to explore the practices of educational systems as an environment to develop self-organization of preschool children at the Waldorf kindergarten with the educational programme “Beryozka” (V.K. Zagvozdkin, S.A. Trubitsyna), where independent and cooperatively-shared activity with an adult prevails (independent and cooperative activity — ICA) and at the most common kindergarten “Fr om Birth to School” (N.E. Veraksa, T.S. Komarova, E.M. Dorofeeva), wh ere activities organized by adults (AOA) predominate. 

Sample. The study involved 28 normatively developed children from Moscow kindergartens aged from 6.4 to 7.2 years (13 girls and 15 boys). Half of the preschoolers were brought up in the groups of the Waldorf kindergarten operating under “Beryozka” programme, the other 14 children were from the kindergarten operating under the mass program “From Birth to School”. 

Method. To evaluate the development of self-organization in children, involved in different educational programmes, a range of methods were used. These included structured observation, structured analysis of the programmes, questionnaire, and an experimental method for assessing the level of self-organization in preschoolers based on a modification of the methodology for assessing educational activity (Repkina, Zaika, 1993) and on diagnosing the features of self-organization (Ishkov, 2011). Two diagnostic situations included novel productive activity in the “Sewing on buttons” technique with a demonstration as instruction and the outdoor game “Hoops and flags” with a verbal instruction. Statistical data processing was carried out with the SPSS Statistics program. 

Results. The level of children’s self-organization in different educational systems varies significantly according to both the overall assessment and individual criteria. The group of independent and cooperatively-shared activities with an adult (ICAA) included twice as many highly self-organized children as the group with a predominance of classes and activities organized by an adult (AOA) (85.7/92.9% vs 42.8/50%). In the “Game with Task” test, the differences between children in the AOA and ICAA groups were more pronounced than in the “Productive Activity” test. This stage showed that the ICAA group had a significantly higher level of Goal Setting (100%) and Self-Control (78.6% and 92.9%), while in the AOA group about half of the children reached a high level in both tasks (Goal Setting 57.1% and 50%, Self-Control 57.1%). In the ICAA group, a high level of Planning was also noted in the majority of children (92.9%). At the same time, according to the criteria “Analysis of Situation” and “Correction”, in the AOA group, every fifth child (21.4%) showed low level, whereas no low level was registered in the ICAA group. 

Conclusion. The educational process in the form of joint / free activity enhances the development of self-organization of preschoolers better than a tightly organized schedule of classes. Rhythmic alternation of concentration on the leading adult and independent activity allows the child to remain active longer and more consciously.


Received: 05/27/2022

Accepted: 06/05/2022

Pages: 77-88

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0310

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Sobkin, V. S., Kalashnikova, E.A., Lykova, T.A. Toward a scientific concept for the Museum of Childhood (2022). Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 89–96. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0311

Background. Despite a number of large-scale projects focused on the study of childhood, there is an urgent need to preserve modern and historical examples of children culture. Psychological and pedagogical ideas on the age specifics of child development, elaborated within the framework of cultural-historical approach, serve as a solid foundation for the Russian Museum of Childhood. 

Objective. The aim of the article is to present an outline of possible activities and scientific approaches to the development of the Russian Museum of Childhood. 

Methods. The available data on the activities of Childhood Museums in Russia and abroad are profoundly analysed. 

Results. The study of the experience in creating museums devoted to the culture of childhood has shown that children’s toys constitute the dominant feature of collections. At the same time, practically no museums represent various aspects of the social situation of a child’s development nor reflect they the peculiarities of child’s daily and cultural life. The idea of preservation and exhibition of cultural samples of children’s life forms the basis for investigating possible directions of scientific and practical work of the Russian Museum of Childhood. It is suggested to assemble thematic museum collections reflecting the socio-cultural components of children at different ages in different historical periods. The museum’s target audience includes children, parents, and teachers. In addition to exhibition and excursion activities, the museum is supposed to serve as a place of children’s leisure and creativity, a space of communication and education for parents and teachers. Scientific life of the Russian Museum of Childhood will be based on deep research into the history of toys and play traditions as well as the history of childhood in an interdisciplinary context. Both, the contemporary culture of childhood, and the historical aspect of psychological and pedagogical research on childhood will be analysed. 

Conclusion. Creation of such a cultural space will contribute to the preservation and maintenance of intergenerational relationships and continuity in the family. It will also promote educational culture of parents and professional development of teachers. Conducting scientific research in the Russian Museum of Childhood will make it possible to develop science-intensive and culture-intensive innovative psychological and educational projects.


Received: 05/13/2022

Accepted: 06/04/2022

Pages: 89-96

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0311

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Trushkina, S.V., Skoblo, G.V. (2022). Application of the methodology “Diagnostics of the mental development of children from birth to three years” in clinical psychology and psychiatry. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 97–107. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0312

Background. The methodology “Diagnostics of the mental development of children from birth to 3 years” was developed by the team of authors under the guidance of E.O. Smirnova. The methodology is aimed at determining the levels of development of communication, objective activity and play in infants and young children. The experimental nature of the examination procedure and the innovative system of diagnostic parameters, which is interdisciplinary in its nature, determines the interest in it among clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. 

Objective. The study is meant to assess the possibilities of using the methodology “Diagnosis ...” in clinical psychology and psychiatry, as well as to outline the ways to adapt it to the peculiarities of clinical-psychological and psychiatric examination for children at early and preschool age. 

Method. The study involved children of early and preschool age with verified psychiatric diagnoses. The data were obtained through observation of communication, objective activity and play of children during examination with the “Diagnostics ...” method and during psychiatric and clinical-psychological examination. The article presents the qualitative results of the study and their analysis. 

Results. It was shown that the technique is effective in psychiatric and clinical-psychological examination of children and allows to obtain data that are highly informative and novel. This applies to the parameters of child’s development: initiative and sensitivity in communication, purposefulness of activities, the desire to act according to the model, orientation to the assessment by an adult, speech accompaniment of activities, duration of game, variety of playing actions, imagination, etc. The study also showed that the technique proves to be effective beyond an early age for children, suffering from mental disorders. 

Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to consider the technique as an adequate tool not only for psychological and pedagogical, but also for clinical-psychological and medical research. At the same time, it is necessary to conduct additional interdisciplinary research in order to adapt this technique for the purposes of scientific and practical application in clinical psychology and psychiatry.


Received: 06/14/2022

Accepted: 06/18/2022

Pages: 97-107

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0312

By: ; ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Lidskaya, E.V., Panov, V.I. (2022). Ecopsychological interactions of young children with other subjects of the social environment. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 108–118. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0313

Background. Many studies carried out in the context of different approaches have been devoted to the social interactions of young children with the environment. Meanwhile, numerous questions remain unexplored from an ecopsychological point of view. These include how (and whether) the subjective structuring of the surrounding social environment occurs at this age and what types of communicative interactions are most characteristic of children of this age. 

Objective. Using the ecopsychological typology of subject-environment interactions, the work seeks to analyze social development of young children, to establish whether children of this age are capable of subjective structuring of social environment, as well as to identify on the example of communication and joint activities with other children and adults, what types of interactions are most characteristic of them. 

Methods. The study was carried out with a theoretical analysis of studies on social development of young children described in the works of L.N. Galiguzova (1983), M.S. Kiryushkina (2009), M.I. Lisina (1986), and E.O. Smirnova (2003). The ecopsychological typology of subject-environment interactions was applied as a theoretical construct. 

Results. Social environment is subjectively not homogeneous for young children, being structured and hierarchized by them. A third of children at this age pay no attention to their peers, revealing an object-object relation to them. Some children treat peers as things, demonstrating the subject-object type of interaction. Approximately a third of children observe their peers but do not come into contact with them, which indicates a subject-object attitude towards them. To overcome the fear of peers and evoke the need to interact with them, as well as to establish their interaction with each other, children need the help of an adult in organizing joint actions. These actions require the implementation of subject-joint or subject-generating types of interaction. With the appearance of an adult, the child first tries to attract attention to himself —subject-object and object-subject types of interaction; then he tries to include the adult in a joint action — the subject-generating and the subject-joint types of interaction. 

Conclusion. The presence of an adult is of the greatest importance in forming and satisfying the need for communicative interaction in children of this age. It is followed by toys and, finally, by the presence of another child. As the child’s need develops, the types of interactions with subjects of social environment change in the direction from the object-object and subject-object types towards the subject-generating and subject-joint ones. The adult’s assistance in shaping the child’s need for communication and joint actions is a necessary condition for such dynamics in types of interaction.


Received: 05/17/2022

Accepted: 06/04/2022

Pages: 108-188

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0313

By: ; ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Utrobina, V.G. (2022). Living with love as the meaning of being in the existential paradigm of relationships. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 119–125. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0314

Background. The article focuses on the notion of love from the standpoint of Christian psychology and anthropology as well as on its impact on the change in existential meaning of life and interpersonal relationships. Such an attributive principle of life as “living with love” is considered in the context of the existential meaning of being, professional activity and interpersonal relationships in line with the concept developed by Professor Elena Olegovna Smirnova. An understanding of the concept of “life with love” is presented and the main properties of Christian love in the existential paradigm of relationships are indicated. 

Objective. The main aim of the study was to analyse life and professional work of the famous scientist, Professor Elena Olegovna Smirnova, from the standpoint of Christian love as the meaning of being in the existential paradigm of relationships. 

Results. It has been shown that love, considered from a Christian position, changes a person as a personality. This process includes change in the attitude towards other people as well as towards oneself, and also gives a special meaning to life. It is asserted that life with love is life with God in soul, with the joy of life and with the desire to make this World a better place for close people and humanity as a whole. Life with love is an understanding of the meaning of your life and gaining strength of mind for the responsible implementation of your mission, as well as a state of calm happiness, silence in the heart and peace of mind. 

Conclusion. The results obtained made it possible to show the psychological representation of the lifestyle and professional creativity of the outstanding scientist E.O. Smirnova in accordance with the attributive principle of Christian love “life with love”. The study also demonstrates the possibility to find new meanings of life and relationships through Christian Love.


Received: 05/03/2022

Accepted: 06/07/2022

Pages: 119-125

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0314

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Zuckerman, G.A. (2022). What our word may evoke. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal (National psychological journal), 3 (47), 126–130. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0315

Background. The question of the relation between means and purposes of scientific work is rather more topical fr om the moral perspective than from the academic one. Both the successful study of child development as well as the elaboration of appropriate means to promote this development are possible without considering what our ‘word’ may evoke. 

Objective. The purpose of this biographical sketch on the professional life of the outstanding researcher and protector of childhood Elena Olegovna Smirnova is to reveal an organic compound of values, aims and means of work for a child psychologist. Elena Olegovna Smirnova managed not only to make a significant contribution to world psychological science, but also to make the world a better place, wh ere children are better protected. 

Results. In the context of interpersonal professional relations, the article considers the features of the activity and creativity of an outstanding researcher and protector of childhood, Professor Elena Olegovna Smirnova. She is a recognized expert in the field of children’s communication with adults and peers, the psychology of play and toys in Russia and all over the world. An innovative comprehensive programme for upbringing and development of young children was developed under her leadership. Elena Olegovna was gifted both in professional activity and in life. 

Conclusion. Being a classic in child psychology, she was profoundly involved in the problems of preschool education. E.O. Smirnova protected the value of child’s personality, initiative, independence, role-playing game — an activity leading the development of preschoolers — and persistently searched for ways to overcome the negative trends in education. Professor Smirnova also had an amazing ability to change the world for the better. The article is devoted to the biography of a child psychologist who is a true professional and knows how to carry the professional gift with a reverent love for children and faith in goodness.


Received: 05/03/2022

Accepted: 06/07/2022

Pages: 126-130

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0315

By: ;

Available Online: 24.08.2022

Merzlyakova, S.V., Bibarsova, N.V. (2022). Responsibility as a factor in the development of family self-determination in adolescence. National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (46), 3–13. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0201

Background.National policies and laws determine the specifics of family relationship and marriage in different countries. Traditional norms and values that determine the marital and family behavior of young people are weakening with the rapid change in political and economic situation and with the digitalization of society. In this regard it is urgent to study the socio-psychological factors that determine the process of family self-determination in the youth of digital generation. 

Objective. The study aims to analyze structural and meaningful characteristics of family self-determination depending on the degree of responsibility among students in adolescence. 

Sample. The study involved 326 students of Astrakhan State University aged from 17 to 19 years. These included 47 (14.4%) male and 279 (85.6%) female students of humanities programmes. 

Methods. Empirical research was conducted with the use of psychodiagnostic techniques: a modified version of the semantic differential methodology by I.L. Solomin, the “Test of life orientations” by D.A. Leontiev, the questionnaire “The level of the ratio of “value” to “accessibility” in various spheres of life” by E.B. Fantalova, the projective technique “Incomplete sentences”, the questionnaire “Role expectations and claims in marriage” by A.N. Volkova, multidimensional func- tional diagnostics of responsibility by V.P. Pryadein. Regression analysis made it possible to assess the impact of responsibility on indicators of family self-determination. 

Results. It is shown that responsibility determines the development of cognitive, value-emotional, regulatory-behavioral, motivational and reflexive components of family self-determination in adolescence. Responsibility has been found to have the greatest impact on the meaningfulness of life (determination coefficient R2 = 0.203) as well as on role claims in the sphere of social activity (R2 = 0.179). 

Conclusion. Responsibility is a significant micro-level factor determining the process of family self-determination in adolescence. The development of responsibility among students will allow to form a holistic image “Me as a family person”, to cultivate the values of marriage and family relations and life orientations, to integrate ideas on the time perspective, to reduce the number of extramarital births as a result of the actualization of parenthood as an important marriage motive. 

Practical application of the results. The materials of the conducted research can be used in the development and implementation of educational programmes at institutions of higher education. They can also be used to promote psy- chological and pedagogical conditions for self-determination in the sphere of marital and family relations through the development of responsibility among modern students. 

Funding. The study was supported by the RFBR grant 20-013-00072 “Personal factors of the development of family self-determination in adolescence and early adulthood”. 

Acknowledgments. The authors express their deep appreciation and sincere gratitude for many years of fruitful cooperation to the scientific consultant O.A. Karabanova. The authors thank the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for the financial support of the project.


Received: 04/26/2022

Accepted: 04/27/2022

Pages: 3-13

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0201

By: ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Leonov, S.V., Kruchinina, A.P., Bugrii, G.S., Bulaeva, N.I., Polikanova, I.S. (2022). Basic characteristics of postural balance of professional hockey players and novices. National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (46), 65–79. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0207

Background. Stance (or posture) is the fundamental posture of a hockey player, allowing him to perform various movements during training and playing processes. However, studies of postural balance of hockey players are scarce. 

Objective. The main aim of the study was to track a hockey player’s posture as well as to compare static postural characteristics of professional hockey players and novices. 

Sample. The study involved 22 male subjects (mean age 20±2.3 years), including 13 hockey players and 9 subjects who were new to hockey (mainly freestyle wrestlers). The professional level was assessed by the number of years of experience and by the presence of sports ranks. The average experience was 14.18±3.8 years. The sports ranks ranged from third junior category to Candidate Master. 

Method. A method for tracking the posture of a hockey player using the DTrack2 and SteamVR Tracking 2.0 systems was tested. The obtained results made it possible to compare the static characteristics of the stance in professional hockey players and novices based on the analysis of changes in the knee and hip joint angles, as well as changes in the position of the head during performing the task of maintaining the stand for 5 minutes (Leonov, Polikanova, Kruchinina et al., 2021). 

Results. Analysis of movements with the DTrack2 system and the SteamVR Tracking 2.0 system showed identical results, allowing further use of the SteamVR Tracking 2.0 system. Analysis of the positional tracking data showed that professional hockey players were characterized by a greater amplitude of oscillation (1–2 degrees) than novices (no more than 1 degree) when maintaining their stance. Professional hockey players are also characterized by a significantly smaller amplitude of oscillation of the head position during performance of tasks. Qualitative analysis of changes in angles of knee and hip joints showed that professional hockey players, in contrast to beginners, have a higher and more stable amplitude of movement parameters fluctuations during the whole study, which in turn allows to optimize energy expenditure and provide better posture stabilization. 

Conclusions. Thus, the results of the study indicate the importance of correct head positioning in stabilizing the postural balance of a hockey player. For posture maintenance, the hip strategy of postural balance maintenance, associated with a greater amplitude of hip joint oscillation, is the most optimal. 

Funding. Research supported by the support of the Russian Science Foundation, project No 19-78-10134.


Received: 03/23/2022

Accepted: 05/16/2022

Pages: 65-79

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0207

By: ; ; ; ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Izbasarova, S.A., Mel’nikova, O.T., Suhina, T.V. (2022). Role of the logo in actualization of visual expressiveness of a brand. (2022). Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal [National psychological journal], 2 (46), 56–64. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0206

Background. Brand perception and consumer loyalty studies have a special interdisciplinary status, where both economic comprehension of the studied problems and social and psychological reflection of consumer behavior are important to form any predictions. Researchers emphasize that a successful brand has a rich clear identity in communication with the consumer, which can be reflected through stable associations with the company. It is worth noting that the studied phenomenon has a complex multidimensional structure, where the logo is one of the components. 

Objective. The paper attempts to explore the perception of brands through qualitative methods. The tasks are to identify and analyze consumers’ associations with them, as well as to describe the criteria revealing the visual expressiveness of the brand, on the one hand, and the ways to increase consumer loyalty through changes in the company logo, on the other hand. 

Sample. The study involved 12 people aged 22 to 24 years. Due to the purpose of the study, sampling involved no criteria for awareness of the selected brands or experience in using their products. 

Method. The empirical study was carried out in several steps. At the preparatory stage of work, an incentive material was formed, consisting of 15 brand logos of different categories. When choosing stimulus material, two criteria were met, including the presence of images that are not related to brand’s products on the logo, and diversity in price categories and trademark areas. Data collection was carried out in the framework of a semi-structured interview with the use of associative techniques. The received submissions were categorized and interpreted in terms of thematic analysis. At the next stage, the elements of logos, according to which subjects evaluated the visual expressiveness of the brand, were identified. 

Results. The most attractive in terms of visual expressiveness logos were identified, thematic categories of associations about the brands under study were identified and interpreted. As a result, criteria for the visual expressiveness of the brand were formed and practical recommendations to promote consumer loyalty were proposed. 

Conclusion. The chosen research strategy allowed us to analyze in detail the various elements of the logos and, as a result, describe the criteria that reflect visual expressiveness of the brand. The most important criteria are: consistency in the elements of the presented logo and the correspondence of the logo and its elements to visual images that are used by the brand in marketing strategies to promote the product.


Received: 04/27/2022

Accepted: 05/05/2022

Pages: 56-64

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0206

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Valitova, I.E. (2022). Types of interaction between mother and early age child with developmental disorders caused by neurological pathology. National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 2 (46), 45–55. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0205

Background. The analysis of interaction between an adult and a child as well as the definition of criteria and conditions of a child’s development, constitute theoretical basis for sustaining family resources, which is especially important for the early stage of ontogenesis. 

Objective. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of interaction within the dyad “mother — early age child with developmental disabilities (resulting from neurological pathology)”, as well as to construct a typology of interaction and to determine the conditions of developing interaction for young children. 

Sample. The study involved dyads “mother-child of early age.” Comparison sample (n = 51) consisted of dyads with children of normotypic development (NT), the average age 24.8 months. The main sample (n = 54) included dyads with children with neurological pathology (NP), the average age 25.2 months. 

Methods. Video observation of mother and child interaction in the process of joint activity with a set of toys was used as the research method. The data of primary analysis of video materials in accordance with the author’s scheme were subjected to secondary analysis (assessment of differences between groups, correlation and factor analysis). 

Results. 4 types of interaction in the dyad “mother — early age child” are singled out. The types differ in the parameters such as: position of the mother in the interaction, level of dialogic interaction, content of the actions of mother and child with their influence on each other, creation of the zone of proximal development. The optimal type of interaction that is favourable for the development of the child is characterized by the activity of both the mother and the child, the involvement and productivity of the child. The type that could be regarded as favourable with certain restrictions is the type called “child dominance”, in which the activity of the child prevails, but the activity of the mother is insufficient. The unfavourable types are “mother dominance”, characterised by the predominance of mother’s activity, the obsessive-violent maternal position and the subordinate position of the child, and the parallel type, in which there is no joint activity of mother and child. 

Conclusion. The study established the relationship between the mother’s actions in relation to the child and his/her productivity and activity, characterised the optimal type of interaction, which creates conditions for the development of the child and the correction of its deficiency. The task for future research is to develop programmes that could be used to optimise mother-child interaction in those cases when the implementation of developing interaction is not entirely successful; such programs need to take into account the particular type of interaction within the dyad.


Received: 01/22/2021

Accepted: 03/01/2021

Pages: 45-55

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0205

By: ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Alekseev, A.A., Rupchev, G.E., Tkhostov, A.Sh. (2022). On the role of reduction at the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in schizophrenia. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal [National psychological journal], 2 (46), 35–44. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0204

Background. The present study is devoted to the analysis of the role of shortening in the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia. This question, widely discussed in literature, is important and relevant in psychology, since it allows us to study various strategies applied to performing planning tasks in healthy subjects and patients with mental disorders. In the future, the obtained data can be used in the psycho-correction of planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia, as well as to improve the efficiency of planning in healthy people. 

Objective. TThe aim is to study the strategy for dealing with planning problems in patients with schizophrenia. 

Sample. Experimental group consisted of 40 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (age: 34.4±8.24 years; illness duration: 7.78±5.47 years). Control group included 40 healthy subjects (age: 32.5±7.28 years). 

Methods. The “object” and “visual” versions of the Tower of London test (TOL-DX and TOL-BACS) were used to evaluate planning. TOL-DX provides the test subject with the opportunity to choose how to solve the problem: whether to plan actions in advance (before they are completed), or to build a plan as the tasks are completed. TOL-BACS limits the choice of subjects to planning actions before they are carried out. The main indicator is the number of tasks solved correctly (optimally) (Alekseev, Rupchev, Katenko, 2012). Psychomotor speed was assessed by Schulte tables. 

Results. Patients with schizophrenia coped significantly worse with the “object” version of the test, but showed a productivity comparable to that of healthy subjects in the “visual” tasks. To analyze the dynamics of changes in the latent time (time to think on the tasks) depending on the number of moves in the “object” version of TOL patients with schizophrenia were divided into a group of patients with planning disorders and a group of patients without planning disorders. The dynamics of changes in latent time in healthy subjects and patients without planning disorders was similar and was characterized by an increase in latent time with an increase in the number of moves required to solve tasks. At the same time, patients suffering from schizophrenia with planning disorders showed approximately the same latent time, regardless of the complexity of tasks. The amount of latent time in patients with planning disorders was lower than in healthy subjects at the level of statistical trend in tasks with 5 moves and statistically significantly lower in tasks with 6 and 7 moves. 

Conclusion. The results obtained outline the role of reduction at the orienting stage of activity in planning disorders in patients with schizophrenia.


Received: 05/29/2022

Accepted: 05/29/2022

Pages: 35-44

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0204

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Rean, A.A., Stavtsev, A.A., Kuzmin, R.G. (2022). Strengths of the personality in the VIA model as a me- diator of psychological well-being of the individual in professional activities. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal [National psychological journal], 2 (46), 25–34. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0203

Background. Positive psychology is one of the most rapidly developing areas in modern psychological science. The consideration of personality strengths within the framework of positive psychology as mediators of the negative impact of professional burnout on the psychological well-being of the individual actualizes the use of the “VIA” model in the study of psychological well-being in professional activities. 

Objective.In this article, we use the concept of personality strengths in “Values in Action” (VIA) model. In particular, the role of personality strength as a “mediator” of the negative impact of professional burnout on the psychological well-being of the individual, represented by the concepts of life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy is considered. 

Sample. The study involved 7946 teachers from seven regions of Russia (7466 women and 480 men) aged 18 to 95 years, the average age was 45 years. We have to note that the vast majority of respondents (97%) were between 20 and 65 years old. 

Methods. The study used personality questionnaires: “Life satisfaction scale” (Osin, Leontiev, 2020), “Self-esteem scale” (Bodalev, Stolin, 1987), “General self-efficacy scale” (Shvartser, Yerusalem, Romek, 1996), “Professional burnout” (Vodopyanova, Starchenkova, 2019), “Questionnaire of 24 personality strengths” (Stavtsev, Rean, Kuzmin, 2021). Having analyzed the collected data, we developed a “path model”. With the help of this model, we assessed the significance of each type of personality strengths as a “buffer” between professional burnout and psychological well-being. 

Results. All indicators of consistency in the “path model” demonstrate extremely high values, which indicates its reliability as a descriptive tool applied to relationships of the presented elements. The results of the study confirm the presence of a “buffer” function in certain personality traits. Thus, we identified 14 qualities out of 24 that exhibit a “buffer” function and represent the best antagonists to the negative impact of professional burnout on life satisfaction. 

Conclusion. In the study, 14 qualities were found to exhibit a “buffer” function that prevents the negative impact of external and internal factors, including stress, on a person. Also, 4 personality strengths (curiosity, zest, optimism, and gratitude) turned out to be the most significant for maintaining psychological well-being of the individual, which allows us to outline the “quartet of psychological resilience”.


Received: 04/26/2022

Accepted: 05/11/2022

Pages: 25-34

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0203

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Deeva, N.A. (2022). Subjective representations of success in life among Russian respondents. Natsional’nyy psikhologocheskiy zhurnal [National psychological journal], 2 (46), 14–24. doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0202

Background. The modern world requires to search for a new rationality and move away from one-line models of development. The phenomenon of a “complex society” emerges, imposing that a person needs to determine his own value-semantic coordinates of success in life and build a life project, taking into account difficulties and possible changes. The importance of understanding success, presented as a value and a unifying principle in the development of modern society, and its models is growing. In this regard, the study of subjective ideas about success in life as an important component of an individual’s ideas about himself and the world is of particular relevance. 

Objective. The study aims to identify the most stable components of subjective representations about success in life of a russian respondents. 

Sample. Empirical study was conducted on a sample of 705 respondents from various regions of the Russian Federation. Their age ranged from 18 to 60 years. Respondents presented different social status, gender and professional affiliations. 

Methods. The study used the author’s questionnaire “Success in Life”, which required an expanded answers to finish incomplete statements on their ideas about success in life (Deeva, 2020). Information was collected in person and remotely (using Google Forms). The empirical data obtained were summarized and processed with a content-structuring analysis based on inductive category extraction. Descriptive statistics was applied to identify the most generalized categories, including subjective ideas about success in life, characteristic of the entire sample. 

Results. The generalized categories of subjective representations about life success are revealed: significant values; a process that is realized through the orientation of a personality “on oneself”, “on business”, “on others”; set of achievements (results); conditional complexity/unilaterality. A meaningful description of each identified category is given with the provision of quantitative data on the frequency of their occurrence. The predominance of the orientation “on oneself ” manifested in the designation of self-realization processes and life enjoyment is revealed. It was found that in the “result” category, the tendency to “have” benefits is most pronounced as compared to the tendencies to “be” and “achieve” goals accompanied by a partial representation of the result. Almost half of the respondents showed unilateral representations about life success, namely, including them in the description of ideas in one category. Along with this, constructive characteristics of representations about life success were revealed: the traditional nature of the most significant values (family, work, material well-being, health). Some of respondents have an orientation “to others” and a tendency “to be”. 

Conclusion. The results obtained made it possible to compile a generalized picture of the subjective representations about the life success of a modern personality (using the example of Russians), which outlines the common features as well as reveals the most acute problems. The identified difficulties can significantly complicate the lives of respondents in the modern world of uncertainty and variability, while the constructive moments are the basis for the most conscious subjective ideas about success in life.


Received: 05/24/2022

Accepted: 05/28/2022

Pages: 14-24

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0202

By: ;

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Received: 05/24/2022

Accepted: 05/28/2022

Available Online: 22.06.2022

Markova, V.I., Aleksandrova, L.A., Zolotareva, A.A. (2022). Russian version of the Brief Resilience Scale: psychometric analysis for the samples of students, parents with many children and parents of disabled children, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1(45), 65–75.

Background. B. Smith’s Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) is one of the most psychometrically sound instruments for assessing resilience worldwide (Windle et al., 2011).

Objective. The aim of this study was to adapt the Russian version of the BRS.

Design. Psychometric properties of the Russian BRS were analyzed on the materials of a series of studies involving 696 respondents, including parents of disabled children, parents with many children, and students of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions.

Findings. The internal reliability of the Russian BRS was examined using the α-Cronbach coefficients, the values of which exceeded 0.8 in all study samples. The adapted scale demonstrated compliance with the original BRS factor structure containing direct and inverted test items, which provided the factor validity. Correlations between resilience and phenomenologically similar phenomena (hardiness, dispositional optimism, self-esteem, general self-efficacy, subjective vitality, life satisfaction, etc.) confirmed the convergent validity of the Russian BRS. In addition, parents of children with disabilities reported lower resilience than parents having many children, although statistically the results were not different from similar scores for students of higher and secondary specialized institutions.

Conclusion. Russian version of BRS is reliable, valid and can be recommended for use for the assessment of resilience in Russian-speaking respondents.

Received: 12/28/2021 23:05:00

Accepted: 02/06/2022 23:05:00

Pages: 65-75

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0106

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 15.04.2022

Ermolaev, V.V., Chetverikova, A.I., Voroncova, J., Nasonova, D.K., Simakov, A.V. (2022). Psychological determinants of aggressive behavior of road passenger transport drivers in the context of their mental states during COVID-19, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1 (45), 53–64.

Background. The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation notes the need to review the measures used to reduce the risks of human factor in driving and to implement a preventive strategy.

Objective. The work is aimed at studying the psychological determinants of aggressive behavior of Russian drivers of passenger transportation in the context of their mental states during the COVID-19 period and to clarify the preventive strategy of the Russian Ministry of Labor to reduce the role of the human factor in accidents.

Design. The article presents the materials of an empirical study obtained on a sample of professional drivers of Moscow passenger vehicles. The study involved respondents (men) aged 26 to 59 years with work experience from 8 to 40 years. The method of determining the dominant state (DS-8) by L.V. Kulikov; test for measuring poorly realized manifestations of aggression “Hend-test” by E. Wagner; questionnaire Driving Anger Expression Inventory by J.L. Deffenbacher and R.S. Lynch; questionnaire “Dula Dangerous Driving Index” by C.S. Dula were used:

Results. It was found that the increase in the aggressiveness of drivers is determined by the intensity of their non-equilibrium mental states, primarily tension states, including those caused by restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion. Total social control, along with continuous video tracking of the driver’s behavior while driving, contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior. The specific “cumulative publicity effect”, which is caused by the multiplied combination of total social and personal video control in the workplace, contributes to the need to “dump” the cumulative stress on the object, which in any way prevents the realization of an urgent need. Due to the fact that the ability to self-regulate non-equilibrium mental states plays the most important role in the manifestation of aggressive behavior., A proper method to solve the problem is to develop an individual profile of the dynamics of a non-equilibrium mental state for the driver (“driver’s risk passport”) based on neural network information and analytical data of pre-shift testing. Such an individual passport will make it possible to predict risks when driving passenger transport and can become a reliable tool for implementing a preventive strategy to achieve a zero mortality rate in accidents.

Received: 01/10/2022 22:21:00

Accepted: 01/21/2022 22:21:00

Pages: 53-64

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0105

By: ; ; ; ; ;

Available Online: 15.04.2022

Kornilova, T.V. (2022). The Unity of Intellect and Affect in Multidimensional Regulation of Empathy, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1 (45), 94–103

Background. The manuscript provides a synthetic review of the multiple understandings of the concept of empathy. Recent studies generally limit their focus to some aspects of empathy; alternatively, others adopt a top-down methodology for conceptualization of its dimensions rather than the analysis of the multiple regulation of processes that result in empathy. This review is timely and relevant not only because it compares various types of empathy but also because it provides an analysis of the involvement of various empathy processes in a wide plethora of relationships.

Objective. The goa of the review was to establish the conceptual framework for the understanding of multiple types of empathy involvement in cognitive and affective/personality domains, as well as of theoretical discrepancies that can be overcome from the standpoint of unity of intellect and affect.

Methods. This synthetic review elucidates fundamental dichotomies that are central to understanding of empathy (cognitive-affective; immediate-mediated; situational-dispositional etc) as well as the wide range of associations established between empathy, emotional intelligence, and unstable personality core traits such as the Dark Triad.

Results. The results of the study are based on the systematic review of theories of empathy and suggest the need for differentiation between empathy as a product and empathy as a set of processes that might through different pathways achieve the same result and product — empathy. Thus, we argue that the seeming inconsistency between the multiple types of empathy can be resolved by postulating that it is subject to the principle of dynamic regulative systems (DRS) that allow for a rich combination of hierarchical structures of cognitive and emotional processes. This approach assumes that multiple processes underly regulation of empathy. This idea is rooted in Vygotsky’s idea of the unity of intellect and affect, pointing to the pivotal role of empathy as the binding and mediating trait between cognitive and personality/affective domains.

Conclusion. The review lays the foundation for the approach that omits the development of partial theories of empathy in favor of viewing it as a resulting product of multiple processes. Different types and forms of empathy that are frequently discussed in the literature reflect the development of hierarchical dynamic systems and processes.

Received: 07/20/2021 21:14:00

Accepted: 01/21/2022 21:15:00

Pages: 94-103

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0108

By: ;

Available Online: 15.04.2022

Nuradinov, A.S., Jumageldinov, A.N. (2022). On some problems of religious radicalism and terrorism research (on the example of the experience of Kazakhstan), National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1 (45), 43–52.

Abstract

The relevance of the publication is due to the increasing manifestations of religious radicalization of the population and the threat of terrorism in the post-Soviet space and, in particular, in the Republic of Kazakhstan. One of the least developed problems is the study of psychological regularities of the emergence and development of the phenomenon of religiosity, the motives for its formation and levels of its manifestation in believers, including the formation of extreme religious views and values in an individual. The aim of the work was to describe theoretical and applied research questions on the problem of the formation of religious radicalism, extremism and terrorism in believers and followers of Islam, as well as on the methodological problems of developing psychodiagnostic tools and technologies of psychological intervention in this area.

Results. The characteristics and dynamics of indices of criminal situations with radical religious extremism and terrorism manifestation in the Republic of Kazakhstan is presented. The features of psychoprophylaxis of religious extremism relapse and rehabilitation of people convicted for such crimes were considered. Some examples of such work,organized in Kazakhstan with women and children who were in terrorist activity zones for a long time were described. The necessity of studying the personal features of believers, their level of religiosity, the motivation for extremist views and the radicalisation of the personality, as well as the main targets of psychodiagnostics in order to predict behaviour from the perspective of public safety and to prevent the spread of radical ideology and values in secular society, have been substantiated. Among the main conclusions presented is the understanding of the need to develop fundamentally new approaches in psychodiagnostics of radicalization, extremism and terrorism in order to prognostically diagnose, rehabilitate and resocialize believers who have extreme criminal experiences. is behavioral analysis by means of different techniques, facts and documents with the use of methods of observation and diagnostic interview of a believer seem to be the most productive methods.

Received: 12/20/2021 20:32:00

Accepted: 01/15/2022 20:32:00

Pages: 43-52

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0104

By: ; ;

Available Online: 15.04.2022

Murzina, J.S., Rusyaeva, I.A. (2022) Type of family relations among small family business entrepreneurs, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1 (45), 30–42.

Background. For our country, the growth and improvement of the efficiency of small business is one of the strategic directions. However, not only financial and infrastructural factors can stimulate business growth, but also socio-psychological ones. The study of relations within families of entrepreneurs can become another direction for the development of small business in our country.

Objective. The aim was to study the type of family system in terms of the parameters of adaptability and cohesion among entrepreneurs in the sphere of small family business.

Design. The study was carried out using the FACES-3 method by D. Olson. The sample consisted of 129 small family business owners. Hypotheses include the following: 1) families of entrepreneurs have a balanced structure; 2) over the years of marriage, the cohesion in business families decreases; 3) the more children there are in the family, the higher the unity of family is.

Results. The study of the family system types showed that 78.3% of families belong to the semi-functional type. On the scale of “Cohesion”, divided (46.5%) and united (51.9%) types dominate. On the scale of “Adaptation”, the chaotic type prevails (76%). Hypothesis 1 was not confirmed. However, we understand high randomness as a way to form continuity in a business family. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed: real family cohesion decreases with increasing age of the business owner (p = 0.01). Hypothesis 3 was confirmed: the more children there are in a business family, the higher the real family unity (p = 0.05) is. The cohesion of entrepreneurs in large families is a potential for the family’s reputation capital and the formation of financial stability in the future.

Conclusion. The article formulates recommendations for the harmonization of family relations, aimed at maintaining and developing intergenerational ties. The results of the study allow us to formulate a proposal to the Family Business Centers regarding special support for large business families. The revealed patterns will help improve the demographic situation in the country and will contribute to the development of small business.

Received: 12/23/2021 22:07:00

Accepted: 01/17/2022 22:07:00

Pages: 30-42

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2022.0103

By: ; ;

Available Online: 14.04.2022

Shchukina, М.A, Shchirman L.A. (2022) Psychological predictions of life satisfaction for older persons (the example of charity fund clients), National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 1 (45), 15–29.

Background. Life satisfaction in older age is widely studied in connection with family and professional factors. However, the role of non-professional volunteer activity of older people in connection with the peculiarities of personal resource complex (meaningfulness, resilience, proactive coping) has not been studied enough yet.

Objective. The study of psychological predictors of life satisfaction in older people (on the example of clients of a charity fund).

Design. The study participants were 60 unemployed clients of the charity center aged 65–85 years (μ = 74.8 years), 44 women. 50% of the respondents are not only clients, but also volunteers of the Center. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Life satisfaction in different life spheres was assessed with the “Technique for diagnosing the level of social frustration” by L.I. Wasserman. The supposed personal predictors of life satisfaction were diagnosed by the following methods: “Indicator of coping strategies” by D. Amirkhan (adaptation by N.A. Sirota and V.M. Yaltonsky), “Test of Life Orientations” by D.A. Leontiev, “Test of resilience” by S. Maddi (modification by E.N. Osin and E.I. Rasskazova).

Results. Comparative and multiple regression analysis have shown that the level of satisfaction with the life of older people is not as much related to the nature of the family situation, as to an active life position. It is significantly higher with involvement in socially significant volunteer activities and with the productive use of the personal resource complex (meaningfulness, resilience, proactive coping), especially in terms of the belief in the ability to control behavior, relationships with others and the life situation as a whole.

Conclusion. The results of the presented study can be used in the practice of Russian gerontopsychology while organizing social assistance to older people on the basis of state and non-profit organizations.

Received: 01/17/2022 21:27:00

Accepted: 01/29/2022 21:27:00

Pages: 15-29

DOI: doi: 10.11621/npj.2022.0102

By: ; ;

Available Online: 14.04.2022

Serafimovich, I.V. (2021) Professional Thinking as the Cognitive Resource for the Specialists of Socionomic Professions, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 39–52. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0407

Background. The transformation of social changes determins a qualitatively different format of professional thinking as a cognitive resource influencing performance efficiency and subjective well-being.

Objective is to present the results of varying research of professional thinking in socionomic professions by definig the peculiarities of thinking at different stages of professionalization and under various sociocultural conditions.

Design. The sample group consists of the representatives of socionomic professions at different stages of their professionalization: psychology students and students of management aged from 18 to 23 starting and finishing their education (n = 120), managers in the sphere of business and education (n = 218), preschool teachers (n = 70).

Results. The sample of students in socionomic professions has shown that the level of structural organization in professional thinking rises during the final stages of education. Moreover, the differences in structural components of elemental level are of partial kind. In particular, the level of social reflexivity, metacognitive knowledge among the students of gnostical type of activity is growing. The problematicity is also more structured and takes comprehensive context into consideration. The students of transformative tendency have growing levels of metacognitive activity, reduction of attempts to solve the problems related to the increase in flexibility and predictability. It has been demonstrated that metacognitive characteristics of professional thinking and capacity of supra-situational thinking are presented in a more explicit and profound way under the sociocultural conditions of rural preschool educational settings than of the urban ones. It has been elicited that such factors as work experience in the area of management (inverse relation) and environmental mega factor, i.e. working in the situation of the pandemic (direct relation) influence such qualities of supra-situational thinking as effi ciency, originality and validity.

Conclusion. The obtained results have broadened the concept of resource in professional thinking among socionomic professions. The necessity of further investigation of professional thinking as a cognitive resource on the componential subsystem level has been indicated.

Received: 11/25/2021

Accepted: 12/05/2021

Pages: 75-83

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0407

By: ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

Korneeva Ya.A., Simonova N.N. (2021) The Psychological Adaptation Features of Shift Personnel in the Far North, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 39–52. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0406

Fly-in-fl y-out personnel in the Far North are exposed to extreme climatic, geographic, and production factors, and also remain in conditions of group isolation, which makes demands on fly-in-fly-out worker’ body that oft en exceed its reserves. The full adaptation impossibility is associated with unfavorable functional states of workers, which lead to a decrease in the level of mental health, productivity and work efficiency. Job tasks of workers in various industries differ in physical and physiological stress and in the degree of harmful production factors expression. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the psychological adaptation features in fly-in-fly-out personnel in industrial enterprises of the Far North. The study involved 145 fly-in-fly-out workers of oil, gas, and diamond mining industries in the Far North, 82 fly-in-fly-out builders in the south of the Russian Federation, who were a comparison group to identify the psychological adaptation features of fly-in-fly-out personnel in the Far North. Research methods are psychophysiological and psychological testing aimed at diagnosing conscious self-regulation of voluntary human activity and subjective control as key characteristics of psychological adaptation of workers. The results obtained allow us to conclude about the similarity of psychological characteristics that contribute to the successful adaptation of fly-in-fly-out personnel, regardless of the region where the industrial facility is located. These include internality in the areas of achievement, failure, family relationships, health and illness, as well as modeling, performance evaluation, and autonomy as regulatory processes. At the same time, their expression is specific, depending on the region of the object location and the industry.

Received: 12/06/2021

Accepted: 12/12/2021

Pages: 63-74

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0406

By: ; ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

Bespalov, B.I. (2021) Analysis of Ergonomic Notions by V.P. Zinchenko and V.M. Munipov from the Standpoint of the Theory of Human-World Interaction Acts, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 39–52. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0405

Purpose and relevance of the article. The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of the founders of Russian ergonomics V.M. Munipov and V.P. Zinchenko, under whose guidance the author of the article studied and worked for a long time. The notions of “Human — Machine” system” and “human factor” are considered from the standpoint of the theory of acts of psychological interaction of people with the world developed by the author of the article. This made it possible to fill these notions with new psychological content, as well as briefl y describe the basic notions in the theory of acts.

Results. The interaction of the components of the world is considered as a kind of relationship between them, which includes their impact on each other and possibly on themselves. The ratio “А impacts on B” is identified with the ratio “A changes B in some direction”. Different directions in which the interacting components may change are related with the properties of these components that change in their values. The act of psychological interaction of a person with the components of the world is active on the part of this person, meaningful by him, mediated by the images of its components, is relatively complete and directed on achieving the results that someone needs, and also has a beginning on the timeline. Components of such an act include its objects and subjects, the activity of subjects, their meanings, properties and states, goals and motives, objects and means, tools and signs, conditions and ways (methods) of carrying out acts, processes and results, etc. The notions about these components are defined constructively (based on the previously introduced notions), as well as taking into account the functions of components in the activity of the subject. Different relations between the components of the act, which turn it into a psychological functional system are described.

Conclusions. It is shown that such a theoretical model of a psychological act can serve as a conceptual tool for the study and ergonomic design of any work acts of operators in “Human — Machine” systems.

Received: 12/05/2021

Accepted: 12/20/2021

Pages: 53-62

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0405

By: ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

Volkova, A.D., Ivanova, N.L., Patosha, О.I. (2021) Social Identity and Consumer Preferences: Search for Relationship (Example of Local Food), National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 39–52. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0404

Background. With the growing role of economic environment in the socialization of a modern person, there is an increasing interest in understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior when choosing goods. Economic realms are refl ected in the self-identification of the individual in relation to other people and social structures. The study of the relationship between social identity and the features of consumer behavior when choosing goods is relevant. At the same time, various aspects of social identity in connection with the peculiarities of consumer preferences remain poorly studied in social psychology

Objective. Background. With the growing role of economic environment in the socialization of a modern person, there is an increasing interest in understanding the socio-psychological mechanisms of human behavior when choosing goods. Economic realms are refl ected in the self-identification of the individual in relation to other people and social structures. The study of the relationship between social identity and the features of consumer behavior when choosing goods is relevant. At the same time, various aspects of social identity in connection with the peculiarities of consumer preferences remain poorly studied in social psychology

Design.The study was conducted online by presenting respondents with a questionnaire that included questions about consumer preferences and components of social identity. The sample was targeted by experts: consumers of food products of local production, citizens of the Russian Federation, aged 25 to 67 years (N = 200).

Results. The interrelation of cognitive and value components of social identity with the peculiarities of consumer preferences concerning general attitude to products, their characteristics and selection criteria is revealed. More significant connections were found between value components and all manifestations of consumer preferences. The interrelation between local and world identity and preference for food products of domestic production, as well as the features of the criteria for choosing food products among consumers with diff erent severity of the cognitive component of social identity, has been revealed.

Conclusion. New data on the relationship between cognitive and value components of social identity and the characteristics of consumer preferences were obtained. They can serve as a basis for a deeper analysis of the identity structure, understanding the role of identity in consumer behavior. The main limitations of the study relate to the sample and the methods used.pandemic.

Received: 06/30/2021

Accepted: 12/04/2021

Pages: 39-52

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0404

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

Bagdasaryan, M.A. (2021) Information communication technologies as a way to support social capital during the pandemic, National Psychological Journal [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 27–38. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0403

Relevance. With the rise of the Internet and the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs), the available ways of interpersonal communication have changed and expanded. From spring 2020 to the present, the epidemiological situation remains unstable due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Quarantine measures have led to a sharp reduction in face-to-face social contacts or to their complete absence. As a result, for most of the developed countries, computer-mediated communication has become the prior way to keep in touch with family, friends, colleagues, etc. These unprecedented circumstances bring our research to the fore, showing how ICTs can help maintain the social capital of Russians at the individual level.

Objective To determine how effective the use of ICTs is in maintaining of the social capital of Russians at the individual level during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design.The study was conducted online by presenting the participants with a questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 300 respondents aged 18 to 71. All respondents are citizens of the Russian Federation. They answered questions, which determined the perceived COVID-19 threat level, the level of use of ICTs, and the degree of change in relationships with “strong” and “weak ties”.

Results. The direct relationship between the perceived coronavirus threat and individual social capital can be traced only in relationships with friends and residents of the country. There is no statistically significant relationship with family, colleagues, neighbors, and city residents. In the case of a high level of ICT use, the perceived coronavirus threat does not negatively correlate with the perceived closeness with family, friends, and residents of the country. At the same time, the role of ICT use in the relationship between the perceived coronavirus threat and perceived closeness with colleagues, neighbors and city residents has not been identified.

Conclusion. In general, the use of ICTs contributes to the maintenance of the social capital at the individual level during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Received: 08/02/2021

Accepted: 08/20/2021

Pages: 27-38

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0403

By: ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

A.A. Yakushina, M.S. Aslanova, V.V. Larina, A.N. Veraksa. (2021) Contribution of Psychological Characteristics to Self-Regulation in Adolescents Engaged in Science, National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 15–26. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0402

Relevance. Due to the rapidly changing living conditions, self-regulation skills are the most important components of personality that allow to adapt to reality faster and organize activities in the most successful way. This becomes especially relevant for teenagers who are involved in a large number of classes and projects, in addition to their main activities at school.

Objectiveis to study the features of regulatory functions and their interrelations with various personality characteristics in adolescents engaged in scientifi c activities.

Study. The study involved 78 adolescents aged 14–17 years (Mage = 15, 96; SDage = 1.01) who were trained in the framework of the “Big Challenges” project of the SIRIUS educational Center in the direction of “Science’ in 2021. Several methods aimed at studying self-regulation, stress levels, subjective well-being and perfectionism in adolescents were chosen as diagnostic tools.

Results. It was shown that the level of self-regulation of adolescents in activity is better developed than their level of emotional self-regulation. It was also demonstrated that the level of general self-regulation in adolescents involved in science is signifi cantly interrelated with indicators of resilience and self-directed perfectionism.

Conclusion. The study confirmed the importance of studying the features of self-regulation in adolescents and revealed the need to develop practical recommendations for their development.

Received: 11/02/2021

Accepted: 12/01/2021

Pages: 15-26

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0402

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

N.V. Gorlova, A.A. Bochaver, K.D. Khlomov. (2021) Predictors of Bullying, Cyberbullying and Victimization: Review of Current Research, National Psychological Journal, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 4 (44), 3–14. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0401

Background. Despite the prevalence of school bullying in Russia and data on the severity of the consequences for its participants, the Russian-language scientifi c literature lacks a systematic understanding of the prerequisites for bullying, which could serve as the basis for practical developments aimed at preventing bullying in educational organizations. This article aims to fill this gap and systematize longitudinal, regression and meta-analytic studies of predictors of bullying, cyberbullying and victimization.

Objective. The purpose of the article is to systematize data on predictors of school bullying and to model its escalation in school environment. To achieve this goal, a search, selection and theoretical analysis of a number of articles published over the past 5 years was carried out

Results. The performed theoretical analysis allows us to model the development of school bullying. The complex of individual-personal and environmental factors that increase the risk of bullying and victimization includes external behavioral and internal manifestations of schoolchildren, thoughts and judgements about themselves and others, social skills, personality traits, features of social contacts, perception of the school climate. Also, the risk factors can be attributed to a weak sense of belonging to school, a lack of support from peers and teachers, the peculiarity of social contacts and norms in the classroom. The peculiarities of upbringing and communication in the family and the attitude of parents of schoolchildren to aggression also play an important role in the emergence and escalation of bullying

Conclusion. The work carried out streamlines disparate ideas about the premises of bullying into a coherent picture that refl ects the complex nature of bullying predictors, and can be used as the basis for the development of preventive programs.

Received: 11/01/2021

Accepted: 12/03/2021

Pages: 3-14

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0401

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.12.2021

Sheveleva, M.S., Zolotareva, A. A., Rudnova, N.A. (2021). The imposter phenomenon in the work context: the role of motivation and perfectionism, [Natsional’nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal], 3 (43), 96–104. doi: 10.11621/npj.2021.0308

Background. Th e impostor phenomenon is the term used to describe high-performing individuals who fail to internalize their success in spite of their high achievements and experience constant fear that they will be found as frauds by their peers. The close links between the impostor phenomenon, perfectionism and professional motivation are oft en referred to, though no empirical studies of the nature of these links have been conducted.

Objective. The objective of this research is to study motivation and perfectionism as potential predictors of the impostor phenomenon in the work context.

Design. 320 working Russian respondents took part in this cross-sectional study. Th ey fi lled out the questionnaire containing three scales: Th e Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale, Th e Short Almost Perfect Scale (R. Slaney), Th e Scale of Professional Motivation (E. Osin, T. Ivanova, T. Gordeeva).

Results. Th e results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that maladaptive perfectionism and professional amotivation could be regarded as positive predictors of the impostor phenomenon in working Russian adults.

Conclusion. Th e results of the current study could be used in diagnostics and counselling of employees with maladaptive perfectionism and professional amotivation. Preventive measures aimed at adjusting employees’ attitudes to their professional obligations could prevent not only the development of the impostor phenomenon but a range of the related negative psychological and organizational outcomes.

Received: 08/05/2021

Accepted: 08/26/2021

Pages: 96-104

DOI: 10.11621/npj.2021.0308

By: ; ; ;

Available Online: 30.11.2021


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